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Rhee JY, Torun N, Neilan TG, Guidon AC. Consider Myocarditis When Patients Treated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors Present with Ocular Symptoms. Oncologist 2022;Abstract
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been associated with neurological immune related adverse events (irAE-N) and patients with ICI toxicity may present with neurological or ocular symptoms. Furthermore, patients on ICI may initially present to oncology or neurology. We report a case series of 3 patients treated with ICIs presenting with diplopia or ptosis, found to have concurrent myocarditis in addition to immune-related myopathy (irMyopathy) or myasthenia gravis (irMG). None of the patients described cardiac symptoms, underscoring the importance of screening for myocarditis in patients presenting with diplopia and/or other neuromuscular symptoms which may suggest either irMyopathy or irMG.
Peng C, Kuang L, Zhao J, Ross AE, Wang Z, Ciolino JB. Bibliometric and visualized analysis of ocular drug delivery from 2001 to 2020. J Control Release 2022;345:625-645.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To perform a bibliometric analysis in the field of ocular drug delivery research to characterize the current international trends and to present visual representations of the past and emerging trends on ocular drug delivery research over the past decade. METHOD: In this cross-sectional study, a bibliometric analysis of data retrieved and extracted from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) database was performed to analyze evolution and theme trends on ocular drug delivery research from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2020. A total of 4334 articles on ocular drug delivery were evaluated for specific characteristics, such as publication year, journals, authors, institutions, countries/regions, references, and keywords. Co-authorship analysis, co-occurrence analysis, co-citation analysis, and network visualization were constructed by VOSviewer. Some important subtopics identified by bibliometric characterization were further discussed and reviewed. RESULTS: From 2001 to 2020, the annual global publications increased by 746.15%, from 52 to 440. International Journal of Pharmaceutics published the most manuscripts (250 publications) and produced the highest citations (9509 citations), followed by Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (202 publications) and Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics (136 publications). The United States (1289 publications, 31,512 citations), the University of Florida (82 publications, 2986 citations), and Chauhan, Anuj (52 publications, 2354 citations) were the most productive and impactful institution, country, and author respectively. The co-occurrence cluster analysis of the top 100 keywords form five clusters: (1) micro/nano ocular drug delivery systems; (2) the treatment of inflammation and posterior diseases; (3) macroscopic ocular drug delivery systems/devices; (4) the characteristics of drug delivery systems; (5) and the ocular drug delivery for glaucoma treatment. Diabetic macular edema, anti-VEGF, ranibizumab, bevacizumab, micelles and latanoprost, were the latest high-frequency keywords, indicating the emerging frontiers of ocular drug delivery. Further discussions into the subtopics were provided to assist researchers to determine the range of research topics and plan research direction. CONCLUSIONS: Over the last two decades there has been a progressive increase in the number of publications and citations on research related to ocular drug delivery across many countries, institutions, and authors. The present study sheds light on current trends, global collaboration patterns, basic knowledge, research hotspots, and emerging frontiers of ocular drug delivery. Novel solutions for ocular drug delivery and the treatment of inflammation and posterior diseases were the major themes over the last 20 years.
Yang L, Xiao A, Li Q-Y, Zhong H-F, Su T, Shi W-Q, Ying P, Liang R-B, Xu S-H, Shao Y, Zhou Q. Hyperintensities of middle frontal gyrus in patients with diabetic optic neuropathy: a dynamic amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation study. Aging (Albany NY) 2022;14(3):1336-1350.Abstract
Diabetic optic neuropathy (DON) is a diverse complication of diabetes and its pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to explore dynamic cerebral activity changes in DON patients using dynamic amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (dALFF). In total, 22 DON patients and 22 healthy controls were enrolled. The dALFF approach was used in all participants to investigate dynamic intrinsic brain activity differences between the two groups. Compared with HCs, DON patients exhibited significantly increased dALFF variability in the right middle frontal gyrus (P < 0.01). Conversely, DON patients exhibited obviously decreased dALFF variability in the right precuneus (P < 0.01). We also found that there were significant negative correlations between HADS scores and dALFF values of the right middle frontal gyrus in the DON patients (r = -0.6404, P <0.01 for anxiety and r = -0.6346, P <0.01 for depression; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Abnormal variability of dALFF was observed in specific areas of the cerebrum in DON patients, which may contribute to distinguishing patients with DON from HCs and a better understanding of DON, hyperintensities of right middle frontal gyrus may be potential diagnostic marker for DON.
Guadix SW, Valenti A, Zappi KE, Garton ALA, Yuan M, Buontempo M, Perera I, Souweidane MM, Imahiyerobo T, Hoffman CE. Examining the Role of Early Diagnostic Imaging for Craniosynostosis in the Era of Endoscopic Suturectomy: A Single Institution Experience. J Craniofac Surg 2022;Abstract
ABSTRACT: Endoscopic suturectomy is a minimally invasive surgical treatment for single-suture craniosynostosis in children between 1 and 4 months of age. This study sought to characterize the role played by diagnostic imaging in facilitating early surgical management with endoscopic suturectomy. The authors also characterized the overall diagnostic utility of imaging in patients assessed for abnormal head shape at their institution, regardless of surgical status. A retrospective cohort of children diagnosed with single-suture synostosis undergoing either primary endoscopic suturectomy or open calvarial reconstruction at the authors' institution from 1998 to 2018 was first reviewed. Of 132 surgical patients, 53 underwent endoscopic suturectomy and 79 underwent open repair. There was no difference in the proportion of endoscopic and open surgery patients imaged preoperatively before (24.5% versus 35.4%; P = 0.24) or after (28.3% versus 25.3%; P = 0.84) craniofacial assessment. Stratifying by historical epoch (1998-2010 versus 2011-2018), there was also no difference found between preoperative imaging rates (63.6% versus 56.4%; P = 0.35). In another cohort of 175 patients assessed for abnormal head shape, 26.9% were imaged to rule out craniosynostosis. Positive diagnostic imaging rates were recorded for suspected unicoronal (100%), metopic (87.5%), lambdoidal (75.0%), sagittal (63.5%), multi-suture (50%), and bicoronal (0%) synostosis. The authors conclude that the use of diagnostic imaging at their institution has not increased despite higher utilization of endoscopic suturectomy and need for expedient identification of surgical candidates. However, their results suggest that imaging may play a greater diagnostic role for suspected bicoronal, sagittal, and multi-sutural synostosis among sutural subtypes of synostosis.
Zekavat SM, Sekimitsu S, Ye Y, Raghu V, Zhao H, Elze T, Segrè AV, Wiggs JL, Natarajan P, Del Priore L, Zebardast N, Wang JC. Photoreceptor Layer Thinning Is an Early Biomarker for Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Epidemiologic and Genetic Evidence from UK Biobank OCT Data. Ophthalmology 2022;129(6):694-707.Abstract
PURPOSE: Despite widespread use of OCT, an early-stage imaging biomarker for age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has not been identified. Pathophysiologically, the timing of drusen accumulation in relationship to photoreceptor degeneration in AMD remains unclear, as are the inherited genetic variants contributing to these processes. Herein, we jointly analyzed OCT, electronic health record data, and genomic data to characterize the time sequence of changes in retinal layer thicknesses in AMD, as well as epidemiologic and genetic associations between retinal layer thicknesses and AMD. DESIGN: Cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Forty-four thousand eight hundred twenty-three individuals from the UK Biobank (enrollment age range, 40-70 years; 54% women; median follow-up, 10 years). METHODS: The Topcon Advanced Boundary Segmentation algorithm was used for retinal layer segmentation. We associated 9 retinal layer thicknesses with prevalent AMD (present at enrollment) in a logistic regression model and with incident AMD (diagnosed after enrollment) in a Cox proportional hazards model. Next, we associated AMD-associated genetic alleles, individually and as a polygenic risk score (PRS), with retinal layer thicknesses. All analyses were adjusted for age, age-squared (age2), sex, smoking status, and principal components of ancestry. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalent and incident AMD. RESULTS: Photoreceptor segment (PS) thinning was observed throughout the lifespan of individuals analyzed, whereas retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and Bruch's membrane (BM) complex thickening started after 57 years of age. Each standard deviation (SD) of PS thinning and RPE-BM complex thickening was associated with incident AMD (PS: hazard ratio [HR], 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-1.47; P = 3.7 × 10-11; RPE-BM complex: HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06-1.22; P = 0.00024). The AMD PRS was associated with PS thinning (β, -0.21 SD per twofold genetically increased risk of AMD; 95% CI, -0.23 to -0.19; P = 2.8 × 10-74), and its association with RPE-BM complex was U-shaped (thinning with AMD PRS less than the 92nd percentile and thickening with AMD PRS more than the 92nd percentile). The loci with strongest support for genetic correlation were AMD risk-raising variants Complement Factor H (CFH):rs570618-T, CFH:rs10922109-C, and Age-Related Maculopathy Susceptibility 2 (ARMS2)/High-Temperature Requirement Serine Protease 1 (HTRA1):rs3750846-C on PS thinning and SYN3/Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloprotease 3 (TIMP3):rs5754227-T on RPE-BM complex thickening. CONCLUSIONS: Epidemiologically, PS thinning precedes RPE-BM complex thickening by decades and is the retinal layer most strongly predictive of future AMD risk. Genetically, AMD risk variants are associated with decreased PS thickness. Overall, these findings support PS thinning as an early-stage biomarker for future AMD development.
Chang TC, Celestin L, Hodapp EA, Grajewski AL, Junk A, Rothman AL, Duerr ERH, Swaminathan SS, Gedde SJ, Young TL, Wiggs J, Olivier MMG, Quintanilla R, Arrieta E, Savatovsky EJ, Vanner EA, Parrish RK. Glaucoma Cascade Screening in a High Risk Afro-Caribbean Haitian Population: A Pilot Study. J Glaucoma 2022;31(7):584-589.Abstract
PRCIS: Glaucoma cascade screening in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of young Haitian glaucoma patients had high yield for diagnosing manifest and suspected glaucoma in 30.8% of those screened despite modest participation. PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of glaucoma cascade screening in FDRs (parents, siblings, and offspring) of Haitian juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive index patients (Haitians with JOAG) were identified, and the number/type of FDRs residing in South Florida were recorded. These FDRs were invited for free glaucoma screening, which included a comprehensive ophthalmic exam, gonioscopy, automated visual field testing and optical coherence tomographic analysis of the retinal nerve fiber layers. FDR characteristics and clinical findings from screening are reported. RESULTS: A total of 77 FDRs were invited, 26 (33.8%) agreed to undergo screening (18 females, 9 males), which revealed 2 (7.7%) with manifest glaucoma (mean age 77.5 y; one of whom was previously unaware of his glaucoma diagnosis), 6 (23.1%) with suspected glaucoma (mean age 29.8±18.3 y), and 18 (69.2%) without manifest or suspected glaucoma (mean age 37.2±21.8 y). Siblings of index patients were least likely to participate in cascade glaucoma screening when compared with index patients' parents or offspring. FDR eyes with manifest glaucoma had significantly worse best-corrected visual acuities, higher intraocular pressures, thinner central corneal thicknesses, and thinner circumferential papillary retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses than those without glaucoma. CONCLUSION: Glaucoma cascade screening of Haitian JOAG patients' FDRs revealed that 30.8% had suspected or manifest glaucoma. Future efforts centered on provider-initiated recruitment and improving public glaucoma awareness and education may increase screening participation.
Armstrong GW, Miller JB. Telemedicine for the Diagnosis and Management of Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Review. J Clin Med 2022;11(3)Abstract
Use of ophthalmic telemedicine for patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD) has shown remarkable advances over recent years. The recent COVID pandemic accelerated this transition since in-person evaluation of elderly patients at high risk for advanced AMD and severe vision loss were also at higher risk for complications from COVID infection. To date, ophthalmic telemedicine has been successfully used in remote retinal consultation by general ophthalmologists for AMD management, hybrid testing visits with both in-office testing and remote evaluation, as well as early successes in home-based remote monitoring of patients with high-risk AMD. We therefore review the current literature and evidence base related to ophthalmic telemedicine for AMD.
Chen SP, Azad AD, Pershing S. Reply. Ophthalmology 2022;129(2):e33-e35.
Scelfo C, ElSheikh RH, Shamim MM, Abbasian J, Ghaffarieh A, Elhusseiny AM. Ocular Surface Disease in Glaucoma Patients. Curr Eye Res 2022;:1-36.Abstract
Over the last several years, several studies have demonstrated the changes to the ocular surface in the setting of glaucoma, the best tests for markers of dry eye, and how management can be altered to help address ocular surface disease routinely or in preparation for glaucoma surgery. This review aims to summarize the most recent studies in the literature regarding the ocular surface in glaucoma patients and treatment options aimed to reduce ocular surface disease in this population.
Maleki A, Colombo A, Manhapra A, Foster SC. Authors' response. Surv Ophthalmol 2022;67(3):880-882.
Lains I, Mendez KM, Gil JQ, Miller JB, Kelly RS, Barreto P, Kim IK, Vavvas DG, Murta JN, Liang L, Silva R, Miller JW, Lasky-Su J, Husain D. Urinary Mass Spectrometry Profiles in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. J Clin Med 2022;11(4)Abstract
We and others have shown that patients with different severity stages of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) have distinct plasma metabolomic profiles compared to controls. Urine is a biofluid that can be obtained non-invasively and, in other fields, urine metabolomics has been proposed as a feasible alternative to plasma biomarkers. However, no studies have applied urinary mass spectrometry (MS) metabolomics to AMD. This study aimed to assess urinary metabolomic profiles of patients with different stages of AMD and a control group. We included two prospectively designed, multicenter, cross-sectional study cohorts: Boston, US (n = 185) and Coimbra, Portugal (n = 299). We collected fasting urine samples, which were used for metabolomic profiling (Ultrahigh Performance Liquid chromatography-Mass Spectrometry). Multivariable logistic and ordinal logistic regression models were used for analysis, accounting for gender, age, body mass index and use of AREDS supplementation. Results from both cohorts were then meta-analyzed. No significant differences in urine metabolites were seen when comparing patients with AMD and controls. When disease severity was considered as an outcome, six urinary metabolites differed significantly (p < 0.01). In particular, two of the metabolites identified have been previously shown by our group to also differ in the plasma of patients of AMD compared to controls and across severity stages. While there are fewer urinary metabolites associated with AMD than plasma metabolites, this study identified some differences across stages of disease that support previous work performed with plasma, thus highlighting the potential of these metabolites as future biomarkers for AMD.
Beining MW, Magnø MS, Moschowits E, Olafsson J, Vehof J, Dartt DA, Utheim TP. In-office thermal systems for the treatment of dry eye disease. Surv Ophthalmol 2022;67(5):1405-1418.Abstract
Dry eye disease affects millions of people worldwide, causing pain, vision disturbance, and reduced productivity. Meibomian gland dysfunction, a major cause of dry eye, is characterized by chronic glandular inflammation, thickening of the meibum, obstruction of terminal ducts, and glandular atrophy. Treatment of meibomian gland dysfunction can utilize heat and pressure applied to the meibomian glands, increasing meibum expression. With self-treatments, however, not all patients achieve lasting improvement, and compliance is often low. In-office thermal systems offer a second line of treatment and could be a much-needed addition for patients who do not respond to conventional treatment. We critically evaluated the efficacy and safety of LipiFlow, iLux, and TearCare based on existing literature. While the studies found a single in-office thermal treatment to be safe and effective in improving short-term signs and symptoms in patients with dry eye, long-term efficacy needs to be further evaluated. Thus, well-controlled, long-term efficacy studies are warranted to draw clear conclusions. The treatment seemed to provide rapid relief of symptoms that may last up to 1 year, but at a considerably higher cost than the at-home treatments. The choice of treatment depends on cost, compliance with at-home treatment, and personal preference.
Huang S, Liu C-H, Wang Z, Fu Z, Britton WR, Blomfield AK, Kamenecka TM, Dunaief JL, Solt LA, Chen J. REV-ERBα regulates age-related and oxidative stress-induced degeneration in retinal pigment epithelium via NRF2. Redox Biol 2022;51:102261.Abstract
Retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) dysfunction and atrophy occur in dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD), often leading to photoreceptor degeneration and vision loss. Accumulated oxidative stress during aging contributes to RPE dysfunction and degeneration. Here we show that the nuclear receptor REV-ERBα, a redox sensitive transcription factor, protects RPE from age-related degeneration and oxidative stress-induced damage. Genetic deficiency of REV-ERBα leads to accumulated oxidative stress, dysfunction and degeneration of RPE, and AMD-like ocular pathologies in aging mice. Loss of REV-ERBα exacerbates chemical-induced RPE damage, and pharmacological activation of REV-ERBα protects RPE from oxidative damage both in vivo and in vitro. REV-ERBα directly regulates transcription of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and its downstream antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase to counter oxidative damage. Moreover, aged mice with RPE specific knockout of REV-ERBα also exhibit accumulated oxidative stress and fundus and RPE pathologies. Together, our results suggest that REV-ERBα is a novel intrinsic protector of the RPE against age-dependent oxidative stress and a new molecular target for developing potential therapies to treat age-related retinal degeneration.

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