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Sapieha P, Chen J, Stahl A, Seaward MR, Favazza TL, Juan AM, Hatton CJ, Joyal J-S, Krah NM, Dennison RJ, Tang J, Kern TS, Akula JD, Smith LEH. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids preserve retinal function in type 2 diabetic mice. Nutr Diabetes 2012;2:e36.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is associated with hyperglycemia-driven microvascular pathology and neuronal compromise in the retina. However, DR is also linked to dyslipidemia. As omega-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are protective in proliferative retinopathy, we investigated the capacity of ω-3PUFAs to preserve retinal function in a mouse model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). DESIGN: Male leptin-receptor-deficient (db/db) mice were maintained for 22 weeks (4 weeks-26 weeks of life) on calorically and compositionally matched diets, except for 2% enrichment in either ω-3 or ω-6PUFAs. Visual function was assessed at 9, 14 and 26 weeks by electroretinography. Retinal capillary and neuronal integrity, as well as glucose challenge responses, were assessed on each diet. RESULTS: The ω-3PUFA diet significantly preserved retinal function in the mouse model of T2DM to levels similar to those observed in nondiabetic control mice on normal chow. Conversely, retinal function gradually deteriorated in db/db mice on a ω-6PUFA-rich diet. There was also an enhanced ability of ω-3PUFA-fed mice to respond to glucose challenge. The protection of visual function appeared to be independent of cytoprotective or anti-inflammatory effects of ω-3PUFAs. CONCLUSION: This study identifies beneficial effects of dietary ω-3PUFAs on visual function in T2DM. The data are consistent with dyslipidemia negatively impacting retinal function. As ω-3PUFA lipid dietary interventions are readily available, safe and inexpensive, increasing ω-3PUFA intake in diabetic patients may slow the progression of vision loss in T2DM.
Kumar R, Dohlman CH, Chodosh J. Oral acetazolamide after Boston keratoprosthesis in Stevens-Johnson syndrome. BMC Res Notes 2012;5:205.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN) is a rare but severe and sometimes fatal condition associated with exposure to medications; sulfamethoxazole is among the most common causes. We sought to address the safety of acetazolamide, a chemically related compound, in patients with prior SJS/TEN and glaucoma. A retrospective case series is described of patients at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary who underwent keratoprosthesis surgery for corneal blindness from SJS/TEN, and later required oral acetazolamide for elevated intraocular pressure. FINDINGS: Over the last 10 years, 17 patients with SJS/TEN received a Boston keratoprosthesis. Of these, 11 developed elevated intraocular pressure that required administration of oral acetazolamide. One of 11 developed a mild allergic reaction, but no patient experienced a recurrence of SJS/TEN or any severe adverse reaction. CONCLUSION: Although an increase in the rate of recurrent SJS/TEN due to oral acetazolamide would not necessarily be apparent after treating only 11 patients, in our series, acetazolamide administration was well tolerated without serious sequela.
Ruan G-X, Kazlauskas A. Axl is essential for VEGF-A-dependent activation of PI3K/Akt. EMBO J 2012;31(7):1692-703.Abstract
Herein, we report that vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) engages the PI3K/Akt pathway by a previously unknown mechanism that involves three tyrosine kinases. Upon VEGF-A-dependent activation of VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), and subsequent TSAd-mediated activation of Src family kinases (SFKs), SFKs engage the receptor tyrosine kinase Axl via its juxtamembrane domain to trigger ligand-independent autophosphorylation at a pair of YXXM motifs that promotes association with PI3K and activation of Akt. Other VEGF-A-mediated signalling pathways are independent of Axl. Interfering with Axl expression or function impairs VEGF-A- but not bFGF-dependent migration of endothelial cells. Similarly, Axl null mice respond poorly to VEGF-A-induced vascular permeability or angiogenesis, whereas other agonists induce a normal response. These results elucidate the mechanism by which VEGF-A activates PI3K/Akt, and identify previously unappreciated potential therapeutic targets of VEGF-A-driven processes.
Kirzhner M, Jakobiec FA, Borodic G. Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma: report of a unique periocular case. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2012;28(5):e121-3.Abstract
In a 58-year-old woman with blepharospasm, a slowly enlarging left inferomedial eyelid lesion developed. It measured 3 × 5 mm and was nonulcerated, well-circumscribed, whitish, upraised, and firm. An initial incomplete excision followed by a total repeated excision revealed small squamous microcysts, often exhibiting calcifications and cords of nonclefting basaloid cells embedded in a scirrhous stroma characteristic of desmoplastic trichoepithelioma (DTE). Immunohistochemical investigations disclosed CD34-positive stromal fibroblasts and many CK20-positive Merkel cells located among the epithelial cells, features absent in mimicking sclerosing basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The tumor has not recurred during 6 months of follow up. Besides BCC, the differential diagnosis chiefly concerns syringoma and microcystic adnexal carcinoma. Surgical therapy should aim at complete excision but does not have to be as extensive or aggressive as that used for morpheic or sclerosing BCC because of its lack of diffusely infiltrating margins.
Qu J, Matsouaka R, Betensky RA, Hyman BT, Grosskreutz CL. Calcineurin activation causes retinal ganglion cell degeneration. Mol Vis 2012;18:2828-38.Abstract
PURPOSE: We previously reported that calcineurin, a Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine phosphatase, is activated and proposed that it participates in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) apoptosis in two rodent ocular hypertension models. In this study, we tested whether calcineurin activation by itself, even in the absence of ocular hypertension, is sufficient to cause RGC degeneration. METHODS: We compared RGC and optic nerve morphology after adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2)-mediated transduction of RGCs with constitutively active calcineurin (CaNCA) or unactivated, wild-type calcineurin (CaNwt). Retinas and optic nerves were harvested 7-16 weeks after injection of the AAV into mouse vitreous. In flatmounted retinas, the transduced RGCs were identified with immunohistochemistry. The morphology of the RGCs was revealed by immunostaining for neurofilament SMI32 or by using GFP-M transgenic mice. A modified Sholl analysis was applied to analyze the RGC dendritic morphology. Optic nerve damage was assessed with optic nerve grading according to the Morrison standard. RESULTS: CaNwt and CaNCA were highly expressed in the injected eyes. Compared to the CaNwt-expressing RGCs, the CaNCA-expressing RGCs had smaller somas, smaller dendritic field areas, shorter total dendrite lengths, and simpler dendritic branching patterns. At 16 weeks, the CaNCA-expressing eyes had greater optic nerve damage than the CaNwt-expressing eyes. CONCLUSIONS: Calcineurin activation is sufficient to cause RGC dendritic degeneration and optic nerve damage. These data support the hypothesis that calcineurin activation is an important mediator of RGC degeneration, and are consistent with the hypothesis that calcineurin activation may contribute to RGC neurodegeneration in glaucoma.
Pemberton JD, Fay A. Idiopathic sclerosing orbital inflammation: a review of demographics, clinical presentation, imaging, pathology, treatment, and outcome. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2012;28(1):79-83.Abstract
PURPOSE: To characterize clinical features, diagnostics studies, treatments, and outcomes of patients with histologically proven idiopathic sclerosing orbital inflammation (ISOI), to define optimal management for this recalcitrant disease, and to determine changes in characterization and management by comparing our results with the last significant literature review. METHODS: A search of the U.S. National Library of Medicine: National Institutes of Health's electronic database for cases and case series in the English literature of biopsy-proven ISOI published between March 1994 and September 2010 was conducted. A cross-literature review was performed to tabulate demographics, clinical findings, studies, treatments, and outcomes, which were compared with the ISOI data published by Rootman et al. (1994). RESULTS: Sixty-one cases, 71 eyes from 17 published reports, met inclusion criteria. No ethnic, sex, or comorbidity predilection was established. Patients typically presented in the fourth decade with proptosis (73%), pain (49%), and normal vision (44%). Orbital imaging and histopathology were sparsely reported. Most common treatments involved systemic corticosteroids either alone (34%) or combined with other modalities (51%). CONCLUSIONS: Characteristics of the disease remain unchanged, and best management was not determined due to inconsistent reporting methods across the literature. Collaboration with established groups (i.e., European Group On Graves Orbitopathy (EUGOGO), International Thyroid Eye Disease Society (ITEDS)) or the formation of a new group of physicians and scientists to help develop a systematic approach for future reporting and evaluation was proposed.
Moysidis SN, Thanos A, Vavvas DG. Mechanisms of inflammation in proliferative vitreoretinopathy: from bench to bedside. Mediators Inflamm 2012;2012:815937.Abstract
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a vision-threatening disease and a common complication of surgery to correct rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Several models of the pathogenesis of this disease have been described with some of these models focusing on the role of inflammatory cells and other models focusing on the role of growth factors and cytokines in the vitreous which come into contact with intraretinal and retinal pigment epithelial cells. New experiments have shed light on the pathogenesis of PVR and offer promising avenues for clinical intervention before PVR develops. One such target is the indirect pathway of activation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGRα), which plays an important role in PVR. Clinical trials assessing the efficacy of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) and low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH), daunorubicin, and 13-cis-retinoic acid, among other therapies, have yielded mixed results. Here we review inflammatory and other mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of PVR, we highlight important clinical trials, and we discuss how findings at the bench have the potential to be translated to the bedside.
Makino CL, Wen X-H, Olshevskaya EV, Peshenko IV, Savchenko AB, Dizhoor AM. Enzymatic relay mechanism stimulates cyclic GMP synthesis in rod photoresponse: biochemical and physiological study in guanylyl cyclase activating protein 1 knockout mice. PLoS One 2012;7(10):e47637.Abstract
Regulation of cGMP synthesis by retinal membrane guanylyl cyclase isozymes (RetGC1 and RetGC2) in rod and cone photoreceptors by calcium-sensitive guanylyl cyclase activating proteins (GCAP1 and GCAP2) is one of the key molecular mechanisms affecting the response to light and is involved in congenital retinal diseases. The objective of this study was to identify the physiological sequence of events underlying RetGC activation in vivo, by studying the electrophysiological and biochemical properties of mouse rods in a new genetic model lacking GCAP1. The GCAP1(-/-) retinas expressed normal levels of RetGC isozymes and other phototransduction proteins, with the exception of GCAP2, whose expression was elevated in a compensatory fashion. RetGC activity in GCAP1(-/-) retinas became more sensitive to Ca(2+) and slightly increased. The bright flash response in electroretinogram (ERG) recordings recovered quickly in GCAP1(-/-), as well as in RetGC1(-/-)GCAP1(-/-), and RetGC2(-/-)GCAP1(-/-) hybrid rods, indicating that GCAP2 activates both RetGC isozymes in vivo. Individual GCAP1(-/-) rod responses varied in size and shape, likely reflecting variable endogenous GCAP2 levels between different cells, but single-photon response (SPR) amplitude and time-to-peak were typically increased, while recovery kinetics remained faster than in wild type. Recovery from bright flashes in GCAP1(-/-) was prominently biphasic, because rare, aberrant SPRs producing the slower tail component were magnified. These data provide strong physiological evidence that rod photoresponse recovery is shaped by the sequential recruitment of RetGC isozyme activation by GCAPs according to the different GCAP sensitivities for Ca(2+) and specificities toward RetGC isozymes. GCAP1 is the 'first-response' sensor protein that stimulates RetGC1 early in the response and thus limits the SPR amplitude, followed by activation of GCAP2 that adds stimulation of both RetGC1 and RetGC2 to speed-up photoreceptor recovery.
Schmedt T, Chen Y, Nguyen TT, Li S, Bonanno JA, Jurkunas UV. Telomerase immortalization of human corneal endothelial cells yields functional hexagonal monolayers. PLoS One 2012;7(12):e51427.Abstract
Human corneal endothelial cells (HCEnCs) form a monolayer of hexagonal cells whose main function is to maintain corneal clarity by regulating corneal hydration. HCEnCs are derived from neural crest and are arrested in the post-mitotic state. Thus cell loss due to aging or corneal endothelial disorders leads to corneal edema and blindness-the leading indication for corneal transplantation. Here we show the existence of morphologically distinct subpopulations of HCEnCs that are interspersed among primary cells and exhibit enhanced self-renewal competence and lack of phenotypic signs of cellular senescence. Colonies of these uniform and hexagonal HCEnCs (HCEnC-21) were selectively isolated and demonstrated high proliferative potential that was dependent on endogenous upregulation of telomerase and cyclin D/CDK4. Further transduction of HCEnC-21 with telomerase yielded a highly proliferative corneal endothelial cell line (HCEnT-21T) that was devoid of oncogenic transformation and retained critical corneal endothelial cell characteristics and functionality. This study will significantly impact the fields of corneal cell biology and regenerative medicine.
Lan Y, Kodati S, Lee HS, Omoto M, Jin Y, Chauhan SK. Kinetics and function of mesenchymal stem cells in corneal injury. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2012;53(7):3638-44.Abstract
PURPOSE: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) hold great promise for wound healing and tissue regeneration. In the present study, we investigated the impact of corneal injury on the homeostasis of endogenous MSCs, and the potential of MSCs to home to injured tissue and promote corneal repair. METHODS: Corneal injury in mice was induced by thermal cauterization. Circulating MSCs were quantified by flow cytometric analysis. Ex vivo expanded red Q-dot-labeled or GFP+ bone marrow-derived MSCs were intravenously injected after injury and detected using epifluorescence microscopy. Corneal fluorescein staining was performed to evaluate epithelial regeneration. RESULTS: Following the induction of corneal injury in mice, a 2-fold increase in the frequency of circulating endogenous MSCs was observed within 48 hours of injury, which was accompanied by increased levels of the stem cell chemoattractants, substance P and SDF-1, in both the injured cornea and blood. Systemically administered MSCs homed to the injured cornea, but not to the normal cornea, and showed long-term survival. In addition, in the setting of corneal injury, MSC administration showed significant and rapid corneal epithelial regeneration. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide novel evidence that corneal injury causes significant mobilization of endogenous MSCs into blood, and that MSCs home specifically to the injured cornea and promote regeneration, highlighting the therapeutic implications of MSC-mediated tissue repair in corneal injury.
Sadaka A, Giuliari GP. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy: current and emerging treatments. Clin Ophthalmol 2012;6:1325-33.Abstract
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy is a disease process that follows the proliferation of ectopic cell sheets in the vitreous and/or periretinal area, causing periretinal membrane formation and traction, in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. Currently, vitreous surgery is the standard treatment; however, the results aren't satisfactory given the vision loss that ensues and that redetachment is relatively common. It is becoming clearer that there exists an interplay between various cytokines/growth factors, matrix proteins, and the different cell types that drive the undesirable formation of periretinal membranes. This fundamental understanding is aiding in identifying different adjunct agents that can block the cellular events intrinsic to proliferative vitreoretinopathy. In this review, we describe the current understanding on the pathogenesis and discuss how the fundamental understanding of the biochemical/molecular events is instrumental in developing the novel treatment strategies that are also highlighted.
Kos VN, Desjardins CA, Griggs A, Cerqueira G, Van Tonder A, Holden MTG, Godfrey P, Palmer KL, Bodi K, Mongodin EF, Wortman J, Feldgarden M, Lawley T, Gill SR, Haas BJ, Birren B, Gilmore MS. Comparative genomics of vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains and their positions within the clade most commonly associated with Methicillin-resistant S. aureus hospital-acquired infection in the United States. MBio 2012;3(3)Abstract
UNLABELLED: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains are leading causes of hospital-acquired infections in the United States, and clonal cluster 5 (CC5) is the predominant lineage responsible for these infections. Since 2002, there have been 12 cases of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) infection in the United States-all CC5 strains. To understand this genetic background and what distinguishes it from other lineages, we generated and analyzed high-quality draft genome sequences for all available VRSA strains. Sequence comparisons show unambiguously that each strain independently acquired Tn1546 and that all VRSA strains last shared a common ancestor over 50 years ago, well before the occurrence of vancomycin resistance in this species. In contrast to existing hypotheses on what predisposes this lineage to acquire Tn1546, the barrier posed by restriction systems appears to be intact in most VRSA strains. However, VRSA (and other CC5) strains were found to possess a constellation of traits that appears to be optimized for proliferation in precisely the types of polymicrobic infection where transfer could occur. They lack a bacteriocin operon that would be predicted to limit the occurrence of non-CC5 strains in mixed infection and harbor a cluster of unique superantigens and lipoproteins to confound host immunity. A frameshift in dprA, which in other microbes influences uptake of foreign DNA, may also make this lineage conducive to foreign DNA acquisition. IMPORTANCE: Invasive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infection now ranks among the leading causes of death in the United States. Vancomycin is a key last-line bactericidal drug for treating these infections. However, since 2002, vancomycin resistance has entered this species. Of the now 12 cases of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), each was believed to represent a new acquisition of the vancomycin-resistant transposon Tn1546 from enterococcal donors. All acquisitions of Tn1546 so far have occurred in MRSA strains of the clonal cluster 5 genetic background, the most common hospital lineage causing hospital-acquired MRSA infection. To understand the nature of these strains, we determined and examined the nucleotide sequences of the genomes of all available VRSA. Genome comparison identified candidate features that position strains of this lineage well for acquiring resistance to antibiotics in mixed infection.
Rankin JK, Jakobiec FA, Zakka FR, Foster SC. An improved approach to diagnosing and treating conjunctival mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Surv Ophthalmol 2012;57(4):337-46.Abstract
The current case of conjunctival mucoepidermoid carcinoma offers features that expand the biologic spectrum afforded by this tumor. More focused strategies should be developed for its earlier histopathologic diagnosis and improved management (historical recurrence rate of 85%). A 63-year-old woman with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and idiopathic sclerosing cholangitis developed scleral thinning, anterior chamber cells and flare, and uveal prolapse. Biopsies of the epibulbar lesion were initially misinterpreted as a squamous cell carcinoma but on review harbored CK7-positive cells and contained rare goblet cells brought out with Alcian blue and mucicarmine staining. Intraocular extension exhibited micro-and macrocysts with minimal goblet cells. Focal CK7 immunopositivity in any epibulbar squamous dysplasia or in invasive carcinoma should lead to suspicion of a mucoepidermoid carcinoma. Behaviorally aggressive or rapidly recurrent epithelial squamous tumors with "inflammatory" features or unusual clinical characteristics should be initially stained at multiple levels for the detection of parsimonious mucus secretion. Surgical options include wide excision and partial sclerectomy with cryotherapy for superficial invasion and/or interferon therapy. Results with radiotherapy and cryotherapy for deep scleral invasion have been unpredictable or unacceptable compared with surgery.
Perry LPJ. The evaluation of patients with traumatic cataracts by ultrasound technologies. Semin Ophthalmol 2012;27(5-6):121-4.Abstract
Surgery for traumatic cataracts is a potentially complex procedure. Clinically, traumatic cataracts may be difficult to thoroughly assess due to the presence of other significant ocular damage including corneal scars, posterior synechiae, and vitreous hemorrhage. Frequently, surgery involves surprises regarding the integrity of the posterior capsule and zonular structure. Careful ophthalmic imaging using ultrasound technologies may result in finer pre-operative detail regarding lens support structures, and may therefore give the surgeon the advantage when planning surgery. Imaging techniques most applicable to pre-operative evaluation include B scan ultrasound, 20MHz ultrasound, and ultrasound biomicroscopy. Important modifications to technique that can be made depending on the integrity of lens support structures include adjustment of wound location, adjustment in the technique for cataract removal, and possible use of a capsular tension ring.

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