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Cruzat A, Schrems WA, Schrems-Hoesl LM, Cavalcanti BM, Baniasadi N, Witkin D, Pavan-Langston D, Dana R, Hamrah P. Contralateral Clinically Unaffected Eyes of Patients With Unilateral Infectious Keratitis Demonstrate a Sympathetic Immune Response. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56(11):6612-20.Abstract

PURPOSE: To analyze the contralateral unaffected eyes of patients with microbial keratitis (MK) for any immune cell or nerve changes by laser in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). METHODS: A prospective study was performed on 28 patients with MK, including acute bacterial, fungal, and Acanthamoeba keratitis, as well as on their contralateral clinically unaffected eyes and on control groups, which consisted of 28 age-matched normal controls and 15 control contact lens (CL) wearers. Laser IVCM with the Heidelberg Retinal Tomograph 3/Rostock Cornea Module and Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometry of the central cornea were performed. Two masked observers assessed central corneal dendritiform cell density and subbasal corneal nerve parameters. RESULTS: The contralateral clinically unaffected eyes of patients with MK demonstrated significant diminishment in nerve density (15,603.8 ± 1265.2 vs. 24,102.1 ± 735.6 μm/mm2), total number of nerves (11.9 ± 1.0 vs. 24.9 ± 1.2/frame), number of branches (1.7 ± 0.2 vs. 19.9 ± 1.3/frame), and branch nerve length (5775.2 ± 757.1 vs. 12,715.4 ± 648.4 μm/mm2) (P < 0.001 for all parameters) compared to normal controls and CL wearers. Further, dendritiform cell density in the contralateral unaffected eyes was significantly increased as compared to that in controls (117.5 ± 19.9 vs. 24.2 ± 3.5 cells/mm2, P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrate a subclinical involvement in the contralateral clinically unaffected eyes in patients with unilateral acute MK. In vivo confocal microscopy reveals not only a diminishment of the subbasal corneal nerves and sensation, but also an increase in dendritiform cell density in the contralateral unaffected eyes of MK patients. These findings show bilateral immune alterations in a clinically unilateral disease.

Bauskar A, Mack WJ, Mauris J, Argüeso P, Heur M, Nagel BA, Kolar GR, Gleave ME, Nakamura T, Kinoshita S, Moradian-Oldak J, Panjwani N, Pflugfelder SC, Wilson MR, Fini EM, Jeong S. Clusterin Seals the Ocular Surface Barrier in Mouse Dry Eye. PLoS One 2015;10(9):e0138958.Abstract

Dry eye is a common disorder caused by inadequate hydration of the ocular surface that results in disruption of barrier function. The homeostatic protein clusterin (CLU) is prominent at fluid-tissue interfaces throughout the body. CLU levels are reduced at the ocular surface in human inflammatory disorders that manifest as severe dry eye, as well as in a preclinical mouse model for desiccating stress that mimics dry eye. Using this mouse model, we show here that CLU prevents and ameliorates ocular surface barrier disruption by a remarkable sealing mechanism dependent on attainment of a critical all-or-none concentration. When the CLU level drops below the critical all-or-none threshold, the barrier becomes vulnerable to desiccating stress. CLU binds selectively to the ocular surface subjected to desiccating stress in vivo, and in vitro to the galectin LGALS3, a key barrier component. Positioned in this way, CLU not only physically seals the ocular surface barrier, but it also protects the barrier cells and prevents further damage to barrier structure. These findings define a fundamentally new mechanism for ocular surface protection and suggest CLU as a biotherapeutic for dry eye.

Miller JB, Yonekawa Y, Eliott D, Kim IK, Kim LA, Loewenstein JI, Sobrin L, Young LH, Mukai S, Vavvas DG. Long-term Follow-up and Outcomes in Traumatic Macular Holes. Am J Ophthalmol 2015;160(6):1255-1258.e1.Abstract

PURPOSE: To review presenting characteristics, clinical course, and long-term visual and anatomic outcomes of patients with traumatic macular holes at a tertiary referral center. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Twenty-eight consecutive patients with traumatic macular holes at a single tertiary referral center were reviewed. In addition to visual acuities and treatments throughout the clinical course, specific dimensions of the macular hole, including diameters, height, configuration, shape, and the presence of a cuff of fluid, were examined using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT). RESULTS: Twenty-eight patients were identified with a mean initial visual acuity (VA) of logMAR 1.3 (20/400) and a mean follow-up of 2.2 years. Eleven holes (39.3%) closed spontaneously in median 5.7 weeks. Eleven underwent vitrectomy with a median time to intervention of 35.1 weeks. Median time to surgery for the 5 eyes with successful hole closure was 11.0 weeks vs 56.3 weeks for the 6 eyes that failed to close (P = .02). VA improved in closed holes (P < .01), whether spontaneously (P < .01) or via vitrectomy (P = .04), but VA did not improve in holes that did not close (P = .22). There was no relation between initial OCT dimensions and final hole closure status, although there was a trend, which did not reach statistical significance, toward small dimensions for those that closed spontaneously. CONCLUSIONS: A fairly high spontaneous closure rate was observed, with a trend toward smaller OCT dimensions. We found no relationship between hole closure and the OCT characteristics of the hole. Surgical intervention was less successful at hole closure when elected after 3 months.

Kovacs K, Marra KV, Yu G, Wagley S, Ma J, Teague GC, Nandakumar N, Lashkari K, Arroyo JG. Angiogenic and Inflammatory Vitreous Biomarkers Associated With Increasing Levels of Retinal Ischemia. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56(11):6523-30.Abstract

PURPOSE: To characterize the angiogenic and inflammatory vitreous biomarker profiles in a spectrum of ischemic retinopathies, including neovascular glaucoma. METHODS: This institutional review board-approved study retrospectively analyzed 80 undiluted vitreous samples obtained during pars vitrectomy. The specimens were frozen (-80°C) and sent for concentration analysis of 34 proteins by Bio-Plex Pro assays. Specimens were divided into four groups: patients undergoing epiretinal membrane (ERM) peeling and/or macular hole (MH) surgery with no history of diabetes (non-DM group), patients undergoing ERM peeling, and/or MH surgery with a history of diabetes (DM group), patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR group), and patients with neovascular glaucoma (NVG group). Parametric and nonparametric analyses of demographics and cytokine levels were performed using SPSS. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in demographics among cohorts. Numerous proteins were significantly elevated between non-DM and DM (G-CSF, sCD40L, Endoglin, IL-6, placental growth factor [PlGF], VEGF-D), DM and PDR (leptin, IL-8, PlGF, VEGF-A), and PDR and NVG (G-CSF, leptin, TIE-2, sCD40L, EGF, HB-EGF, IL-6, IL-8, PlGF, TNF-α). Only PlGF was significantly elevated between each successive cohort. The most potent drivers of NVG were PlGF, VEGF-A, IL-6, and IL-8. CONCLUSIONS: While the role of angioproliferative growth factors is well documented in ischemic retinopathy, our study delineates the importance of inflammatory and previously underreported angiogenic proteins. It also demonstrates a significant incremental increase in certain factors with increasing levels of ischemia. Both of these findings may guide the development of future therapies for ischemic retinopathies.

Srinivasan S, Chitalia V, Meyer RD, Hartsough E, Mehta M, Harrold I, Anderson N, Feng H, Smith LEH, Jiang Y, Costello CE, Rahimi N. Hypoxia-induced expression of phosducin-like 3 regulates expression of VEGFR-2 and promotes angiogenesis. Angiogenesis 2015;18(4):449-62.Abstract

Expression and activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2) by VEGF ligands are the main events in the stimulation of pathological angiogenesis. VEGFR-2 expression is generally low in the healthy adult blood vessels, but its expression is markedly increased in the pathological angiogenesis. In this report, we demonstrate that phosducin-like 3 (PDCL3), a recently identified chaperone protein involved in the regulation of VEGFR-2 expression, is required for angiogenesis in zebrafish and mouse. PDCL3 undergoes N-terminal methionine acetylation, and this modification affects PDCL3 expression and its interaction with VEGFR-2. Expression of PDCL3 is regulated by hypoxia, the known stimulator of angiogenesis. The mutant PDCL3 that is unable to undergo N-terminal methionine acetylation was refractory to the effect of hypoxia. The siRNA-mediated silencing of PDCL3 decreased VEGFR-2 expression resulting in a decrease in VEGF-induced VEGFR-2 phosphorylation, whereas PDCL3 over-expression increased VEGFR-2 protein. Furthermore, we show that PDCL3 protects VEGFR-2 from misfolding and aggregation. The data provide new insights for the chaperone function of PDCL3 in angiogenesis and the roles of hypoxia and N-terminal methionine acetylation in PDCL3 expression and its effect on VEGFR-2.

Wu J, Cho E, Willett WC, Sastry SM, Schaumberg DA. Intakes of Lutein, Zeaxanthin, and Other Carotenoids and Age-Related Macular Degeneration During 2 Decades of Prospective Follow-up. JAMA Ophthalmol 2015;:1-10.Abstract

Importance: Despite strong biological plausibility, evidence from epidemiologic studies and clinical trials on the relations between intakes of lutein and zeaxanthin and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has been inconsistent. The roles of other carotenoids are less thoroughly investigated. Objective: To investigate the associations between intakes of carotenoids and AMD. Design, Setting, and Participants: Prospective cohort study, with cohorts from the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study in the United States. A total of 63 443 women and 38 603 men were followed up, from 1984 until May 31, 2010, in the Nurses' Health Study and from 1986 until January 31, 2010, in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study. All participants were aged 50 years or older and were free of diagnosed AMD, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. Main Outcomes and Measures: Predicted plasma carotenoid scores were computed directly from food intake, assessed by repeated food frequency questionnaires at baseline and follow-up, using validated regression models to account for bioavailability and reporting validity of different foods, and associations between predicted plasma carotenoid scores and AMD were determined. Results: We confirmed 1361 incident intermediate and 1118 advanced AMD cases (primarily neovascular AMD) with a visual acuity of 20/30 or worse by medical record review. Comparing extreme quintiles of predicted plasma lutein/zeaxanthin score, we found a risk reduction for advanced AMD of about 40% in both women and men (pooled relative risk comparing extreme quintiles = 0.59; 95% CI, 0.48-0.73; P for trend < .001). Predicted plasma carotenoid scores for other carotenoids, including β-cryptoxanthin, α-carotene, and β-carotene, were associated with a 25% to 35% lower risk of advanced AMD when comparing extreme quintiles. The relative risk comparing extreme quintiles for the predicted plasma total carotenoid index was 0.65 (95% CI, 0.53-0.80; P for trend < .001). We did not identify any associations of carotenoids, either as predicted plasma score or calculated intake, with intermediate AMD. Conclusions and Relevance: Higher intake of bioavailable lutein/zeaxanthin is associated with a long-term reduced risk of advanced AMD. Given that some other carotenoids are also associated with a lower risk, a public health strategy aimed at increasing dietary consumption of a wide variety of fruits and vegetables rich in carotenoids may reduce the incidence of advanced AMD.

Chi M, Kim JH, Basham R, Yoon MK, Vagefi R, Kersten RC. Temporal Artery Calciphylaxis Presenting as Temporal Arteritis in a Case of Rhinoorbitocerebral Mucormycosis. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2015;31(5):e132-5.Abstract

Mucormycosis is a rare often fatal opportunistic fungal infection. It is typically described in patients with diabetes in ketoacidotic status and is rare in renal transplant recipients. Calciphylaxis is a rare and highly morbid disease of vascular calcification affecting patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The first case of a renal transplant recipient who was inflicted with both rhinoorbitocerebral mucormycosis and calciphylaxis is reported. A 45-year-old man presented with 2-day history of left upper blepharoptosis, periorbital pain, left-sided headache, binocular diplopia, and left V2 numbness. He had undergone renal transplant for ESRD 7 months earlier with resultant immunosuppressive therapy. MRI and nasal biopsy confirmed rhinoorbitocerebral mucormycosis. Immunosuppressive therapy was stopped and antifungal therapy begun. He had orbital exenteration for progressive rhinoorbitocerebral mucormycosis. Two months later, the patient reported new-onset intermittent bitemporal headache and bilateral swollen, tender temporal arteries. Temporal artery biopsy revealed features consistent with calciphylaxis. Clinical presentation, treatment course, and follow up are discussed.

Harwell CC, Fuentealba LC, Gonzalez-Cerrillo A, Parker PRL, Gertz CC, Mazzola E, Garcia MT, Alvarez-Buylla A, Cepko CL, Kriegstein AR. Wide Dispersion and Diversity of Clonally Related Inhibitory Interneurons. Neuron 2015;87(5):999-1007.Abstract

The mammalian neocortex is composed of two major neuronal cell types with distinct origins: excitatory pyramidal neurons and inhibitory interneurons, generated in dorsal and ventral progenitor zones of the embryonic telencephalon, respectively. Thus, inhibitory neurons migrate relatively long distances to reach their destination in the developing forebrain. The role of lineage in the organization and circuitry of interneurons is still not well understood. Utilizing a combination of genetics, retroviral fate mapping, and lineage-specific retroviral barcode labeling, we find that clonally related interneurons can be widely dispersed while unrelated interneurons can be closely clustered. These data suggest that migratory mechanisms related to the clustering of interneurons occur largely independent of their clonal origin.

Singh G, Zhou X, Lee JY, Yousuf MA, Ramke M, Ismail AM, Lee JS, Robinson CM, Seto D, Dyer DW, Jones MS, Rajaiya J, Chodosh J. Recombination of the epsilon determinant and corneal tropism: Human adenovirus species D types 15, 29, 56, and 69. Virology 2015;485:452-9.Abstract

Viruses within human adenovirus species D (HAdV-D) infect epithelia at essentially every mucosal site. Hypervariable loops 1 and 2 of the hexon capsid protein contain epitopes that together form the epsilon determinant for serum neutralization. We report our analyses comparing HAdV-D15, 29, 56, and the recently identified type 69, each with highly similar hexons and the same serum neutralization profile, but otherwise disparate genomes. Of these, only HAdV-D type 56 is associated with epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC), a severe infection of ocular surface epithelium and underlying corneal stroma. In the mouse adenovirus keratitis model, all four viruses induced inflammation. However, HAdV-D56 entry into human corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts in vitro dramatically exceeded that of the other three viruses. We conclude that the hexon epsilon determinant is not a prime contributor to corneal tropism.

Glass LDGR, Freitag SK. Management of orbital IgG4-related disease. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2015;Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic process that can cause significant orbital disease. It can affect both sexes and all ages, with irreversible consequences if left untreated. Diagnosis is currently based upon a combination of clinical and imaging evidence of tissue swelling or mass, serum evidence of elevated IgG4 levels and histopathologic evidence of inappropriate IgG4 presence. The cause of IgG4-RD is as of yet unclear; this lack of understanding and the dearth of prospective studies have limited our ability to manage patients effectively. In this review, we discuss the most recent published evidence regarding best-practice management of IgG4-related orbital disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature remains retrospective, and has focused on the use of corticosteroid therapy as a first-line treatment. Rituximab infusions have also received significant attention, among other second-line agents. Radiation therapy has been reported to be effective. Long-term monitoring for relapse, involvement of other organ systems and potential neoplastic transformation is required. SUMMARY: The management of orbital IgG4-RD will gain from more targeted therapy in the future as the underlying cause is better understood. In the meantime, randomized, controlled trials of varying treatment regimens would be of benefit.

Liu Y, Magro C, Loewenstein JI, Makar RS, Stowell CP, Dzik WH, Hochberg EP, Oaklander AL, Sobrin L. A Man with Paraneoplastic Retinopathy plus Small Fiber Polyneuropathy Associated with Waldenström Macroglobulinemia (Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma): Insights into Mechanisms. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2015;23(5):405-9.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report a well-characterized Waldenström's macroglobulinemia (WM) case that provides insight into the mechanisms of two paraneoplastic complications -- cancer-associated retinopathy (CAR) and small fiber polyneuropathy (SFPN). METHODS: Retrospective medical chart review. RESULTS: A 58-year old man with WM developed vision loss and bilateral lower extremity pain. CAR was diagnosed by history, a depressed electroretinogram (ERG) and positive anti-retinal antibodies. SFPN diagnosis was based on abnormal autonomic nerve function testing and a distal-leg skin biopsy that demonstrated absent epidermal small-fiber innervation, IgM and complement deposition and microvasculopathy. Plasma exchange (PLEX) led to dramatic pain relief and subjective improvement in eye symptoms along with improvement of some ERG parameters. Repeat skin biopsy after treatment showed less microvascular abnormalities and decreased complement deposition. CONCLUSIONS: The concurrence of CAR and SFPN in this patient suggest that both were complications of WM and their common response to PLEX suggests co-mediation by humoral factors that accessed target antigens through IgM-triggered, complement-mediated vascular damage.
Hu K, Harris DL, Yamaguchi T, von Andrian UH, Hamrah P. A Dual Role for Corneal Dendritic Cells in Herpes Simplex Keratitis: Local Suppression of Corneal Damage and Promotion of Systemic Viral Dissemination. PLoS One 2015;10(9):e0137123.Abstract

The cornea is the shield to the foreign world and thus, a primary site for peripheral infections. However, transparency and vision are incompatible with inflammation and scarring that may result from infections. Thus, the cornea is required to perform a delicate balance between fighting infections and preserving vision. To date, little is known about the specific role of antigen-presenting cells in viral keratitis. In this study, utilizing an established murine model of primary acute herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 keratitis, we demonstrate that primary HSV keratitis results in increased conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) and macrophages within 24 hours after infection. Local depletion of cDCs in CD11c-DTR mice by subconjuntival diphtheria toxin injections, led to increased viral proliferation, and influx of inflammatory cells, resulting in increased scarring and clinical keratitis. In addition, while HSV infection resulted in significant corneal nerve destruction, local depletion of cDCs resulted in a much more severe loss of corneal nerves. Further, local cDC depletion resulted in decreased corneal nerve infection, and subsequently decreased and delayed systemic viral transmission in the trigeminal ganglion and draining lymph node, resulting in decreased mortality of mice. In contrast, sham depletion or depletion of macrophages through local injection of clodronate liposomes had neither a significant impact on the cornea, nor an effect on systemic viral transmission. In conclusion, we demonstrate that corneal cDCs may play a primary role in local corneal defense during viral keratitis and preserve vision, at the cost of inducing systemic viral dissemination, leading to increased mortality.

Pal-Ghosh S, Pajoohesh-Ganji A, Tadvalkar G, Kyne BM, Guo X, Zieske JD, Stepp MA. Topical Mitomycin-C enhances subbasal nerve regeneration and reduces erosion frequency in the debridement wounded mouse cornea. Exp Eye Res 2015;Abstract

Corneal epithelial basement membrane dystrophies and superficial injuries caused by scratches can lead to recurrent corneal erosion syndrome (RCES). Patients and animals with reduced corneal sensory nerve innervation can also develop recurrent erosions. Multiple wild-type mouse strains will spontaneously develop recurrent corneal erosions after single 1.5 mm debridement wounds. Here we show that this wound is accompanied by an increase in corneal epithelial cell proliferation after wound closure but without a commensurate increase in corneal epithelial thickness. We investigated whether excess corneal epithelial cell proliferation contributes to erosion formation. We found that topical application of Mitomycin C (MMC), a drug used clinically to improve healing after glaucoma and refractive surgery, reduces erosion frequency, enhances subbasal axon density to levels seen in unwounded corneas, and prevents excess epithelial cell proliferation after debridement wounding. These results suggest that topically applied MMC, which successfully reduces corneal haze and scarring after PRK, may also function to enhance subbasal nerve regeneration and epithelial adhesion when used to treat RCES.

Silva PS, Dela Cruz AJ, Ledesma MG, van Hemert J, Radwan A, Cavallerano JD, Aiello LM, Sun JK, Aiello LP. Diabetic Retinopathy Severity and Peripheral Lesions Are Associated with Nonperfusion on Ultrawide Field Angiography. Ophthalmology 2015;122(12):2465-72.Abstract

PURPOSE: To assess whether the presence of peripheral nonperfusion on ultrawide field (UWF) fluorescein angiography (FA) is associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity and the presence of predominantly peripheral lesions (PPLs). DESIGN: Single-site, cross-sectional, retrospective study. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty-eight eyes of 37 diabetic subjects with or without DR and no history of prior panretinal laser photocoagulation. METHODS: Both 200° UWF images and UWF FA images were acquired at the same visit. Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) templates were overlaid digitally based on disc and macula location onto stereographically projected UWF images. Images were evaluated for the presence of PPLs, defined as more than 50% of the graded lesion located outside the ETDRS field in each of the 5 extended fields. The UWF-FA images were evaluated by 2 masked, independent graders for extent of retinal nonperfusion area (NPA) and nonperfusion index (NPI; nonperfused/total gradable area). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Association of NPA and NPI with DR severity and presence of PPLs. RESULTS: Distribution of DR severity was as follows: no DR, 8.8% eyes; mild nonproliferative DR (NPDR), 17.6%; moderate NPDR, 32.4%; severe NPDR, 17.6%; proliferative DR (PDR), 19.1%; and high-risk PDR, 4.4%; with PPL present in 61.8%. There was strong intragrader (r = 0.95) and intergrader (r = 0.86) agreement for NPA. Presence of PPLs was associated with increased NPA (191.8 mm(2) vs. 306.1 mm(2); P = 0.0019) and NPI (0.25 vs. 0.43; P = 0.0003). These relationships remained significant after adjusting for DR severity and diabetes duration. In eyes without PDR (n = 52), increasing NPA and NPI was associated with worsening DR (NPA, P = 0.001; NPI, P = 0.0003). NPA and NPI were not associated with clinically significant macular edema (NPA, P = 0.99; NPI, P = 0.67), nor correlated with visual acuity (NPA, r = 0.14, P = 0.23; NPI, r = 0.24, P = 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Following a standardized protocol, the evaluation of UWF FA for NPA and NPI is reproducible. Both parameters are correlated highly with the presence of PPLs and DR severity. Given that the presence and extent of PPLs have been associated with increased risks of DR progression, the clinical identification of PPLs may reflect closely the extent of nonperfusion and ischemia, thus accounting for the increased risk of progression.

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