All

Contreras-Ruiz L, Ryan DS, Sia RK, Bower KS, Dartt DA, Masli S. Polymorphism in THBS1 gene is associated with post-refractive surgery chronic ocular surface inflammation. Ophthalmology 2014;121(7):1389-97.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the thrombospondin 1 (THBS1) gene with development of chronic ocular surface inflammation (keratoconjunctivitis) after refractive surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Active duty U.S. Army soldiers (n = 143) who opted for refractive surgery. METHODS: Conjunctival impression cytology samples collected from participants before the surgery were used to harvest DNA for genotyping 5 THBS1 SNPs (rs1478604, rs2228262, rs2292305, rs2228262, and rs3743125) using the Sequenom iPLEX Gold platform (Sequenom, San Diego, CA). Samples collected after surgery were used to harvest RNA for gene expression analysis by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Participants were followed for 1 year after surgery to monitor the status of keratoconjunctivitis. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Genetic basis of the development of chronic keratoconjunctivitis after refractive surgery. RESULTS: Carriers of minor alleles of 3 SNPs each were found to be more susceptible to developing chronic keratoconjunctivitis (rs1478604: odds ratio [OR], 2.5; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.41-4.47; P = 2.5 × 10(-3); rs2228262 and rs2292305: OR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.05-3.51; P = 4.8 × 10(-2)). Carriers of the rs1478604 minor allele expressed significantly reduced levels of thrombospondin 1 (TSP1) (P = 0.042) and increased levels of an inflammatory cytokine associated with keratoconjunctivitis, interleukin-1β (P = 0.025), in their ocular surface epithelial cells compared with homozygous major allele controls. CONCLUSIONS: Genetic variation in the THBS1 gene that results in decreased expression of the encoded glycoprotein TSP1 in ocular surface epithelial cells significantly increases the susceptibility to develop chronic ocular surface inflammation after refractive surgery. Further investigation of THBS1 SNPs in a larger sample size is warranted.
Mauris J, Woodward AM, Cao Z, Panjwani N, Argüeso P. Molecular basis for MMP9 induction and disruption of epithelial cell-cell contacts by galectin-3. J Cell Sci 2014;127(Pt 14):3141-8.Abstract
Dynamic modulation of the physical contacts between neighboring cells is integral to epithelial processes such as tissue repair and cancer dissemination. Induction of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity contributes to the disassembly of intercellular junctions and the degradation of the extracellular matrix, thus mitigating the physical constraint to cell movement. Using the cornea as a model, we show here that a carbohydrate-binding protein, galectin-3, promotes cell-cell detachment and redistribution of the tight junction protein occludin through its N-terminal polymerizing domain. Notably, we demonstrate that galectin-3 initiates cell-cell disassembly by inducing matrix metalloproteinase expression in a manner that is dependent on the interaction with and clustering of the matrix metalloproteinase inducer CD147 (also known as EMMPRIN and basigin) on the cell surface. Using galectin-3-knockout mice in an in vivo model of wound healing, we further show that increased synthesis of MMP9 at the leading edge of migrating epithelium is regulated by galectin-3. These findings establish a new galectin-3-mediated regulatory mechanism for induction of metalloproteinase expression and disruption of cell-cell contacts required for cell motility in migrating epithelia.
Jakobs TC. Differential gene expression in glaucoma. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2014;4(7):a020636.Abstract

In glaucoma, regardless of its etiology, retinal ganglion cells degenerate and eventually die. Although age and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) are the main risk factors, there are still many mysteries in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. The advent of genome-wide microarray expression screening together with the availability of animal models of the disease has allowed analysis of differential gene expression in all parts of the eye in glaucoma. This review will outline the findings of recent genome-wide expression studies and discuss their commonalities and differences. A common finding was the differential regulation of genes involved in inflammation and immunity, including the complement system and the cytokines transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα). Other genes of interest have roles in the extracellular matrix, cell-matrix interactions and adhesion, the cell cycle, and the endothelin system.

Draschkow D, Wolfe JM, Võ MLH. Seek and you shall remember: scene semantics interact with visual search to build better memories. J Vis 2014;14(8):10.Abstract

Memorizing critical objects and their locations is an essential part of everyday life. In the present study, incidental encoding of objects in naturalistic scenes during search was compared to explicit memorization of those scenes. To investigate if prior knowledge of scene structure influences these two types of encoding differently, we used meaningless arrays of objects as well as objects in real-world, semantically meaningful images. Surprisingly, when participants were asked to recall scenes, their memory performance was markedly better for searched objects than for objects they had explicitly tried to memorize, even though participants in the search condition were not explicitly asked to memorize objects. This finding held true even when objects were observed for an equal amount of time in both conditions. Critically, the recall benefit for searched over memorized objects in scenes was eliminated when objects were presented on uniform, non-scene backgrounds rather than in a full scene context. Thus, scene semantics not only help us search for objects in naturalistic scenes, but appear to produce a representation that supports our memory for those objects beyond intentional memorization.

Maiello G, Chessa M, Solari F, Bex PJ. Simulated disparity and peripheral blur interact during binocular fusion. J Vis 2014;14(8):13.Abstract
We have developed a low-cost, practical gaze-contingent display in which natural images are presented to the observer with dioptric blur and stereoscopic disparity that are dependent on the three-dimensional structure of natural scenes. Our system simulates a distribution of retinal blur and depth similar to that experienced in real-world viewing conditions by emmetropic observers. We implemented the system using light-field photographs taken with a plenoptic camera which supports digital refocusing anywhere in the images. We coupled this capability with an eye-tracking system and stereoscopic rendering. With this display, we examine how the time course of binocular fusion depends on depth cues from blur and stereoscopic disparity in naturalistic images. Our results show that disparity and peripheral blur interact to modify eye-movement behavior and facilitate binocular fusion, and the greatest benefit was gained by observers who struggled most to achieve fusion. Even though plenoptic images do not replicate an individual’s aberrations, the results demonstrate that a naturalistic distribution of depth-dependent blur may improve 3-D virtual reality, and that interruptions of this pattern (e.g., with intraocular lenses) which flatten the distribution of retinal blur may adversely affect binocular fusion.
Chen TC, Chen PP, Francis BA, Junk AK, Smith SD, Singh K, Lin SC. Pediatric glaucoma surgery: a report by the American Academy Of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2014;121(11):2107-15.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To review the current published literature to evaluate the success rates and long-term problems associated with surgery for pediatric glaucoma. METHODS: Literature searches of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were last conducted in May 2012. The search yielded 838 potentially relevant citations, of which 273 were in non-English languages. The titles and abstracts of these articles were reviewed by the authors, and 364 were selected for possible further review. Members of the Ophthalmic Technology Assessment Committee Glaucoma Panel reviewed the full text of these articles and used the 36 that met inclusion and exclusion criteria for this Ophthalmic Technology Assessment. There were no studies on the topic that provided level I evidence. The assessment included only level II and level III studies. RESULTS: Surgeons treat pediatric glaucoma most commonly with goniotomy, trabeculotomy, trabeculectomy, combined trabeculotomy and trabeculectomy, tube shunt surgery, cyclodestruction, and deep sclerectomy. Certain surgical options seem better for specific diagnoses, such as primary congenital glaucoma, aphakic glaucoma, and glaucomas associated with other ocular or systemic anomalies. CONCLUSIONS: There are many surgical options for the treatment of the pediatric glaucomas. The relative efficacy of these various procedures for particular diagnoses and clinical situations should be weighed against the specific risks associated with the procedures for individual patients.
MacKinnon S, Oystreck DT, Andrews C, Chan W-M, Hunter DG, Engle EC. Diagnostic distinctions and genetic analysis of patients diagnosed with moebius syndrome. Ophthalmology 2014;121(7):1461-8.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To improve diagnostic assessment in Moebius syndrome by (1) creating more selective diagnostic subgroups and (2) conducting genetic evaluation in a large patient cohort. DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Attendees of 3 consecutive Moebius syndrome conferences held in the United States, with a prior diagnosis of Moebius syndrome, were invited to participate. METHODS: Participants underwent standardized ophthalmologic examination for Moebius syndrome minimum diagnostic criteria (MDC) (congenital, nonprogressive facial palsy, and abduction deficit) and genetic testing for HOXA1, HOXB1, and TUBB3 mutations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of patients meeting MDC and the number of patients with confirmed genetic mutation. RESULTS: A total of 112 participants from 107 families enrolled. Nineteen percent of participants (21/112) did not meet accepted MDC for Moebius syndrome because they had abduction deficits without facial palsy or facial palsy with full ocular motility. All 5 families with 2 affected individuals had at least 1 family member in this category, including 2 siblings with comitant strabismus who harbored a HOXB1 mutation. Four unrelated participants, also not meeting MDC, had large-angle exotropia, vertical gaze deficiency, and ptosis consistent with congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles type 3 (CFEOM3); 1 patient harbored a novel TUBB3 mutation, and 3 patients harbored previously reported de novo TUBB3 mutations. Three percent of participants (3/112) met MDC but also had restricted vertical gaze. The remaining 88 participants (79%) met MDC and had full vertical gaze. This group had relatively homogeneous findings, and none had a family history of Moebius syndrome. Two previously undescribed phenomena were observed in this category: (1) volitional Bell's phenomenon and (2) intorsion with fixation. CONCLUSIONS: Although the genetic contributors to classic Moebius syndrome remain elusive, accuracy in clinical evaluation will properly subdivide patients to facilitate genetic testing as new candidate genes are identified. Failure to test ocular motility may lead to misdiagnosis of Moebius syndrome, especially in patients who have facial palsy with full ductions. Patients with exotropia, vertical gaze limitation, and ptosis do not have classic Moebius syndrome and may have TUBB3 mutations associated with CFEOM3. To optimize genetic analysis, we propose adding "full vertical motility" to the MDC for Moebius syndrome.
Luo G, Garaas T, Pomplun M. Salient stimulus attracts focus of peri-saccadic mislocalization. Vision Res 2014;100:93-8.Abstract
Visual localization during saccadic eye movements is prone to error. Flashes shortly before and after the onset of saccades are usually perceived to shift towards the saccade target, creating a "compression" pattern. Typically, the saccade landing point coincides with a salient saccade target. We investigated whether the mislocalization focus follows the actual saccade landing point or a salient stimulus. Subjects made saccades to either a target or a memorized location without target. In some conditions, another salient marker was presented between the initial fixation and the saccade landing point. The experiments were conducted on both black and picture backgrounds. The results show that: (a) when a saccade target or a marker (spatially separated from the saccade landing point) was present, the compression pattern of mislocalization was significantly stronger than in conditions without them, for both black and picture background conditions, and (b) the mislocalization focus tended towards the salient stimulus regardless of whether it was the saccade target or the marker. Our results suggest that a salient stimulus presented in the scene may have an attracting effect and therefore contribute to the non-uniformity of saccadic mislocalization of a probing flash.
Cherfan DG, Melki SA. Corneal perforation by an astigmatic keratotomy performed with an optical coherence tomography-guided femtosecond laser. J Cataract Refract Surg 2014;40(7):1224-7.Abstract

UNLABELLED: We present a case of corneal perforation secondary to an intrastromal astigmatic keratotomy performed with an optical coherence tomography-guided femtosecond laser. The keratotomy was concomitant with cataract surgery and resulted in a flat anterior chamber prior to the start of lens extraction. Interrupted nylon sutures were placed to seal the keratotomy prior to phacoemulsification. Escape of cavitation bubbles into the anterior chamber or the liquid interface can alert the surgeon to the possibility of unintended perforation of the endothelium or the epithelium, respectively. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: Neither author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned.

Kim LA, Amarnani D, Gnanaguru G, Tseng WA, Vavvas DG, D'Amore PA. Tamoxifen toxicity in cultured retinal pigment epithelial cells is mediated by concurrent regulated cell death mechanisms. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2014;55(8):4747-58.Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate the mechanism of tamoxifen-induced cell death in human cultured RPE cells, and to investigate concurrent cell death mechanisms including pyroptosis, apoptosis, and necroptosis. METHODS: Human RPE cells were cultured until confluence and treated with tamoxifen; cell death was measured by detecting LDH release. Tamoxifen-induced cell death was further confirmed by 7-aminoactinomycin D (7-AAD) and annexin V staining. Lysosomal destabilization was assessed using lysosomal-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP-1) and acridine orange staining. The roles of lysosomal enzymes cathepsin B and L were examined by blocking their activity. Caspase activity was evaluated by caspase-1, -3, -8, and -9 specific inhibition. Cells were primed with IL-1α and treated with tamoxifen; mature IL-1β production was quantified via ELISA. Caspase activity was verified with the fluorochrome-labeled inhibitor of caspases (FLICA) probe specific for each caspase. Regulated cell necrosis or necroptosis was examined with 7-AAD and inhibition of receptor-interacting protein 1 (RIP1) kinase using necrostatin-1 (Nec-1). RESULTS: Cell death occurred within 2 hours of tamoxifen treatment of confluent RPE cells and was accompanied by lysosomal membrane permeabilization. Blockade of cathepsin B and L activity led to a significant decrease in cell death, indicating that lysosomal destabilization and cathepsin release occur prior to regulated cell death. Tamoxifen-induced toxicity was shown to occur through both caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death pathways. Treatment of RPE cells with caspase inhibitors and Nec-1 resulted in a near complete rescue from cell death. CONCLUSIONS: Tamoxifen-induced cell death occurs through concurrent regulated cell death mechanisms. Simultaneous inhibition of caspase-dependent and caspase-independent cell death pathways is required to protect cells from tamoxifen. Inhibition of upstream activators, such as the cathepsins, may represent a novel approach to block multiple cell death pathways.

Pemp B, Deák G, Prager S, Mitsch C, Lammer J, Schmidinger G, Scholda C, Schmidt-Erfurth U, Bolz M, Bolz M. Distribution of intraretinal exudates in diabetic macular edema during anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy observed by spectral domain optical coherence tomography and fundus photography. Retina 2014;34(12):2407-15.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate changes in the distribution and morphology of intraretinal microexudates and hard exudates (HEs) during intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy in patients with persistent diabetic macular edema. METHODS: Twenty-four patients with persistent diabetic macular edema after photocoagulation were investigated in this prospective cohort study. Each eye was assigned to a loading dose of three anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatments at monthly intervals. Additional single treatments were performed if diabetic macular edema persisted or recurred. Intraretinal exudates were analyzed over 6 months using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and fundus photography. RESULTS: Before treatment, microexudates were detected by SD-OCT as hyperreflective foci in 24 eyes, whereas HEs were seen in 22 eyes. During therapy, HE increased significantly in number and size. This was accompanied by accumulation of microexudates in the outer retina. Enlargement of hyperreflective structures in SD-OCT was accompanied by enlargement of HE at corresponding fundus locations. A rapid reduction in diabetic macular edema was seen in all patients, but to varying degrees. Patients with hemoglobin A1c levels <7% and serum cholesterol <200 mg/dL formed fewer HEs and featured more edema reduction and visual acuity gain. CONCLUSION: Diabetic macular edema reduction during intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy was accompanied by dynamic rearrangement of intraretinal exudates at corresponding locations in fundus photography and SD-OCT. Intraretinal aggregates of microexudates detectable as hyperreflective foci by SD-OCT may compose and precede HE before they become clinically visible.
Isayama T, Chen Y, Kono M, Fabre E, Slavsky M, DeGrip WJ, Ma J-X, Crouch RK, Makino CL. Coexpression of three opsins in cone photoreceptors of the salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. J Comp Neurol 2014;522(10):2249-65.Abstract
Although more than one type of visual opsin is present in the retina of most vertebrates, it was thought that each type of photoreceptor expresses only one opsin. However, evidence has accumulated that some photoreceptors contain more than one opsin, in many cases as a result of a developmental transition from the expression of one opsin to another. The salamander UV-sensitive (UV) cone is particularly notable because it contains three opsins (Makino and Dodd [1996] J Gen Physiol 108:27-34). Two opsin types are expressed at levels more than 100 times lower than the level of the primary opsin. Here, immunohistochemical experiments identified the primary component as a UV cone opsin and the two minor components as the short wavelength-sensitive (S) and long wavelength-sensitive (L) cone opsins. Based on single-cell recordings of 156 photoreceptors, the presence of three components in UV cones of hatchlings and terrestrial adults ruled out a developmental transition. There was no evidence for multiple opsin types within rods or S cones, but immunohistochemistry and partial bleaching in conjunction with single-cell recording revealed that both single and double L cones contained low levels of short wavelength-sensitive pigments in addition to the main L visual pigment. These results raise the possibility that coexpression of multiple opsins in other vertebrates was overlooked because a minor component absorbing at short wavelengths was masked by the main visual pigment or because the expression level of a component absorbing at long wavelengths was exceedingly low.
Patel M, Vavvas DG. Spontaneous resolution of a postvitrectomy macular hole retinal detachment. Retin Cases Brief Rep 2014;8(3):161-3.Abstract

PURPOSE: The purpose of this report was to describe a case of spontaneous resolution of a large postvitrectomy macular hole retinal detachment. METHODS: Case report and optical coherence tomography imaging. RESULTS: A 64-year-old man with history of macula-off retinal detachment and 4 previous vitrectomies in the left eye developed a macular hole and associated retinal detachment 3 months after his last vitreoretinal surgery. Two months later, examination revealed that the macular hole had spontaneously closed, and the retinal detachment had resolved. CONCLUSION: Spontaneous resolution of macular hole-associated retinal detachment in a previously vitrectomized eye has not been reported previously. Changes in tangential traction by the associated epiretinal membrane, improvement of the cystoid changes noted at the edge of the macular hole, and/or proliferation of glial tissue to bridge the hole, along with the absorption of the subretinal fluid by the retinal pigment epithelium pump contributed to this rare event have been hyphothesized.

Bleier BS, Healy DY, Chhabra N, Freitag S. Compartmental endoscopic surgical anatomy of the medial intraconal orbital space. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2014;4(7):587-91.Abstract

BACKGROUND: Surgical management of intraconal pathology represents the next frontier in endoscopic endonasal surgery. Despite this, the medial intraconal space remains a relatively unexplored region, secondary to its variable and technically demanding anatomy. The purpose of this study is to define the neurovascular structures in this region and introduce a compartmentalized approach to enhance surgical planning. METHODS: This study was an institutional review board (IRB)-exempt endoscopic anatomic study in 10 cadaveric orbits. After dissection of the medial intraconal space, the pattern and trajectory of the oculomotor nerve and ophthalmic arterial arborizations were analyzed. The position of all vessels as well as the length of the oculomotor trunk and branches relative to the sphenoid face were calculated. RESULTS: A mean of 1.5 arterial branches were identified (n = 15; range, 1-4) at a mean of 8.8 mm from the sphenoid face (range, 4-15 mm). The majority of the arteries (n = 7) inserted adjacent to the midline of medial rectus. The oculomotor nerve inserted at the level of the sphenoid face and arborized with a large proximal trunk 5.5 ± 1.1 mm in length and multiple branches extending 13.2 ± 2.7 mm from the sphenoid face. The most anterior nerve and vascular pedicle were identified at 17.0 and 15.0 mm from the sphenoid face, respectively. CONCLUSION: The neurovascular supply to the medial rectus muscle describes a varied but predictable pattern. This data allows the compartmentalization of the medial intraconal space into 3 zones relative to the neurovascular supply. These zones inform the complexity of the dissection and provide a guideline for safe medial rectus retraction relative to the fixed landmark of the sphenoid face.

Pages