Neerukonda VK, Kim IK, Stagner AM. Primary vitreoretinal involvement and immunopositivity for BRAFV600E help distinguish metastatic from primary intraocular melanoma: a detailed histopathologic study of metastatic cutaneous melanoma to the eye. Histopathology 2022;80(7):1061-1070.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the clinicopathologic characteristics of metastatic cutaneous melanoma to the eye and identify potential distinguishing characteristics from the more common primary uveal melanoma; particularly, tumour location within the eye, cytomorphology and immunohistochemical/specific molecular genetic features. METHODS: A retrospective observational case series using surgical enucleation and diagnostic vitrectomy cytologic specimens from seven patients with suspected intraocular melanoma, eventually diagnosed as metastatic melanoma, was conducted. Haematoxylin and eosin-stained sections of tumour and immunohistochemical (IHC) stains for BRAFV600E and Ki-67 were critically reviewed; BAP1 IHC was also evaluated in cases where additional tissue was available. Clinical imaging studies and medical records were reviewed. RESULTS: The majority of patients (86%) with metastatic melanoma have primary vitreoretinal (not uveal) involvement and epithelioid, highly malignant cytomorphology (100%); many (50%) harbour BRAFV600E mutations, a finding not seen in large cohorts of primary uveal melanoma. CONCLUSIONS: Characteristics favouring or defining metastatic intraocular melanoma over primary uveal melanoma include high-grade epithelioid cytology, predominant involvement of the vitreous cavity and/or retina, and presence of positive immunostaining for BRAFV600E.
Zheng J, Schjetnan AGP, Yebra M, Gomes BA, Mosher CP, Kalia SK, Valiante TA, Mamelak AN, Kreiman G, Rutishauser U. Neurons detect cognitive boundaries to structure episodic memories in humans. Nat Neurosci 2022;25(3):358-368.Abstract
While experience is continuous, memories are organized as discrete events. Cognitive boundaries are thought to segment experience and structure memory, but how this process is implemented remains unclear. We recorded the activity of single neurons in the human medial temporal lobe (MTL) during the formation and retrieval of memories with complex narratives. Here, we show that neurons responded to abstract cognitive boundaries between different episodes. Boundary-induced neural state changes during encoding predicted subsequent recognition accuracy but impaired event order memory, mirroring a fundamental behavioral tradeoff between content and time memory. Furthermore, the neural state following boundaries was reinstated during both successful retrieval and false memories. These findings reveal a neuronal substrate for detecting cognitive boundaries that transform experience into mnemonic episodes and structure mental time travel during retrieval.
Guo X, Shakarchi AF, Block SS, Friedman DS, Repka MX, Collins ME. Noncycloplegic Compared with Cycloplegic Refraction in a Chicago School-Aged Population. Ophthalmology 2022;129(7):813-820.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate differences between autorefraction measurements with and without cycloplegia among school-aged individuals and to explore factors associated with significant differences. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, retrospective study. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals between 3 and 22 years of age evaluated at the Illinois College of Optometry from September 2016 through June 2019 who underwent same-day noncycloplegic and cycloplegic autorefraction of the right eye. METHODS: Demographic information including age, sex, and race or ethnicity were collected during the eye examination. Autorefraction was performed before and after cycloplegia. Myopia, defined as at least -0.50 diopter (D) spherical equivalent (SE), hyperopia, defined as at least +0.50 D SE, and astigmatism of at least 1.00 D cylinder were determined using noncycloplegic and cycloplegic autorefractions. Factors associated with at least 1.00 D more myopic SE or at least 0.75 D cylindrical difference by noncycloplegic autorefraction were assessed using logistic regression models. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Differences between noncycloplegic and cycloplegic autorefraction measurements. RESULTS: The mean age was 10.8 ± 4.0 years for the 11 119 individuals; 52.4% of participants were female. Noncycloplegic SE measured 0.65 ± 1.04 D more myopic than cycloplegic SE. After adjusting for demographic factors and refractive error, individuals with at least 1.00 D of more myopic SE refraction by noncycloplegic autorefraction (25.9%) were more likely to be younger than 5 years (odds ratio [OR], 1.45; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18-1.79) and 5 to younger than 10 years (OR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.18-1.48) than those 10 to younger than 15 years. This difference of at least 1.00 D of more myopic SE was more likely to be observed in Hispanic people (OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.10-1.36) and those with hyperopia (OR range, 4.20-13.31). Individuals with 0.75 D or more of cylindrical difference (5.1%) between refractions were more likely to be younger than 5 years, to be male, and to have mild-moderate-high myopia or moderate-high hyperopia. CONCLUSIONS: Three quarters of school-aged individuals had < 1 D of myopic SE difference using noncycloplegic compared with cycloplegic autorefraction. Understanding measurement differences obtained for refractive error and associated factors may provide useful information for future studies or programs involving refraction in school-aged children.
Nigalye AK, Hess K, Pundlik SJ, Jeffrey BG, Cukras CA, Husain D. Dark Adaptation and Its Role in Age-Related Macular Degeneration. J Clin Med 2022;11(5)Abstract
Dark adaptation (DA) refers to the slow recovery of visual sensitivity in darkness following exposure to intense or prolonged illumination, which bleaches a significant amount of the rhodopsin. This natural process also offers an opportunity to understand cellular function in the outer retina and evaluate for presence of disease. How our eyes adapt to darkness can be a key indicator of retinal health, which can be altered in the presence of certain diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). A specific focus on clinical aspects of DA measurement and its significance to furthering our understanding of AMD has revealed essential findings underlying the pathobiology of the disease. The process of dark adaptation involves phototransduction taking place mainly between the photoreceptor outer segments and the retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) layer. DA occurs over a large range of luminance and is modulated by both cone and rod photoreceptors. In the photopic ranges, rods are saturated and cone cells adapt to the high luminance levels. However, under scotopic ranges, cones are unable to respond to the dim luminance and rods modulate the responses to lower levels of light as they can respond to even a single photon. Since the cone visual cycle is also based on the Muller cells, measuring the impairment in rod-based dark adaptation is thought to be particularly relevant to diseases such as AMD, which involves both photoreceptors and RPE. Dark adaptation parameters are metrics derived from curve-fitting dark adaptation sensitivities over time and can represent specific cellular function. Parameters such as the cone-rod break (CRB) and rod intercept time (RIT) are particularly sensitive to changes in the outer retina. There is some structural and functional continuum between normal aging and the AMD pathology. Many studies have shown an increase of the rod intercept time (RIT), i.e., delays in rod-mediated DA in AMD patients with increasing disease severity determined by increased drusen grade, pigment changes and the presence of subretinal drusenoid deposits (SDD) and association with certain morphological features in the peripheral retina. Specifications of spatial testing location, repeatability of the testing, ease and availability of the testing device in clinical settings, and test duration in elderly population are also important. We provide a detailed overview in light of all these factors.
PURPOSE: Evaluate association of retinal nonperfusion (NP) on ultrawide field (UWF) fluorescein angiography (FA) with diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity and predominantly peripheral lesions (PPL). METHODS: Multicenter observational study, 652 eyes (361 participants) having nonproliferative DR (NPDR) without center-involved diabetic macular edema in at least one eye. Baseline 200° UWF-color and UWF-FA images were graded by a central reading center for color-PPL and FA-PPL, respectively. UWF-FA was graded for NP index within concentric zones: posterior pole (<10 mm from fovea), midperiphery (10-15 mm), and far periphery (>15 mm). RESULTS: Baseline Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study DR severity was 31.7% no DR/mild NPDR, 24.1% moderate NPDR, 14.0% moderately severe NPDR, 25.6% severe/very severe NPDR, and 4.6% proliferative DR. Worse DR severity was associated with increased NP index overall (P = 0.002), in the posterior pole (P < 0.001), midperiphery (P < 0.001), and far periphery (P = 0.03). On average, 29.6% of imaged retinal NP was in the posterior pole, 33.7% in midperiphery, and 36.7% in far periphery. Increased NP index was associated with FA-PPL (P < 0.001) but not with color-PPL (P = 0.65). CONCLUSION: Approximately, 70% of NP in diabetic eyes is located outside the posterior pole. Increased NP is associated with the presence of FA-PPL, suggesting UWF-FA may better predict future DR worsening than UWF-color alone.
Deffler RA, Xu J, Bittner AK, Bowers AR, Hassan SE, Ross N, Cooley S-SL, Doubt A, Davidorf FH, Dougherty BE, Dougherty BE. Use and Perceptions of Advanced Driver Assistance Systems by Older Drivers With and Without Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2022;11(3):22.Abstract
Purpose: Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have been reported to improve the safety of elderly and normally sighted drivers. The purpose of this study was to assess exposure to, perceived safety of, comfort level with, and interest in using ADAS among drivers with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: Current drivers aged 60+ years were recruited at four US sites to complete a survey about ADAS and driving habits. Frequency of use and/or perceptions of eight ADAS were investigated. An avoidance score was generated using questions about difficult driving situations. Results: The survey was completed by 166 participants (80 with AMD vs. 86 without). Participants with AMD had worse self-rated vision than those without (34% vs. 2% poor or fair rating), and drove fewer weekly miles (median [interquartile range [IQR] 30 [15 to 75] vs. 60 [30 to 121] miles, P = 0.002). Participants with AMD reported more avoidance of difficult driving situations (P < 0.001). There was no difference in the number of ADAS used by AMD status (median [IQR for AMD = 2.5 [1 to 5] vs. 3 [2 to 4] without, P = 0.87). Greater reported number of ADAS used was associated with less avoidance of difficult situations (P = 0.02). The majority perceived improved safety with most ADAS. Conclusions: Many drivers with AMD utilize common ADAS, which subjectively improve their road safety and may help to reduce self-imposed restrictions for difficult situations and mileage. Translational Relevance: Drivers with AMD are adopting readily available ADAS, for which they reported potential benefits, such as safety and less restrictive driving.
Zeng R, Garg I, Miller JB. Complete Resolution of Central Soft Drusen without Geographic Atrophy or Choroidal Neovascularization. J Clin Med 2022;11(6)Abstract
The treatment and prevention of dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD) traditionally involve lifestyle modifications and antioxidant supplementation, including the AREDS2 formula. We present a case of a woman with dry AMD in her right eye with several large, confluent central drusen on her exam and optical coherence tomography B-scan. Over the course of a year, the drusen almost completely disappeared, but the retinal layers were preserved without the development of geographic atrophy or choroidal neovascularization. While the exact cause of this phenomenon is unclear, it was thought to be associated with this patient's strict daily use of numerous dietary supplements. This case highlights the potential in exploring alternative medicine supplements in the treatment of AMD.
Andre C, Rouhana J, de Mello SS, da Cunha GR, Van Camp AG, Gilmore MS, Bispo PJM. Population structure of ocular Streptococcus pneumoniae is highly diverse and formed by lineages that escape current vaccines. Microb Genom 2022;8(3)Abstract
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of ocular infections including serious and sight-threatening conditions. The use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) has substantially reduced the incidence of pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal diseases, but has had limited impact on ocular infections. Additionally, widespread vaccine use has resulted in ongoing selective pressure and serotype replacement in carriage and disease. To gain insight into the population structure of pneumococcal isolates causing ocular infections in a post-PCV-13 time period, we investigated the genomic epidemiology of ocular S. pneumoniae isolates (n=45) collected at Massachusetts Eye and Ear between 2014 and 2017. By performing a series of molecular typing methods from draft genomes, we found that the population structure of ocular S. pneumoniae is highly diverse with 27 sequence types (grouped into 18 clonal complexes) and 17 serotypes being identified. Distribution of these lineages diverged according to the site of isolation, with conjunctivitis being commonly caused by isolates grouped in the Epidemic Conjunctivitis Cluster-ECC (60 %), and ST448 (53.3 %) being most frequently identified. Conversely, S. pneumoniae keratitis cases were caused by a highly diverse population of isolates grouping within 15 different clonal complexes. Serotyping inference demonstrated that 95.5 % of the isolates were non-PCV-13 vaccine types. Most of the conjunctivitis isolates (80 %) were unencapsulated, with the remaining belonging to serotypes 15B, 3 and 23B. On the other hand, S. pneumoniae causing keratitis were predominantly encapsulated (95.2 %) with 13 different serotypes identified, mostly being non-vaccine types. Carriage of macrolide resistance genes was common in our ocular S. pneumoniae population (42.2 %), and usually associated with the mefA +msrD genotype (n=15). These genes were located in the Macrolide Efflux Genetic Assembly cassette and were associated with low-level in vitro resistance to 14- and 15-membered macrolides. Less frequently, macrolide-resistant isolates carried an ermB gene (n=4), which was co-located with the tetM gene in a Tn-916-like transposon. Our study demonstrates that the population structure of ocular S. pneumoniae is highly diverse, mainly composed by isolates that escape the PCV-13 vaccine, with patterns of tissue/niche segregation, adaptation and specialization. These findings suggest that the population structure of ocular pneumococcus may be shaped by multiple factors including PCV-13 selective pressure, microbial-related and niche-specific host-associated features.
Maleki A, Look-Why S, Manhapra A, Asgari S, Garcia CM, Al-Dabbagh A, Tsang C, Chang PY, Anesi SD, Foster SC. Birdshot Chorioretinopathy: Resistant versus Responsive. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2022;:1-6.Abstract
PURPOSE: To search findings that can explain the heterogeneity between Resistant and Responsive patients with birdshot chorioretinopathy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective observational case series on "Responsive" versus "Resistant" birdshot chorioretinopathy. RESULTS: One-hundred-eighty and Ninety-nine patients were included in the Responsive and Resistant groups respectively. Multivariate analysis of paraclinical variables at the first visit demonstrated that mean deviation (p = .04), pattern standard deviation (p < .001), optic nerve head leakage (p = .012), large vessel leakage and staining (p = .01), and macular small vessel leakage (p = .03) were statistically significantly different between the two groups; however, at the visit preceding successful therapy, only macular small vessel leakage (p = .01) was statistically significantly different between the two groups. CONCLUSION: .Small vessel leakage in the macular area and/or optic nerve head leakage at the earliest visit might be risk factors for resistant birdshot chorioretinopathy.
Wareham LK, Liddelow SA, Temple S, Benowitz LI, Di Polo A, Wellington C, Goldberg JL, He Z, Duan X, Bu G, Davis AA, Shekhar K, Torre AL, Chan DC, Canto-Soler VM, Flanagan JG, Subramanian P, Rossi S, Brunner T, Bovenkamp DE, Calkins DJ. Solving neurodegeneration: common mechanisms and strategies for new treatments. Mol Neurodegener 2022;17(1):23.Abstract
Across neurodegenerative diseases, common mechanisms may reveal novel therapeutic targets based on neuronal protection, repair, or regeneration, independent of etiology or site of disease pathology. To address these mechanisms and discuss emerging treatments, in April, 2021, Glaucoma Research Foundation, BrightFocus Foundation, and the Melza M. and Frank Theodore Barr Foundation collaborated to bring together key opinion leaders and experts in the field of neurodegenerative disease for a virtual meeting titled "Solving Neurodegeneration". This "think-tank" style meeting focused on uncovering common mechanistic roots of neurodegenerative disease and promising targets for new treatments, catalyzed by the goal of finding new treatments for glaucoma, the world's leading cause of irreversible blindness and the common interest of the three hosting foundations. Glaucoma, which causes vision loss through degeneration of the optic nerve, likely shares early cellular and molecular events with other neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system. Here we discuss major areas of mechanistic overlap between neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system: neuroinflammation, bioenergetics and metabolism, genetic contributions, and neurovascular interactions. We summarize important discussion points with emphasis on the research areas that are most innovative and promising in the treatment of neurodegeneration yet require further development. The research that is highlighted provides unique opportunities for collaboration that will lead to efforts in preventing neurodegeneration and ultimately vision loss.
Peng C, Kuang L, Zhao J, Ross AE, Wang Z, Ciolino JB. Bibliometric and visualized analysis of ocular drug delivery from 2001 to 2020. J Control Release 2022;345:625-645.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To perform a bibliometric analysis in the field of ocular drug delivery research to characterize the current international trends and to present visual representations of the past and emerging trends on ocular drug delivery research over the past decade. METHOD: In this cross-sectional study, a bibliometric analysis of data retrieved and extracted from the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) database was performed to analyze evolution and theme trends on ocular drug delivery research from January 1, 2001, to December 31, 2020. A total of 4334 articles on ocular drug delivery were evaluated for specific characteristics, such as publication year, journals, authors, institutions, countries/regions, references, and keywords. Co-authorship analysis, co-occurrence analysis, co-citation analysis, and network visualization were constructed by VOSviewer. Some important subtopics identified by bibliometric characterization were further discussed and reviewed. RESULTS: From 2001 to 2020, the annual global publications increased by 746.15%, from 52 to 440. International Journal of Pharmaceutics published the most manuscripts (250 publications) and produced the highest citations (9509 citations), followed by Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science (202 publications) and Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics (136 publications). The United States (1289 publications, 31,512 citations), the University of Florida (82 publications, 2986 citations), and Chauhan, Anuj (52 publications, 2354 citations) were the most productive and impactful institution, country, and author respectively. The co-occurrence cluster analysis of the top 100 keywords form five clusters: (1) micro/nano ocular drug delivery systems; (2) the treatment of inflammation and posterior diseases; (3) macroscopic ocular drug delivery systems/devices; (4) the characteristics of drug delivery systems; (5) and the ocular drug delivery for glaucoma treatment. Diabetic macular edema, anti-VEGF, ranibizumab, bevacizumab, micelles and latanoprost, were the latest high-frequency keywords, indicating the emerging frontiers of ocular drug delivery. Further discussions into the subtopics were provided to assist researchers to determine the range of research topics and plan research direction. CONCLUSIONS: Over the last two decades there has been a progressive increase in the number of publications and citations on research related to ocular drug delivery across many countries, institutions, and authors. The present study sheds light on current trends, global collaboration patterns, basic knowledge, research hotspots, and emerging frontiers of ocular drug delivery. Novel solutions for ocular drug delivery and the treatment of inflammation and posterior diseases were the major themes over the last 20 years.
Rhee JY, Torun N, Neilan TG, Guidon AC. Consider Myocarditis When Patients Treated with Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors Present with Ocular Symptoms. Oncologist 2022;Abstract
Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) have been associated with neurological immune related adverse events (irAE-N) and patients with ICI toxicity may present with neurological or ocular symptoms. Furthermore, patients on ICI may initially present to oncology or neurology. We report a case series of 3 patients treated with ICIs presenting with diplopia or ptosis, found to have concurrent myocarditis in addition to immune-related myopathy (irMyopathy) or myasthenia gravis (irMG). None of the patients described cardiac symptoms, underscoring the importance of screening for myocarditis in patients presenting with diplopia and/or other neuromuscular symptoms which may suggest either irMyopathy or irMG.
Yang L, Xiao A, Li Q-Y, Zhong H-F, Su T, Shi W-Q, Ying P, Liang R-B, Xu S-H, Shao Y, Zhou Q. Hyperintensities of middle frontal gyrus in patients with diabetic optic neuropathy: a dynamic amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation study. Aging (Albany NY) 2022;14(3):1336-1350.Abstract
Diabetic optic neuropathy (DON) is a diverse complication of diabetes and its pathogenesis has not been fully elucidated. The purpose of this study was to explore dynamic cerebral activity changes in DON patients using dynamic amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (dALFF). In total, 22 DON patients and 22 healthy controls were enrolled. The dALFF approach was used in all participants to investigate dynamic intrinsic brain activity differences between the two groups. Compared with HCs, DON patients exhibited significantly increased dALFF variability in the right middle frontal gyrus (P < 0.01). Conversely, DON patients exhibited obviously decreased dALFF variability in the right precuneus (P < 0.01). We also found that there were significant negative correlations between HADS scores and dALFF values of the right middle frontal gyrus in the DON patients (r = -0.6404, P <0.01 for anxiety and r = -0.6346, P <0.01 for depression; HADS, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Abnormal variability of dALFF was observed in specific areas of the cerebrum in DON patients, which may contribute to distinguishing patients with DON from HCs and a better understanding of DON, hyperintensities of right middle frontal gyrus may be potential diagnostic marker for DON.