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Wang L, Shankarappa SA, Tong R, Ciolino JB, Tsui JH, Chiang HH, Kohane DS. Topical drug formulations for prolonged corneal anesthesia. Cornea 2013;32(7):1040-5.Abstract
PURPOSE: Ocular local anesthetics currently used in routine clinical practice for corneal anesthesia are short acting and their ability to delay corneal healing makes them unsuitable for long-term use. In this study, we examined the effect of the site 1 sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) on the duration of corneal anesthesia, applied with either proparacaine (PPC) or the chemical permeation enhancer octyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (OTAB). The effect of test solutions on corneal healing was also studied. METHODS: Solutions of TTX, PPC, and OTAB, singly or in combination, were applied topically to the rat cornea. The blink response, an indirect measure of corneal sensitivity, was recorded using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer, and the duration of corneal anesthesia was calculated. The effect of test compounds on the rate of corneal epithelialization was studied in vivo after corneal debridement. RESULTS: Combination of TTX and PPC resulted in corneal anesthesia that was 8 to 10 times longer in duration than that from either drug administered alone, whereas OTAB did not prolong anesthesia. The rate of corneal healing was moderately delayed after coadministration of TTX and PPC. CONCLUSIONS: Coadministration of TTX and PPC significantly prolonged corneal anesthesia, but in view of delayed corneal reepithelialization, caution is suggested in the use of the drug combination.
VanderVeen DK, Trivedi RH, Nizam A, Lynn MJ, Lambert SR, Lambert SR. Predictability of intraocular lens power calculation formulae in infantile eyes with unilateral congenital cataract: results from the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. Am J Ophthalmol 2013;156(6):1252-1260.e2.Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation formulae in infantile eyes with primary IOL implantation. DESIGN: Comparative case series. METHODS: The Hoffer Q, Holladay 1, Holladay 2, Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff (SRK) II, and Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff theoretic (SRK/T) formulae were used to calculate predicted postoperative refraction for eyes that received primary IOL implantation in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. The protocol targeted postoperative hyperopia of +6.0 or +8.0 diopters (D). Eyes were excluded for invalid biometry, lack of refractive data at the specified postoperative visit, diagnosis of glaucoma or suspected glaucoma, or sulcus IOL placement. Actual refraction 1 month after surgery was converted to spherical equivalent and prediction error (predicted refraction - actual refraction) was calculated. Baseline characteristics were analyzed for effect on prediction error for each formula. The main outcome measure was absolute prediction error. RESULTS: Forty-three eyes were studied; mean axial length was 18.1 ± 1.1 mm (in 23 eyes, it was <18.0 mm). Average age at surgery was 2.5 ± 1.5 months. Holladay 1 showed the lowest median absolute prediction error (1.2 D); a paired comparison of medians showed clinically similar results using the Holladay 1 and SRK/T formulae (median difference, 0.3 D). Comparison of the mean absolute prediction error showed the lowest values using the SRK/T formula (1.4 ± 1.1 D), followed by the Holladay 1 formula (1.7 ± 1.3 D). Calculations with an optimized constant showed the lowest values and no significant difference between the Holladay 1 and SRK/T formulae (median difference, 0.3 D). Eyes with globe AL of less than 18 mm had the largest mean and median prediction error and absolute prediction error, regardless of the formula used. CONCLUSIONS: The Holladay 1 and SRK/T formulae gave equally good results and had the best predictive value for infant eyes.
Pasquale LR, Loomis SJ, Kang JH, Yaspan BL, Abdrabou W, Budenz DL, Chen TC, Delbono E, Friedman DS, Gaasterland D, Gaasterland T, Grosskreutz CL, Lee RK, Lichter PR, Liu Y, McCarty CA, Moroi SE, Olson LM, Realini T, Rhee DJ, Schuman JS, Singh K, Vollrath D, Wollstein G, Zack DJ, Allingham RR, Pericak-Vance MA, Weinreb RN, Zhang K, Hauser MA, Richards JE, Haines JL, Wiggs JL. CDKN2B-AS1 genotype-glaucoma feature correlations in primary open-angle glaucoma patients from the United States. Am J Ophthalmol 2013;155(2):342-353.e5.Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the gene region containing cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B antisense noncoding RNA (CDKN2B-AS1) and glaucoma features among primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. METHODS: We studied associations between 10 CDKN2B-AS1 SNPs and glaucoma features among 976 POAG cases from the Glaucoma Genes and Environment (GLAUGEN) study and 1971 cases from the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration (NEIGHBOR) consortium. For each patient, we chose the feature from the eye with the higher value. We created cohort-specific multivariable models for glaucoma features and then meta-analyzed the results. RESULTS: For 9 of the 10 protective CDKN2B-AS1 SNPs with minor alleles associated with reduced disease risk (eg, the G allele at rs2157719), POAG patients carrying these minor alleles had smaller cup-to-disc ratio (0.05 units smaller per G allele at diagnosis; 95% CI: -0.08, -0.03; P = 6.23E-05) despite having higher intraocular pressure (IOP) (0.70 mm Hg higher per G allele at DNA collection; 95% CI: 0.40, 1.00; P = 5.45E-06). For the 1 adverse rs3217992 SNP with minor allele A associated with increased disease risk, POAG patients with A alleles had larger cup-to-disc ratio (0.05 units larger per A allele at diagnosis; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.07; P = 4.74E-04) despite having lower IOP (-0.57 mm Hg per A allele at DNA collection; 95% CI: -0.84, -0.29; P = 6.55E-05). CONCLUSION: Alleles of CDKN2B-AS1 SNPs, which influence risk of developing POAG, also modulate optic nerve degeneration among POAG patients, underscoring the role of CDKN2B-AS1 in POAG.
Panou N, Kim IK, Sobrin L. Choroiditis and choroidal neovascularization in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Retin Cases Brief Rep 2013;7(1):89-90.Abstract
PURPOSE: To present a case with bilateral choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-associated choroiditis requiring immunomodulatory therapy for prevention of recurrence. METHODS: The clinical course of a patient diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, who developed bilateral choroiditis at the time of his neurologic diagnosis and bilateral CNV 6 years later, is reviewed. PATIENT: A 57-year-old man developed CNV in both eyes, 6 years after the initial diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-associated choroiditis. The patient was initially treated successfully with intravitreal bevacizumab injections and oral prednisone, but CNV recurred with steroid tapering. Mycophenolate mofetil was initiated as steroid-sparing immunomodulatory therapy. RESULTS: There was no CNV recurrence for 1.5 years without the need for additional antiangiogenic therapy. CONCLUSION: To our best knowledge, this is the first report of choroiditis and secondary CNV associated with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. In cases of recurrent CNV associated with choroiditis, systemic therapy should be strongly considered in conjunction with antiangiogenic therapy. The recurrence of CNV with tapering of oral steroids and the remission of CNV with steroid-sparing immunomodulatory therapy support the role of ongoing inflammation in the pathogenesis.
Osaki TH, De Castro DK, Yabumoto C, Mingkwansook V, Ting E, Nallasamy N, Curtin H, Fay A. Comparison of methodologies in volumetric orbitometry. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2013;29(6):431-6.Abstract
PURPOSE: The rate at which the orbit matures is not well-documented. Limiting this pursuit are the difficulties inherent in measuring orbital volumes accurately. This study compared 3 common methods of determining orbital volume and sought to identify an accurate, practical manner for doing so. METHODS: The volume of 1 orbit of 8 human cadaver heads was independently measured using 3 different methods: 1) CT was performed, and images were analyzed with 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric software; 2) The same orbits were then exenterated and a silicone cast was taken. The cast volumes were measured by water displacement; 3) The orbits were then filled with 1-mm glass beads that were transferred to a graduated cylinder where their volume was determined. The data were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Intraobserver agreements were good for both beads and casts. Interobserver agreements were good for both beads and CT (p > 0.05). Values obtained using the bead method were equal to values obtained using the cast method (p > 0.05). However, agreement between direct (orbital fillers and casts) and indirect measurements (radiographic techniques) was not satisfactory (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Independent of method, determining orbital volume is inherently difficult owing to the hyperbolic parabola that is the orbit entrance; all methods require estimation. Glass beads and casts yielded more reproducible values but can only be used in cadavers. CT measurement is prone to error due to the variability of methodologies used but allows access to enormous testing populations. Interstudy comparison is currently not possible. CT volumetric software with strict universal standards for estimating the anterior limit of the orbit appears to be the best method of studying human orbital volumes.
Shaaban S, Ramos-Platt L, Gilles FH, Chan W-M, Andrews C, De Girolami U, Demer J, Engle EC. RYR1 mutations as a cause of ophthalmoplegia, facial weakness, and malignant hyperthermia. JAMA Ophthalmol 2013;131(12):1532-40.Abstract
IMPORTANCE: Total ophthalmoplegia can result from ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) mutations without overt associated skeletal myopathy. Patients carrying RYR1 mutations are at high risk of developing malignant hyperthermia. Ophthalmologists should be familiar with these important clinical associations. OBJECTIVE: To determine the genetic cause of congenital ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, facial paralysis, and mild hypotonia segregating in 2 pedigrees diagnosed with atypical Moebius syndrome or congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Clinical data including medical and family histories were collected at research laboratories at Boston Children's Hospital and Jules Stein Eye Institute (Engle and Demer labs) for affected and unaffected family members from 2 pedigrees in which patients presented with total ophthalmoplegia, facial weakness, and myopathy. INTERVENTION: Homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing were conducted to identify causative mutations in affected family members. Histories, physical examinations, and clinical data were reviewed. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE: Mutations in RYR1. RESULTS: Missense mutations resulting in 2 homozygous RYR1 amino acid substitutions (E989G and R3772W) and 2 compound heterozygous RYR1 substitutions (H283R and R3772W) were identified in a consanguineous and a nonconsanguineous pedigree, respectively. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging revealed marked hypoplasia of extraocular muscles and intraorbital cranial nerves. Skeletal muscle biopsy specimens revealed nonspecific myopathic changes. Clinically, the patients' ophthalmoplegia and facial weakness were far more significant than their hypotonia and limb weakness and were accompanied by an unrecognized susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Affected children presenting with severe congenital ophthalmoplegia and facial weakness in the setting of only mild skeletal myopathy harbored recessive mutations in RYR1, encoding the ryanodine receptor 1, and were susceptible to malignant hyperthermia. While ophthalmoplegia occurs rarely in RYR1-related myopathies, these children were atypical because they lacked significant weakness, respiratory insufficiency, or scoliosis. RYR1-associated myopathies should be included in the differential diagnosis of congenital ophthalmoplegia and facial weakness, even without clinical skeletal myopathy. These patients should also be considered susceptible to malignant hyperthermia, a life-threatening anesthetic complication avoidable if anticipated presurgically.
Murakami Y, Notomi S, Hisatomi T, Nakazawa T, Ishibashi T, Miller JW, Vavvas DG. Photoreceptor cell death and rescue in retinal detachment and degenerations. Prog Retin Eye Res 2013;37:114-40.Abstract
Photoreceptor cell death is the ultimate cause of vision loss in various retinal disorders, including retinal detachment (RD). Photoreceptor cell death has been thought to occur mainly through apoptosis, which is the most characterized form of programmed cell death. The caspase family of cysteine proteases plays a central role for inducing apoptosis, and in experimental models of RD, dying photoreceptor cells exhibit caspase activation; however, there is a paradox that caspase inhibition alone does not provide a sufficient protection against photoreceptor cell loss, suggesting that other mechanisms of cell death are involved. Recent accumulating evidence demonstrates that non-apoptotic forms of cell death, such as autophagy and necrosis, are also regulated by specific molecular machinery, such as those mediated by autophagy-related proteins and receptor-interacting protein kinases, respectively. Here we summarize the current knowledge of cell death signaling and its roles in photoreceptor cell death after RD and other retinal degenerative diseases. A body of studies indicate that not only apoptotic but also autophagic and necrotic signaling are involved in photoreceptor cell death, and that combined targeting of these pathways may be an effective neuroprotective strategy for retinal diseases associated with photoreceptor cell loss.
Sayegh RR, Dohlman CH. Wide-angle fundus imaging through the Boston keratoprosthesis. Retina 2013;33(6):1188-92.Abstract
PURPOSE: To explore the feasibility and compare the outcomes of three wide-angle fundus cameras for imaging the peripheral retina through the Type 1 Boston keratoprosthesis. METHODS: The noncontact Optos and the contact RetCam and Panoret wide-angle imaging systems were used to image the retina of eyes implanted with a keratoprosthesis. The failure-to-image rate, ease of acquisition, and quality of the images were noted, and the field of view was compared. Limitations and complications were recorded. Optos was then performed on patients referred for ultrasound B-scan evaluation, and the imaging findings were correlated. RESULTS: Retinal images with all three cameras were obtained on four eyes. Optos could be performed on all four eyes, RetCam on three, and Panoret on two. The field of view was comparable between the three different cameras. The best quality images were obtained with Optos. The external illumination of the Panoret made it impossible to image the only darkly pigmented individual in the series. Both contact devices failed to image another patient who was too agitated. Two patients had some ocular irritation from the coupling agent that resolved with replacement of the contact lens. Optos images were obtained on an additional six eyes, and findings correlated well with those on B-scan. Optos was superior to B-scan in an eye with silicone oil filling. CONCLUSION: Wide-angle fundus imaging through the keratoprosthesis is possible, and all three cameras performed similarly. The good quality of pictures obtained with the noncontact Optos, as well as its ease of use, comfort, and safety make it a preferred choice. Optos complements B-scan in the examination of the peripheral retina through the keratoprosthesis, and it may even be superior in certain settings.
Mendoza PR, Jakobiec FA, Krane JF. Immunohistochemical features of lacrimal gland epithelial tumors. Am J Ophthalmol 2013;156(6):1147-1158.e1.Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate the immunohistochemical features of ocular adnexal pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. DESIGN: Retrospective clinicopathologic study. METHODS: Clinical records and microscopic slides of 7 cases of each tumor type were reviewed. Immunohistochemical probes for Ki-67 and p53, and newer nuclear markers MYB for adenoid cystic carcinoma and PLAG1 for pleomorphic adenoma, were employed. RESULTS: Pleomorphic adenomas were asymptomatic, whereas adenoid cystic carcinomas were painful. No pleomorphic adenomas recurred; 4 adenoid cystic carcinomas recurred, resulting in 3 deaths. Unusual histopathologic variants for which immunohistochemistry proved useful included a myoepithelioma, an atypical pleomorphic adenoma, tubular and solid/basaloid variants of adenoid cystic carcinoma, and a morphologically heterogeneous adenoid cystic carcinoma of a Wolfring gland. For the pleomorphic adenomas, the average Ki-67 proliferation index was 3.8%; p53 was weakly staining, with an average positivity of 18.5%; PLAG1 was strongly positive in all cases; MYB was negative in 5 cases and weakly focally positive in 2 cases. For the adenoid cystic carcinomas, the average Ki-67 proliferation index was 29.1%; p53 stained positively and strongly with an average of 39%; none stained positively for PLAG1; and 6 out of 7 were MYB positive. CONCLUSIONS: Between pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma, there was no overlap in Ki-67 positivity. Positivity for p53 showed overlap in only one lesion of each type. PLAG1 and MYB positivity were highly discriminating between pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis should be investigated further for its role in the evaluation of pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Raghuram A, Hansen RM, Moskowitz A, Fulton AB. Photoreceptor and postreceptor responses in congenital stationary night blindness. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013;54(7):4648-58.Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate photoreceptor and postreceptor retinal function in patients with congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB). METHODS: Forty-one patients with CSNB (ages 0.19-32 years) were studied. ERG responses to a series of full-field stimuli were obtained under scotopic and photopic conditions and were used to categorize the CSNB patients as complete (cCSNB) or incomplete (iCSNB). Rod and cone photoreceptor (R(ROD), S(ROD), R(CONE), S(CONE)) and rod-driven postreceptor (V(MAX), log σ) response parameters were calculated from the a- and b-waves. Cone-driven responses to 30 Hz flicker and ON and OFF responses to a long duration (150 ms) flash were also obtained. Dark-adapted thresholds were measured. Analysis of variance was used to compare data from patients with cCSNB, patients with iCSNB, and controls. RESULTS: We found significant reduction in saturated photoreceptor amplitude (R(ROD), R(CONE)) but normal photoreceptor sensitivity (S(ROD), S(CONE)) in both CSNB groups. Rod-driven postreceptor response amplitude (V(MAX)) and sensitivity (log σ) were significantly reduced in CSNB. Log σ was significantly worse in cCSNB than in iCSNB; this was the only scotopic parameter that differed between the two CSNB groups. Photopic b-wave amplitude increased monotonically with stimulus strength in CSNB patients rather than showing a normal photopic hill. The amplitude of the 30-Hz flicker response was reduced compared with controls, more so in iCSNB than in cCSNB. The mean dark-adapted threshold was significantly elevated in CSNB, more so in cCSNB than in iCSNB. CONCLUSIONS: These results are evidence of normal photoreceptor function (despite the low saturated photoresponse amplitude) and anomalous postreceptor retinal circuitry.
Poole Perry LJ, Jakobiec FA, Zakka FR, Reichel E, Herwig MC, Perry A, Brat DJ, Grossniklaus HE. Reactive retinal astrocytic tumors (so-called vasoproliferative tumors): histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic studies of four cases. Am J Ophthalmol 2013;155(3):593-608.e1.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the cellular nature of and diagnostic terminology used in connection with acquired retinal "vasoproliferative tumors." DESIGN: Retrospective clinicopathologic study. METHODS: Clinical records and microscopic slides of 4 enucleated globes were reviewed. Special stains and immunohistochemical probes for CD31, CD34, p53, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), CD163, and Ki67 (cell replication) were employed; ultrastructural and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses were performed. RESULTS: Tumors were located inferotemporally in middle-aged patients. They were uniformly composed of compacted elongated, GFAP-positive spindle cells (due to intermediate filaments identified ultrastructurally) with a Ki67 index of less than 1%. Rosenthal fibers and eosinophilic granular bodies were observed. Hyalinized periodic acid-Schiff-positive vessels were widely separated. CD31 and CD34 revealed a sparse microvasculature. Tumor-associated exudate spread predominantly subretinally. The retinal pigment epithelium had undergone extensive placoid fibrous metaplasia with focal ossification. P53 upregulation, BRAF-KIAA gene rearrangement, and IDH1R132H mutation typically associated with low-grade astrocytic neoplasms were absent. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal "vasoproliferative" tumors have been mischaracterized, because they actually display a paucity of microvessels. Proliferating fibrous astrocytes with a very low proliferation index predominate, without immunohistochemical or genetic evidence favoring a neoplasm. Subretinal exudate appeared capable of provoking widespread fibrous metaplasia of the pigment epithelium that was mainly responsible for secondary retinal damage. The term "reactive retinal astrocytic tumor" is proposed as more appropriate for this entity. In carefully selected progressive lesions, consideration should be given to earlier surgical intervention before extensive subretinal exudate accumulates and pigment epithelial proliferation with fibrous metaplasia ensues.
Patel M, Vavvas DG. Fundus autofluorescence in ampiginous choroiditis. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2013;44(4):393-7.Abstract
Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) is being increasingly employed in the evaluation of retinal diseases. We report the first description of FAF findings during the natural history of ampiginous choroiditis and correlate these findings to fundus photography, infrared imaging, and cross-sectional optical coherence tomography. In a patient with a 12-month recurring, relapsing course of ampiginous choroiditis, there was a predictable pattern of FAF findings. At the time of presentation with a whitish-yellow, creamy clinical lesion, FAF reveals a diffuse, subtle hyperautofluorescence at the site of activity. As the clinical lesion fades, the FAF takes on a more intense, discrete, coalesced hyperautofluorescence, which decreases and becomes stippled over time, eventually giving way to a patch of hypoautofluorescence at the site of inactivity. Examination over the patient's long course suggests that FAF evolves predictably during exacerbations and remissions, and the FAF findings reveal activity well after the clinical lesion resolves. FAF is a simple, noninvasive, and effective modality for following the evolution of ampiginous choroiditis.
Papakostas TD, Lessell S. Teaching video neuroimages: pulsatile proptosis. Neurology 2013;81(21):e160.Abstract
A 44-year-old man with neurofibromatosis type 1 had been aware that his right eye pulsated. His visual acuity was 20/15 in both eyes and his intraocular pressures were normal. He had 4 mm of right exophthalmos and there was pulse-synchronous pulsation of the right eye (video on the Neurology® Web site at www.neurology.org). No bruit was heard. Lisch nodules were present on both irides. CT showed a large osseous defect of the greater wing of the right sphenoid bone. The differential diagnosis of pulsatile proptosis includes absence of the sphenoid wing in patients with neurofibromatosis 1,(1) carotid-cavernous fistula, orbital roof fractures, and arteriovenous malformations.(2.)
Osaki TH, Fay A, Mehta M, Nallasamy N, Waner M, De Castro DK. Orbital development as a function of age in indigenous North American skeletons. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2013;29(2):131-6.Abstract
PURPOSE: Infants with orbital hemangiomas and vascular malformations often develop expanded orbits or regional hyperostosis. Treatment in these cases depends, in part, on the stage of orbital development at the time of intervention; yet, orbital development with respect to age is not well-known. The authors sought to determine the rate of orbital development and the age of orbital maturation in a single ethnic population. METHODS: Skeletons recovered in North America and housed at the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, were inspected. The age of specimen was determined by dentition. Orbital volume was measured using 1-mm glass beads and a graduated cylinder. Linear measurements were taken with calipers and paper rulers. The measurements were plotted against age, and statistical analysis was performed. Relevant literature was reviewed. RESULTS: Of the hundreds of skeletons examined, 42 were sufficiently intact for orbital measurement. The specimens represented a period of up to 1000 years. Thirty-two were pediatric (defined prenatal to 18 years) and 10 were adults. Mean adult orbital volume was 26.2 ml. Based on the regression analysis, 60% of adult orbital volume was achieved at 4.35 years, 75% at 9.36 years, and 90% at 17.13 years of age. Linear dimensions progressively increased with age. CONCLUSIONS: This largest direct-measure study of pediatric orbital volume suggests that orbital growth continually decelerates from birth until maturity at 22 years. With 50% of orbital growth occurring by 16 months of age, surgeons removing periocular vascular anomalies after that age should consider concurrent skeletal management.
Nicholson L, Sobrin L. Anterior uveitis secondary to type II essential cryoglobulinemia. J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect 2013;3(1):56.Abstract
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this report is to describe the association of severe anterior uveitis with type II essential cryoglobulinemia. FINDINGS: A 40-year-old male with a history of psoriatic arthritis presented with severe anterior uveitis associated with type II essential cryoglobulinemia. His uveitis, refractory to steroid treatments, was well controlled following treatments for cryoglobulinemia. The temporal association between his cryoglobulinemia and uveitis, combined with his improved visual acuity and inflammation after plasmapheresis and rituximab infusions, suggests cryoglobulinemia to be the underlying condition of his uveitis. CONCLUSIONS: To our best knowledge, this is the first reported case of anterior uveitis secondary to type II essential cryoglobulinemia.

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