Radcliffe NM, Smith SD, Syed ZA, Park SC, Ehrlich JR, De Moraes CG, Liebmann JM, Ritch R. Retinal blood vessel positional shifts and glaucoma progression. Ophthalmology 2014;121(4):842-8.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the characteristics and significance of retinal blood vessel (RBV) positional shifts over time in a cohort of patients with progressive glaucoma. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Baseline and serial stereophotographs from 1 eye of 125 patients with open-angle glaucoma with ≥8 reliable Swedish interactive threshold algorithm standard visual fields (VFs) were included. On the basis of global rates of threshold sensitivity change, patients with glaucoma were divided into groups of minimal (<-0.02 decibels [dB]/year), moderate (-0.02 to -0.65 dB/year), or fast (≥-0.65 dB/year) progression. To determine whether graders' assessments of RBV positional shifts were false-positives, a control group consisting of 33 patients with glaucoma with 2 sets of photographs taken on the same day was included. METHODS: Masked graders reviewed serial photographs aligned with automated alternation flicker (EyeIC, Narbeth, PA) and assessed them for the presence of any discrete RBV positional shifts (2 graders) and for traditional measures of structural progression (2 graders), including neuroretinal rim loss, parapapillary atrophy progression, and disc hemorrhage (DH). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presence or absence of RBV positional shifts, rates of VF progression, and presence or absence of traditional measures of structural progression. RESULTS: A total of 158 image sets (125 longitudinal and 33 same-day controls) from patients with glaucoma were included. Retinal blood vessel shifts were noted in 33 of 125 (26.4%) longitudinally followed glaucomatous eyes and 2 of 33 (6%) same-day control patients (P = 0.01). Agreement between graders I and II was 90.4% (kappa=0.77; P< 0.001). Eyes with RBV positional change progressed more rapidly than those without (-0.55 vs. -0.29 dB/year; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.03-0.48); P = 0.03). Retinal blood vessel shift was present in 12.1% of minimal progressors versus 31.5% of moderate and fast progressors (P = 0.04). Rate of VF progression was statistically associated with RBV shift (odds ratio [OR], 2.2; 95% CI, 1.1-4.5; P = 0.03). Other variables significantly associated with RBV shift included neuroretinal rim loss (OR, 21.9; 95% CI, 5.7-83.6; P< 0.001) and DH (OR, 4.6; 95% CI, 1.5-15.5; P< 0.01). A multivariable model revealed that rim loss and DH, but not rate of functional change, were significantly associated with RBV shift. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal blood vessel positional shifts occurred in eyes with functionally progressive glaucoma, neuroretinal rim loss, and DH. This is a novel clinical finding that could help identify glaucoma progression or individuals at higher risk for future progression.
Park JH, Tanaka Y, Arango NA, Zhang L, Benedict AL, Roh M, Donahoe PK, Teixeira JM. Induction of WNT inhibitory factor 1 expression by Müllerian inhibiting substance/antiMullerian hormone in the Müllerian duct mesenchyme is linked to Müllerian duct regression. Dev Biol 2014;386(1):227-36.Abstract
A key event during mammalian sexual development is regression of the Müllerian ducts (MDs) in the bipotential urogenital ridges (UGRs) of fetal males, which is caused by the expression of Müllerian inhibiting substance (MIS) in the Sertoli cells of the differentiating testes. The paracrine signaling mechanisms involved in MD regression are not completely understood, particularly since the receptor for MIS, MISR2, is expressed in the mesenchyme surrounding the MD, but regression occurs in both the epithelium and mesenchyme. Microarray analysis comparing MIS signaling competent and Misr2 knockout embryonic UGRs was performed to identify secreted factors that might be important for MIS-mediated regression of the MD. A seven-fold increase in the expression of Wif1, an inhibitor of WNT/β-catenin signaling, was observed in the Misr2-expressing UGRs. Whole mount in situ hybridization of Wif1 revealed a spatial and temporal pattern of expression consistent with Misr2 during the window of MD regression in the mesenchyme surrounding the MD epithelium that was absent in both female UGRs and UGRs knocked out for Misr2. Knockdown of Wif1 expression in male UGRs by Wif1-specific siRNAs beginning on embryonic day 13.5 resulted in MD retention in an organ culture assay, and exposure of female UGRs to added recombinant human MIS induced Wif1 expression in the MD mesenchyme. Knockdown of Wif1 led to increased expression of β-catenin and its downstream targets TCF1/LEF1 in the MD mesenchyme and to decreased apoptosis, resulting in partial to complete retention of the MD. These results strongly suggest that WIF1 secretion by the MD mesenchyme plays a role in MD regression in fetal males.
Karamichos D, Funderburgh ML, Hutcheon AEK, Zieske JD, Du Y, Wu J, Funderburgh JL. A role for topographic cues in the organization of collagenous matrix by corneal fibroblasts and stem cells. PLoS One 2014;9(1):e86260.Abstract
Human corneal fibroblasts (HCF) and corneal stromal stem cells (CSSC) each secrete and organize a thick stroma-like extracellular matrix in response to different substrata, but neither cell type organizes matrix on tissue-culture polystyrene. This study compared cell differentiation and extracellular matrix secreted by these two cell types when they were cultured on identical substrata, polycarbonate Transwell filters. After 4 weeks in culture, both cell types upregulated expression of genes marking differentiated keratocytes (KERA, CHST6, AQP1, B3GNT7). Absolute expression levels of these genes and secretion of keratan sulfate proteoglycans were significantly greater in CSSC than HCF. Both cultures produced extensive extracellular matrix of aligned collagen fibrils types I and V, exhibiting cornea-like lamellar structure. Unlike HCF, CSSC produced little matrix in the presence of serum. Construct thickness and collagen organization was enhanced by TGF-ß3. Scanning electron microscopic examination of the polycarbonate membrane revealed shallow parallel grooves with spacing of 200-300 nm, similar to the topography of aligned nanofiber substratum which we previously showed to induce matrix organization by CSSC. These results demonstrate that both corneal fibroblasts and stromal stem cells respond to a specific pattern of topographical cues by secreting highly organized extracellular matrix typical of corneal stroma. The data also suggest that the potential for matrix secretion and organization may not be directly related to the expression of molecular markers used to identify differentiated keratocytes.
Jakobiec FA, Stacy RC, Mendoza PR, Chodosh J. Hyperplastic corneal pannus: an immunohistochemical analysis and review. Surv Ophthalmol 2014;59(4):448-53.Abstract
An exuberant corneal pannus usually develops in adults with a history of surgery or trauma in the anterior central stroma and appears as a glistening, vascularized, moderately elevated, well circumscribed white nodule. We describe a 78-year-old woman with such a pannus, which in the past has typically been referred to as keloidal or hypertrophic. The involved eye had only light perception, and she underwent a penetrating keratoplasty that improved her vision to 20/100. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical evaluations of a the specimen disclosed a reactive spindle cell stromal proliferation of myofibroblasts that were smooth muscle actin positive with a low Ki67 proliferation index. Desmin, caldesmon, and calponin were negative, in keeping with the incomplete myofilamentary differentiation of a myofibroblast. There was a generous admixture of CD68/163-positive histiocytes and dispersed C3/5-positive T-lymphocytes. An absence of CD138- and IgG4-positive plasma cells ruled out an IgG4-related disease. For a lesion to be keloidal, the collagen must have a thick hyaline character, sharp edges, and a sparsity of intervening cells and vessels. A hypertrophic pannus would be composed of large swollen cells not necessarily increased in number. We therefore recommend adoption of the term hyperplastic for lesions like that described here because of the obvious increase in cellularity from proliferating myofibroblasts and the lack of true keloidal collagen.
Huang R, Baranov P, Lai K, Zhang X, Ge J, Young MJ. Functional and morphological analysis of the subretinal injection of human retinal progenitor cells under Cyclosporin A treatment. Mol Vis 2014;20:1271-80.Abstract
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the functional and morphological changes in subretinal xenografts of human retinal progenitor cells (hRPCs) in B6 mice treated with Cyclosporin A (CsA; 210 mg/l in drinking water). METHODS: The hRPCs from human fetal eyes were isolated and expanded for transplantation. These cells, with green fluorescent protein (GFP) at 11 passages, were transplanted into the subretinal space in B6 mice. A combination of invasive and noninvasive approaches was used to analyze the structural and functional consequences of the subretinal injection of the hRPCs. The process of change was monitored using spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SDOCT), histology, and electroretinography (ERG) at 3 days, 1 week, and 3 weeks after transplantation. Cell counts were used to evaluate the survival rate with a confocal microscope. ERGs were performed to evaluate the physiologic changes, and the structural changes were evaluated using SDOCT and histological examination. RESULTS: The results of the histological examination showed that the hRPCs gained a better survival rate in the mice treated with CsA. The SDOCT showed that the bleb size of the retinal detachment was significantly decreased, and the retinal reattachment was nearly complete by 3 weeks. The ERG response amplitudes in the CsA group were less decreased after the injection, when compared with the control group, in the dark-adapted and light-adapted conditions. However, the cone-mediated function in both groups was less affected by the transplantation after 3 weeks than the rod-mediated function. CONCLUSIONS: Although significant functional and structural recovery was observed after the subretinal injection of the hRPCs, the effectiveness of CsA in xenotransplantation may be a novel and potential approach for increasing retinal progenitor cell survival.
Heidary G, Calderwood L, Cox GF, Robson CD, Teot LA, Mullon J, Anselm I. Optic atrophy and a Leigh-like syndrome due to mutations in the c12orf65 gene: report of a novel mutation and review of the literature. J Neuroophthalmol 2014;34(1):39-43.Abstract
Combined oxidative phosphorylation deficiency type 7 (COXPD7) is a rare disorder of mitochondrial metabolism that results in optic atrophy and Leigh syndrome-like disease. We describe 2 siblings with compound heterozygous mutations in the recently identified C12orf65 gene who presented with optic atrophy and mild developmental delays and subsequently developed bilateral, symmetric lesions in the brainstem reminiscent of Leigh syndrome. Repeat neuroimaging demonstrated reversibility of the findings in 1 sibling and persistent metabolic stroke in the other. This article highlights the phenotypic manifestations from a novel mutation in the C12orf65 gene and reviews the clinical presentation of the 5 other individuals reported to date who carry mutations in this gene.
Grob S, Yonekawa Y, Eliott D. Multimodal imaging of adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy. Saudi J Ophthalmol 2014;28(2):104-10.Abstract
Adult-onset foveomacular vitelliform dystrophy (AOFVD) is a clinically heterogeneous maculopathy that may mimic other conditions and be difficult to diagnose. It is characterized by late onset, slow progression and high variability in morphologic and functional alterations. Diagnostic evaluation should include careful ophthalmoscopy and imaging studies. The typical ophthalmoscopic findings are bilateral, asymmetric, foveal or perifoveal, yellow, solitary, round to oval elevated subretinal lesions, often with central pigmentation. The lesions characteristically demonstrate increased autofluorescence and hypofluorescent lesions surrounded by irregular annular hyperfluorescence on fluorescein angiography. Optical coherence tomography studies demonstrate homogenous or heterogeneous hyperreflective material between the retinal pigment epithelium and the neurosensory retina. The visual prognosis is generally favorable, but visual loss can occur from chorioretinal atrophy and choroidal neovascularization.