Ciolino JB, Belin MW, Todani A, Al-Arfaj K, Rudnisky CJ, Group BKTS1. Retention of the Boston keratoprosthesis type 1: multicenter study results. Ophthalmology 2013;120(6):1195-200.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To report the retention rate of the Boston keratoprosthesis type 1 and to identify risk factors for keratoprosthesis loss. DESIGN: Cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 300 eyes of 300 patients who underwent implantation of the Boston keratoprosthesis type I device between January 2003 and July 2008 by 19 surgeons at 18 medical centers. METHODS: Forms reporting preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative parameters were prospectively collected and subsequently analyzed at a central data collection site. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Keratoprosthesis retention. RESULTS: A total cumulative number of 422 life-years of device implantation are included in this analysis. The average duration of follow-up was 17.1 ± 14.8 months, with a range of 1 week to >6.1 years. Ninety-three percent of the 300 Boston keratoprosthesis implants were retained at their last follow-up, corresponding to a retention time of 396 patient-years or 1.42 years/keratoprosthesis. The probability of retention after 1 year and 2 years was 94% and 89%, respectively. During the study period, 21 (7%) eyes failed to retain the device; the reasons for keratoprosthesis loss include sterile keratolysis (9), fungal infections (8), dense retroprosthetic membranes (3), and bacterial endophthalmitis (1). Multivariate analysis demonstrated 3 independent risk factors for keratoprosthesis loss: autoimmune cause (hazard ratio [HR], 11.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.31-43.11), ocular surface exposure requiring a concomitant tarsorrhaphy (HR, 3.43; 95% CI, 1.05-11.22), and number of prior failed penetrating keratoplasties (HR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.18-2.28). CONCLUSIONS: The Boston keratoprosthesis type 1 seems to be a viable option for eyes that are not candidates for penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Ocular surface disease due to an autoimmune cause demonstrated the lowest retention rate. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE(S): The author(s) have no proprietary or commercial interest in any materials discussed in this article.
Ferrari G, Hajrasouliha AR, Sadrai Z, Ueno H, Chauhan SK, Dana R. Nerves and neovessels inhibit each other in the cornea. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013;54(1):813-20.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the regulatory cross-talk of the vascular and neural networks in the cornea. METHODS: b-FGF micropellets (80 ng) were implanted in the temporal side of the cornea of healthy C57Bl/6 mice. On day 7, blood vessels (hemangiogenesis) and nerves were observed by immunofluorescence staining of corneal flat mounts. The next group of mice underwent either trigeminal stereotactic electrolysis (TSE), or sham operation, to ablate the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve. Blood vessel growth was detected by immunohistochemistry for PECAM-1 (CD31) following surgery. In another set of mice following TSE or sham operation, corneas were harvested for ELISA (VEGFR3 and pigment epithelium-derived factor [PEDF]) and for quantitative RT-PCR (VEGFR3, PEDF, and CD45). PEDF, VEGFR3, beta-3 tubulin, CD45, CD11b, and F4/80 expression in the cornea were evaluated using immunostaining. RESULTS: No nerves were detected in the areas subject to corneal neovascularization, whereas they persisted in the areas that were neovessel-free. Conversely, 7 days after denervation, significant angiogenesis was detected in the cornea, and this was associated with a significant decrease in VEGFR3 (57.5% reduction, P = 0.001) and PEDF protein expression (64% reduction, P < 0.001). Immunostaining also showed reduced expression of VEGFR3 in the corneal epithelial layer. Finally, an inflammatory cell infiltrate, including macrophages, was observed. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that sensory nerves and neovessels inhibit each other in the cornea. When vessel growth is stimulated, nerves disappear and, conversely, denervation induces angiogenesis. This phenomenon, here described in the eye, may have far-reaching implications in understanding angiogenesis.
Emerson MM, Surzenko N, Goetz JJ, Trimarchi J, Cepko CL. Otx2 and Onecut1 promote the fates of cone photoreceptors and horizontal cells and repress rod photoreceptors. Dev Cell 2013;26(1):59-72.Abstract
Cone photoreceptors carry out phototransduction in daylight conditions and provide the critical first step in color vision. Despite their importance, little is known about the developmental mechanisms involved in their generation, particularly how they are determined relative to rod photoreceptors, the cells that initiate vision in dim light. Here, we report the identification of a cis-regulatory module (CRM) for the thyroid hormone receptor beta (Thrb) gene, an early cone marker. We found that ThrbCRM1 is active in progenitor cells biased to the production of cones and an interneuronal cell type, the horizontal cell (HC). Molecular analysis of ThrbCRM1 revealed that it is combinatorially regulated by the Otx2 and Onecut1 transcription factors. Onecut1 is sufficient to induce cells with the earliest markers of cones and HCs. Conversely, interference with Onecut1 transcriptional activity leads to precocious rod development, suggesting that Onecut1 is critically important in defining cone versus rod fates.
Amparo F, Sadrai Z, Jin Y, Alfonso-Bartolozzi B, Wang H, Shikari H, Ciolino JB, Chodosh J, Jurkunas U, Schaumberg DA, Dana R. Safety and efficacy of the multitargeted receptor kinase inhibitor pazopanib in the treatment of corneal neovascularization. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013;54(1):537-44.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of topical pazopanib in the treatment of corneal neovascularization (CNV). METHODS: Twenty eyes of 20 patients with stable CNV were enrolled in a prospective, open label, noncomparative study and treated with topical pazopanib 0.5% for 3 weeks, and followed for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was to determine the tolerability and safety of topical pazopanib in the treatment of CNV defined by the occurrence of ocular and systemic adverse events during the study. The secondary endpoint was to evaluate the effect of topical pazopanib on the reduction of (1) neovascular area (NA), defined as the area of the corneal vessels themselves, (2) invasion area (IA), defined as the fraction of the total cornea into which the vessels extend, (3) vessel length (VL), defined as the mean measurement of the extent of vessels from end to end, and (4) vessel caliber (VC), defined as the mean diameter of the corneal vessels. RESULTS: There were no severe adverse events following the use of topical pazopanib. Compared with the baseline visit, NA and VL showed a statistically significant decrease at week 3 (P = 0.02 and 0.01, respectively); and NA, IA, and VL statistically significantly decreased at week 12 (P = 0.03, 0.04, and <0.01, respectively). Visual acuity maintained without changes after the 12 week follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study suggests that topical treatment with pazopanib 0.5% is safe, well tolerated, and may have a role as an alternative for the treatment of CNV ( number, NCT01257750).
Ding J, Kam WR, Dieckow J, Sullivan DA. The influence of 13-cis retinoic acid on human meibomian gland epithelial cells. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013;54(6):4341-50.Abstract
PURPOSE: Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is a primary cause of dry eye disease. One of the risk factors for MGD is exposure to 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cis RA), a metabolite of vitamin A. However, the mechanism is not well understood. We hypothesize that 13-cis RA inhibits cell proliferation, promotes cell death, alters gene and protein expressions, and attenuates cell survival pathways in human meibomian gland epithelial cells. METHODS: To test our hypotheses, immortalized human meibomian gland epithelial cells were cultured with or without 13-cis RA for varying doses and time. Cell proliferation, cell death, gene expression, and proteins involved in proliferation/survival and inflammation were evaluated. RESULTS: We found that 13-cis RA inhibited cell proliferation, induced cell death, and significantly altered the expression of 6726 genes, including those involved in cell proliferation, cell death, differentiation, keratinization, and inflammation, in human meibomian gland epithelial cells. Further, 13-cis RA also reduced the phosphorylation of Akt and increased the generation of interleukin-1β and matrix metallopeptidase 9. CONCLUSIONS: Exposure to 13-cis RA inhibits cell proliferation, increases cell death, alters gene expression, changes signaling pathways, and promotes inflammatory mediator and protease expression in meibomian gland epithelial cells. These effects may be responsible, at least in part, for the 13-cis RA-related induction of MGD.
Daly MK, Gonzalez E, Siracuse-Lee D, Legutko PA. Efficacy of surgical simulator training versus traditional wet-lab training on operating room performance of ophthalmology residents during the capsulorhexis in cataract surgery. J Cataract Refract Surg 2013;39(11):1734-41.Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare the operating room performance of ophthalmology residents trained by traditional wet-lab versus surgical simulation on the continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) portion of cataract surgery. SETTING: Academic tertiary referral center. DESIGN: Prospective randomized study. METHODS: Residents who chose to participate and provided informed consent were randomized to preoperative CCC training in the wet lab or on a simulator. Residents completed pre-practice demographic questionnaires including habits of daily living. After completion of their preoperative training (wet lab versus simulator), residents performed their first CCC of the clinical rotation under the direct supervision of an attending physician as part of their standard training at the facility. Residents then completed satisfaction questionnaires regarding their preoperative training. Two attending surgeons reviewed and graded each video of operating room performance. The mean score between the 2 attending physicians was used as the individual performance score for each of the 12 performance criteria. The overall score was calculated as the sum of these 12 individual performance scores (standardized). RESULTS: Ten residents trained in the wet lab and 11 on the simulator. There was no significant difference in overall score between the 2 groups (P=.608). There was no significant difference in any individual score except time (wet-lab group faster than simulator group) (P=.038). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative simulator training prepared residents for the operating room as effectively as the wet lab. The time to pass the simulator curriculum was predictive of the time and overall performance in the operating room. FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE: No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned.
Contreras-Ruiz L, Ghosh-Mitra A, Shatos MA, Dartt DA, Masli S. Modulation of conjunctival goblet cell function by inflammatory cytokines. Mediators Inflamm 2013;2013:636812.Abstract
Ocular surface inflammation associated with Sjögren's syndrome is characterized by a loss of secretory function and alteration in numbers of mucin secreting goblet cells. Such changes are a prominent feature of ocular surface inflammatory diseases and are attributed to inflammation; however, the exact effect of the inflammatory cytokines on conjunctival goblet cell function remains largely unknown. In this study, we developed a primary culture of mouse goblet cells from conjunctival tissue and evaluated the effects on their function by inflammatory cytokines detected in the conjunctiva of mouse model of Sjögren's syndrome (Thrombospondin-1 deficient mice). We found that apoptosis of goblet cells was primarily induced by TNF-α and IFN-γ. These two cytokines also inhibited mucin secretion by goblet cells in response to cholinergic stimulation, whereas IL-6 enhanced such secretion. No changes in secretory response were detected in the presence of IL-13 or IL-17. Goblet cells proliferated to varying degrees in response to all the tested cytokines with the greatest response to IL-13 followed by IL-6. Our results therefore reveal that inflammatory cytokines expressed in the conjunctiva during an ocular surface disease directly disrupt conjunctival goblet cell functions, compromising the protective function of tears, thereby contributing to ocular surface damage.
Chen J, Michan S, Juan AM, Hurst CG, Hatton CJ, Pei DT, Joyal J-S, Evans LP, Cui Z, Stahl A, Sapieha P, Sinclair DA, Smith LEH. Neuronal sirtuin1 mediates retinal vascular regeneration in oxygen-induced ischemic retinopathy. Angiogenesis 2013;16(4):985-92.Abstract
Regeneration of blood vessels in ischemic neuronal tissue is critical to reduce tissue damage in diseases. In proliferative retinopathy, initial vessel loss leads to retinal ischemia, which can induce either regrowth of vessels to restore normal metabolism and minimize damage, or progress to hypoxia-induced sight-threatening pathologic vaso-proliferation. It is not well understood how retinal neurons mediate regeneration of vascular growth in response to ischemic insults. In this study we aim to investigate the potential role of Sirtuin 1 (Sirt1), a metabolically-regulated protein deacetylase, in mediating the response of ischemic neurons to regulate vascular regrowth in a mouse model of oxygen-induced ischemic retinopathy (OIR). We found that Sirt1 is highly induced in the avascular ischemic retina in OIR. Conditional depletion of neuronal Sirt1 leads to significantly decreased retinal vascular regeneration into the avascular zone and increased hypoxia-induced pathologic vascular growth. This effect is likely independent of PGC-1α, a known Sirt1 target, as absence of PGC-1α in knockout mice does not impact vascular growth in retinopathy. We found that neuronal Sirt1 controls vascular regrowth in part through modulating deacetylation and stability of hypoxia-induced factor 1α and 2α, and thereby modulating expression of angiogenic factors. These results indicate that ischemic neurons induce Sirt1 to promote revascularization into ischemic neuronal areas, suggesting a novel role of neuronal Sirt1 in mediating vascular regeneration in ischemic conditions, with potential implications beyond retinopathy.
Borodic GE. Use of fillers as adjunct therapy for the treatment of lower face hemifacial spasm. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2013;29(3):225-6.Abstract
The treatment of hemifacial spasm with periorbital injections of higher doses of botulinum toxin can create disfiguring and undesirable weakness in the lower face during active facial movements. The use of asymmetric hyaluronidate filler injections to the lower face provides a refinement allowing for a lowered neurotoxin dose. The filler creates a ballasting effect and involuntary facial movement. The conventional filler effect also further reduces asymmetric nasolabial folds and marionette lines. Fifteen of 18 patients with lower facial spasms found the filler toxin combination an improvement over neurotoxin alone.
Swaminathan SS, Oh D-J, Kang MH, Ren R, Jin R, Gong H, Rhee DJ. Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC)-null mice exhibit more uniform outflow. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013;54(3):2035-47.Abstract
PURPOSE: Secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (SPARC) is a matricellular protein known to regulate extracellular matrix (ECM) in many tissues and is highly expressed in trabecular meshwork (TM). SPARC-null mice have a 15% to 20% decrease in intraocular pressure (IOP) compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We hypothesized that mouse aqueous outflow is segmental, and that transgenic deletion of SPARC causes a more uniform pattern that correlates with IOP and TM morphology. METHODS: Eyes of C57BL6-SV129 WT and SPARC-null mice were injected with fluorescent microbeads, which were also passively exposed to freshly enucleated eyes. Confocal and electron microscopy were performed. Percentage effective filtration length (PEFL) was calculated as PEFL = FL/TL × 100%, where TL = total length and FL = filtration length. IOP was measured by rebound tonometry. RESULTS: Passive microbead affinity for WT and SPARC-null ECM did not differ. Segmental flow was observed in the mouse eye. SPARC-null mice had a 23% decrease in IOP. PEFL increased in SPARC-null (70.61 ± 11.36%) versus WT mice (54.68 ± 9.95%, P < 0.005; n = 11 pairs), and PEFL and IOP were negatively correlated (R(2) = 0.72, n = 10 pairs). Morphologically, TM of high-tracer regions had increased separation between beams compared to low-tracer regions. Collagen fibril diameter decreased in SPARC-null (28.272 nm) versus WT tissue (34.961 nm, P < 0.0005; n = 3 pairs). CONCLUSIONS: Aqueous outflow in mice is segmental. SPARC-null mice demonstrated a more uniform outflow pattern and decreased collagen fibril diameter. Areas of high flow had less compact juxtacanalicular connective tissue ECM, and IOP was inversely correlated with PEFL. Our data show a correlation between morphology, aqueous outflow, and IOP, indicating a modulatory role of SPARC in IOP regulation.
Smith LE, Hard A-L, Hellström A. The biology of retinopathy of prematurity: how knowledge of pathogenesis guides treatment. Clin Perinatol 2013;40(2):201-14.Abstract
Retinopathy of prematurity occurs because the retina of a preterm infant at birth is incompletely vascularized, and if the postnatal environment does not match the in utero environment that supported retinal development, the vessels and neural retina will not grow normally. Risk factors determined from many clinical studies and animal studies fall into 2 categories: prenatal factors and postnatal factors.
Yoon MK, Jakobiec FA, Mendoza PR. Canaliculops: clinicopathologic features and treatment with marsupialization. Am J Ophthalmol 2013;156(5):1062-1068.e1.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report the features of the rare and under-recognized condition of canaliculops (or canaliculocele) of the eyelid, which is a dilation of the canaliculus, and to evaluate treatment with marsupialization. DESIGN: Retrospective interventional case series. METHODS: The records of 2 patients with canaliculops from the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary were reviewed. Data collected included clinical history, surgical technique, histopathologic analysis, and comparative immunohistochemical analysis of a range of cytokeratins in normal conjunctival epithelium, normal canalicular epithelium, and canaliculops epithelium. RESULTS: Two women, 53 and 66 years of age, experienced chronic, noninflammatory, painless medial eyelid and eyelid margin fluctuant swelling after earlier trauma or eyelid surgery. The external mass was accompanied by a whitish opalescent or bluish discoloration of a palpebral surface bulge. Biopsy revealed multilaminar (up to 12 cells thick), nonkeratinizing, tightly packed small squamous epithelial cells that surmounted a highly regimented basal layer with a picket fence arrangement. No goblet cells or subepithelial inflammation were present. Immunohistochemistry revealed only superficial CK7 immunostaining and positive patchy suprabasilar CK17 staining in the canaliculops epithelium, contrasting with their full-thickness positivity and negativity, respectively, in normal conjunctival epithelium. Marsupialization achieved resolution of the condition in each patient. CONCLUSIONS: An improved awareness of the normal canalicular epithelial structure and its immunohistochemical features can definitively separate canaliculops from conjunctival cysts. Previous treatment of canaliculops has involved complete excisions. Canaliculops may, however, be effectively treated with less invasive marsupialization while obtaining an adequate biopsy specimen for histopathologic diagnosis.