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Silva PS, Cavallerano JD, Sun JK, Soliman AZ, Aiello LM, Aiello LP. Peripheral lesions identified by mydriatic ultrawide field imaging: distribution and potential impact on diabetic retinopathy severity. Ophthalmology 2013;120(12):2587-2595.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To assess diabetic retinopathy (DR) as determined by lesions identified using mydriatic ultrawide field imaging (DiSLO200; Optos plc, Scotland, UK) compared with Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) 7-standard field film photography. DESIGN: Prospective comparative study of DiSLO200, ETDRS 7-standard field film photographs, and dilated fundus examination (DFE). PARTICIPANTS: A total of 206 eyes of 103 diabetic patients selected to represent all levels of DR. METHODS: Subjects had DiSLO200, ETDRS 7-standard field film photographs, and DFE. Images were graded for severity and distribution of DR lesions. Discrepancies were adjudicated, and images were compared side by side. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Distribution of hemorrhage and/or microaneurysm (H/Ma), venous beading (VB), intraretinal microvascular abnormality (IRMA), and new vessels elsewhere (NVE). Kappa (κ) and weighted κ statistics for agreement. RESULTS: The distribution of DR severity by ETDRS 7-standard field film photographs was no DR 12.5%; nonproliferative DR mild 22.5%, moderate 30%, and severe/very severe 8%; and proliferative DR 27%. Diabetic retinopathy severity between DiSLO200 and ETDRS film photographs matched in 80% of eyes (weighted κ = 0.74,κ = 0.84) and was within 1 level in 94.5% of eyes. DiSLO200 and DFE matched in 58.8% of eyes (weighted κ = 0.69,κ = 0.47) and were within 1 level in 91.2% of eyes. Forty eyes (20%) had DR severity discrepancies between DiSLO200 and ETDRS film photographs. The retinal lesions causing discrepancies were H/Ma 52%, IRMA 26%, NVE 17%, and VB 4%. Approximately one-third of H/Ma, IRMA, and NVE were predominantly outside ETDRS fields. Lesions identified on DiSLO200 but not ETDRS film photographs suggested a more severe DR level in 10% of eyes. Distribution in the temporal, superotemporal, inferotemporal, superonasal, and inferonasal fields was 77%, 72%, 61%, 65%, and 59% for H/Ma, respectively (P<0.0001); 22%, 24%, 21%, 28%, and 22% for VB, respectively (P = 0.009); 52%, 40%, 29%, 47%, and 36% for IRMA, respectively (P<0.0001), and 8%, 4%, 4%, 8%, and 5% for NVE, respectively (P = 0.03). All lesions were more frequent in the temporal fields compared with the nasal fields (P<0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: DiSLO200 images had substantial agreement with ETDRS film photographs and DFE in determining DR severity. On the basis of DiSLO200 images, significant nonuniform distribution of DR lesions was evident across the retina. The additional peripheral lesions identified by DiSLO200 in this cohort suggested a more severe assessment of DR in 10% of eyes than was suggested by the lesions within the ETDRS fields. However, the implications of peripheral lesions on DR progression within a specific ETDRS severity level over time are unknown and need to be evaluated prospectively.
Yonekawa Y, MacDonald SM, Shildkrot Y, Mukai S. Standard fractionation low-dose proton radiotherapy for diffuse choroidal hemangiomas in pediatric Sturge-Weber syndrome. J AAPOS 2013;17(3):318-22.Abstract
Sturge-Weber syndrome is a nonhereditary congenital neurocutaneous syndrome characterized by leptomeningeal angiomatosis, facial nevus flammeus, and diffuse choroidal hemangioma, which when complicated by total retinal detachment, portend a poor prognosis. Management is often limited to salvage external beam irradiation. We present a modified proton therapy technique for young children with total bullous retinal detachments that uses standard fractionation low-dose proton radiotherapy to decrease the risk of radiation complications. Treatment techniques for young children who cannot cooperate with conventional radiation protocols are also described.
Yadav P, De Castro DK, Waner M, Meyer L, Fay A. Vascular anomalies of the head and neck: a review of genetics. Semin Ophthalmol 2013;28(5-6):257-66.Abstract
PURPOSE: Vascular anomalies comprise malformations, hemangiomas, and rare tumors. The commonality among these lesions is their origin in vascular endothelia. Most occur sporadically, but occasional inheritance is observed and thus allows genetic research and insight into etiology. This review highlights those vascular anomalies in which genetic inheritance has been demonstrated. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed on PubMed. Fifty-five full-length articles were reviewed. RESULTS: Five categories of vascular anomalies with patterned inheritance were identified: arteriovenous malformation (AVM), capillary malformation (CM), lymphatic malformation (LM), venous malformation (VM), and infantile hemangioma (IH). Capillary and arteriovenous malformation subtypes are associated with a RASA-1 gene mutation and show autosomal dominant inheritance. VEGFR3 mutations have been associated with generalized forms of LM and lymphedema. Mutations in TIE2/TEK genes cause inherited forms of venous malformations also with autosomal dominant inheritance. Familial clustering and atopic disease are associated with infantile hemangioma, and gene expression varies with the developmental stage of these lesions. CONCLUSION: Most vascular anomalies occur sporadically, but several genes and genetic disorders have been associated with them. Specific forms of capillary malformation appear to be most convincingly associated with genomic errors. Further research promises new insights into the development of this diverse group of disorders.
Wang L, Shankarappa SA, Tong R, Ciolino JB, Tsui JH, Chiang HH, Kohane DS. Topical drug formulations for prolonged corneal anesthesia. Cornea 2013;32(7):1040-5.Abstract
PURPOSE: Ocular local anesthetics currently used in routine clinical practice for corneal anesthesia are short acting and their ability to delay corneal healing makes them unsuitable for long-term use. In this study, we examined the effect of the site 1 sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) on the duration of corneal anesthesia, applied with either proparacaine (PPC) or the chemical permeation enhancer octyl-trimethyl ammonium bromide (OTAB). The effect of test solutions on corneal healing was also studied. METHODS: Solutions of TTX, PPC, and OTAB, singly or in combination, were applied topically to the rat cornea. The blink response, an indirect measure of corneal sensitivity, was recorded using a Cochet-Bonnet esthesiometer, and the duration of corneal anesthesia was calculated. The effect of test compounds on the rate of corneal epithelialization was studied in vivo after corneal debridement. RESULTS: Combination of TTX and PPC resulted in corneal anesthesia that was 8 to 10 times longer in duration than that from either drug administered alone, whereas OTAB did not prolong anesthesia. The rate of corneal healing was moderately delayed after coadministration of TTX and PPC. CONCLUSIONS: Coadministration of TTX and PPC significantly prolonged corneal anesthesia, but in view of delayed corneal reepithelialization, caution is suggested in the use of the drug combination.
VanderVeen DK, Trivedi RH, Nizam A, Lynn MJ, Lambert SR, Lambert SR. Predictability of intraocular lens power calculation formulae in infantile eyes with unilateral congenital cataract: results from the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. Am J Ophthalmol 2013;156(6):1252-1260.e2.Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare accuracy of intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation formulae in infantile eyes with primary IOL implantation. DESIGN: Comparative case series. METHODS: The Hoffer Q, Holladay 1, Holladay 2, Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff (SRK) II, and Sanders-Retzlaff-Kraff theoretic (SRK/T) formulae were used to calculate predicted postoperative refraction for eyes that received primary IOL implantation in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. The protocol targeted postoperative hyperopia of +6.0 or +8.0 diopters (D). Eyes were excluded for invalid biometry, lack of refractive data at the specified postoperative visit, diagnosis of glaucoma or suspected glaucoma, or sulcus IOL placement. Actual refraction 1 month after surgery was converted to spherical equivalent and prediction error (predicted refraction - actual refraction) was calculated. Baseline characteristics were analyzed for effect on prediction error for each formula. The main outcome measure was absolute prediction error. RESULTS: Forty-three eyes were studied; mean axial length was 18.1 ± 1.1 mm (in 23 eyes, it was <18.0 mm). Average age at surgery was 2.5 ± 1.5 months. Holladay 1 showed the lowest median absolute prediction error (1.2 D); a paired comparison of medians showed clinically similar results using the Holladay 1 and SRK/T formulae (median difference, 0.3 D). Comparison of the mean absolute prediction error showed the lowest values using the SRK/T formula (1.4 ± 1.1 D), followed by the Holladay 1 formula (1.7 ± 1.3 D). Calculations with an optimized constant showed the lowest values and no significant difference between the Holladay 1 and SRK/T formulae (median difference, 0.3 D). Eyes with globe AL of less than 18 mm had the largest mean and median prediction error and absolute prediction error, regardless of the formula used. CONCLUSIONS: The Holladay 1 and SRK/T formulae gave equally good results and had the best predictive value for infant eyes.
Pasquale LR, Loomis SJ, Kang JH, Yaspan BL, Abdrabou W, Budenz DL, Chen TC, Delbono E, Friedman DS, Gaasterland D, Gaasterland T, Grosskreutz CL, Lee RK, Lichter PR, Liu Y, McCarty CA, Moroi SE, Olson LM, Realini T, Rhee DJ, Schuman JS, Singh K, Vollrath D, Wollstein G, Zack DJ, Allingham RR, Pericak-Vance MA, Weinreb RN, Zhang K, Hauser MA, Richards JE, Haines JL, Wiggs JL. CDKN2B-AS1 genotype-glaucoma feature correlations in primary open-angle glaucoma patients from the United States. Am J Ophthalmol 2013;155(2):342-353.e5.Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the gene region containing cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2B antisense noncoding RNA (CDKN2B-AS1) and glaucoma features among primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients. DESIGN: Retrospective observational case series. METHODS: We studied associations between 10 CDKN2B-AS1 SNPs and glaucoma features among 976 POAG cases from the Glaucoma Genes and Environment (GLAUGEN) study and 1971 cases from the National Eye Institute Glaucoma Human Genetics Collaboration (NEIGHBOR) consortium. For each patient, we chose the feature from the eye with the higher value. We created cohort-specific multivariable models for glaucoma features and then meta-analyzed the results. RESULTS: For 9 of the 10 protective CDKN2B-AS1 SNPs with minor alleles associated with reduced disease risk (eg, the G allele at rs2157719), POAG patients carrying these minor alleles had smaller cup-to-disc ratio (0.05 units smaller per G allele at diagnosis; 95% CI: -0.08, -0.03; P = 6.23E-05) despite having higher intraocular pressure (IOP) (0.70 mm Hg higher per G allele at DNA collection; 95% CI: 0.40, 1.00; P = 5.45E-06). For the 1 adverse rs3217992 SNP with minor allele A associated with increased disease risk, POAG patients with A alleles had larger cup-to-disc ratio (0.05 units larger per A allele at diagnosis; 95% CI: 0.02, 0.07; P = 4.74E-04) despite having lower IOP (-0.57 mm Hg per A allele at DNA collection; 95% CI: -0.84, -0.29; P = 6.55E-05). CONCLUSION: Alleles of CDKN2B-AS1 SNPs, which influence risk of developing POAG, also modulate optic nerve degeneration among POAG patients, underscoring the role of CDKN2B-AS1 in POAG.
Panou N, Kim IK, Sobrin L. Choroiditis and choroidal neovascularization in acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Retin Cases Brief Rep 2013;7(1):89-90.Abstract
PURPOSE: To present a case with bilateral choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-associated choroiditis requiring immunomodulatory therapy for prevention of recurrence. METHODS: The clinical course of a patient diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, who developed bilateral choroiditis at the time of his neurologic diagnosis and bilateral CNV 6 years later, is reviewed. PATIENT: A 57-year-old man developed CNV in both eyes, 6 years after the initial diagnosis of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis-associated choroiditis. The patient was initially treated successfully with intravitreal bevacizumab injections and oral prednisone, but CNV recurred with steroid tapering. Mycophenolate mofetil was initiated as steroid-sparing immunomodulatory therapy. RESULTS: There was no CNV recurrence for 1.5 years without the need for additional antiangiogenic therapy. CONCLUSION: To our best knowledge, this is the first report of choroiditis and secondary CNV associated with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. In cases of recurrent CNV associated with choroiditis, systemic therapy should be strongly considered in conjunction with antiangiogenic therapy. The recurrence of CNV with tapering of oral steroids and the remission of CNV with steroid-sparing immunomodulatory therapy support the role of ongoing inflammation in the pathogenesis.
Osaki TH, De Castro DK, Yabumoto C, Mingkwansook V, Ting E, Nallasamy N, Curtin H, Fay A. Comparison of methodologies in volumetric orbitometry. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2013;29(6):431-6.Abstract
PURPOSE: The rate at which the orbit matures is not well-documented. Limiting this pursuit are the difficulties inherent in measuring orbital volumes accurately. This study compared 3 common methods of determining orbital volume and sought to identify an accurate, practical manner for doing so. METHODS: The volume of 1 orbit of 8 human cadaver heads was independently measured using 3 different methods: 1) CT was performed, and images were analyzed with 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric software; 2) The same orbits were then exenterated and a silicone cast was taken. The cast volumes were measured by water displacement; 3) The orbits were then filled with 1-mm glass beads that were transferred to a graduated cylinder where their volume was determined. The data were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Intraobserver agreements were good for both beads and casts. Interobserver agreements were good for both beads and CT (p > 0.05). Values obtained using the bead method were equal to values obtained using the cast method (p > 0.05). However, agreement between direct (orbital fillers and casts) and indirect measurements (radiographic techniques) was not satisfactory (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Independent of method, determining orbital volume is inherently difficult owing to the hyperbolic parabola that is the orbit entrance; all methods require estimation. Glass beads and casts yielded more reproducible values but can only be used in cadavers. CT measurement is prone to error due to the variability of methodologies used but allows access to enormous testing populations. Interstudy comparison is currently not possible. CT volumetric software with strict universal standards for estimating the anterior limit of the orbit appears to be the best method of studying human orbital volumes.
Shaaban S, Ramos-Platt L, Gilles FH, Chan W-M, Andrews C, De Girolami U, Demer J, Engle EC. RYR1 mutations as a cause of ophthalmoplegia, facial weakness, and malignant hyperthermia. JAMA Ophthalmol 2013;131(12):1532-40.Abstract
IMPORTANCE: Total ophthalmoplegia can result from ryanodine receptor 1 (RYR1) mutations without overt associated skeletal myopathy. Patients carrying RYR1 mutations are at high risk of developing malignant hyperthermia. Ophthalmologists should be familiar with these important clinical associations. OBJECTIVE: To determine the genetic cause of congenital ptosis, ophthalmoplegia, facial paralysis, and mild hypotonia segregating in 2 pedigrees diagnosed with atypical Moebius syndrome or congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Clinical data including medical and family histories were collected at research laboratories at Boston Children's Hospital and Jules Stein Eye Institute (Engle and Demer labs) for affected and unaffected family members from 2 pedigrees in which patients presented with total ophthalmoplegia, facial weakness, and myopathy. INTERVENTION: Homozygosity mapping and whole-exome sequencing were conducted to identify causative mutations in affected family members. Histories, physical examinations, and clinical data were reviewed. MAIN OUTCOME AND MEASURE: Mutations in RYR1. RESULTS: Missense mutations resulting in 2 homozygous RYR1 amino acid substitutions (E989G and R3772W) and 2 compound heterozygous RYR1 substitutions (H283R and R3772W) were identified in a consanguineous and a nonconsanguineous pedigree, respectively. Orbital magnetic resonance imaging revealed marked hypoplasia of extraocular muscles and intraorbital cranial nerves. Skeletal muscle biopsy specimens revealed nonspecific myopathic changes. Clinically, the patients' ophthalmoplegia and facial weakness were far more significant than their hypotonia and limb weakness and were accompanied by an unrecognized susceptibility to malignant hyperthermia. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Affected children presenting with severe congenital ophthalmoplegia and facial weakness in the setting of only mild skeletal myopathy harbored recessive mutations in RYR1, encoding the ryanodine receptor 1, and were susceptible to malignant hyperthermia. While ophthalmoplegia occurs rarely in RYR1-related myopathies, these children were atypical because they lacked significant weakness, respiratory insufficiency, or scoliosis. RYR1-associated myopathies should be included in the differential diagnosis of congenital ophthalmoplegia and facial weakness, even without clinical skeletal myopathy. These patients should also be considered susceptible to malignant hyperthermia, a life-threatening anesthetic complication avoidable if anticipated presurgically.
Murakami Y, Notomi S, Hisatomi T, Nakazawa T, Ishibashi T, Miller JW, Vavvas DG. Photoreceptor cell death and rescue in retinal detachment and degenerations. Prog Retin Eye Res 2013;37:114-40.Abstract
Photoreceptor cell death is the ultimate cause of vision loss in various retinal disorders, including retinal detachment (RD). Photoreceptor cell death has been thought to occur mainly through apoptosis, which is the most characterized form of programmed cell death. The caspase family of cysteine proteases plays a central role for inducing apoptosis, and in experimental models of RD, dying photoreceptor cells exhibit caspase activation; however, there is a paradox that caspase inhibition alone does not provide a sufficient protection against photoreceptor cell loss, suggesting that other mechanisms of cell death are involved. Recent accumulating evidence demonstrates that non-apoptotic forms of cell death, such as autophagy and necrosis, are also regulated by specific molecular machinery, such as those mediated by autophagy-related proteins and receptor-interacting protein kinases, respectively. Here we summarize the current knowledge of cell death signaling and its roles in photoreceptor cell death after RD and other retinal degenerative diseases. A body of studies indicate that not only apoptotic but also autophagic and necrotic signaling are involved in photoreceptor cell death, and that combined targeting of these pathways may be an effective neuroprotective strategy for retinal diseases associated with photoreceptor cell loss.
Sayegh RR, Dohlman CH. Wide-angle fundus imaging through the Boston keratoprosthesis. Retina 2013;33(6):1188-92.Abstract
PURPOSE: To explore the feasibility and compare the outcomes of three wide-angle fundus cameras for imaging the peripheral retina through the Type 1 Boston keratoprosthesis. METHODS: The noncontact Optos and the contact RetCam and Panoret wide-angle imaging systems were used to image the retina of eyes implanted with a keratoprosthesis. The failure-to-image rate, ease of acquisition, and quality of the images were noted, and the field of view was compared. Limitations and complications were recorded. Optos was then performed on patients referred for ultrasound B-scan evaluation, and the imaging findings were correlated. RESULTS: Retinal images with all three cameras were obtained on four eyes. Optos could be performed on all four eyes, RetCam on three, and Panoret on two. The field of view was comparable between the three different cameras. The best quality images were obtained with Optos. The external illumination of the Panoret made it impossible to image the only darkly pigmented individual in the series. Both contact devices failed to image another patient who was too agitated. Two patients had some ocular irritation from the coupling agent that resolved with replacement of the contact lens. Optos images were obtained on an additional six eyes, and findings correlated well with those on B-scan. Optos was superior to B-scan in an eye with silicone oil filling. CONCLUSION: Wide-angle fundus imaging through the keratoprosthesis is possible, and all three cameras performed similarly. The good quality of pictures obtained with the noncontact Optos, as well as its ease of use, comfort, and safety make it a preferred choice. Optos complements B-scan in the examination of the peripheral retina through the keratoprosthesis, and it may even be superior in certain settings.
Mendoza PR, Jakobiec FA, Krane JF. Immunohistochemical features of lacrimal gland epithelial tumors. Am J Ophthalmol 2013;156(6):1147-1158.e1.Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate the immunohistochemical features of ocular adnexal pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. DESIGN: Retrospective clinicopathologic study. METHODS: Clinical records and microscopic slides of 7 cases of each tumor type were reviewed. Immunohistochemical probes for Ki-67 and p53, and newer nuclear markers MYB for adenoid cystic carcinoma and PLAG1 for pleomorphic adenoma, were employed. RESULTS: Pleomorphic adenomas were asymptomatic, whereas adenoid cystic carcinomas were painful. No pleomorphic adenomas recurred; 4 adenoid cystic carcinomas recurred, resulting in 3 deaths. Unusual histopathologic variants for which immunohistochemistry proved useful included a myoepithelioma, an atypical pleomorphic adenoma, tubular and solid/basaloid variants of adenoid cystic carcinoma, and a morphologically heterogeneous adenoid cystic carcinoma of a Wolfring gland. For the pleomorphic adenomas, the average Ki-67 proliferation index was 3.8%; p53 was weakly staining, with an average positivity of 18.5%; PLAG1 was strongly positive in all cases; MYB was negative in 5 cases and weakly focally positive in 2 cases. For the adenoid cystic carcinomas, the average Ki-67 proliferation index was 29.1%; p53 stained positively and strongly with an average of 39%; none stained positively for PLAG1; and 6 out of 7 were MYB positive. CONCLUSIONS: Between pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma, there was no overlap in Ki-67 positivity. Positivity for p53 showed overlap in only one lesion of each type. PLAG1 and MYB positivity were highly discriminating between pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis should be investigated further for its role in the evaluation of pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Raghuram A, Hansen RM, Moskowitz A, Fulton AB. Photoreceptor and postreceptor responses in congenital stationary night blindness. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2013;54(7):4648-58.Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate photoreceptor and postreceptor retinal function in patients with congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB). METHODS: Forty-one patients with CSNB (ages 0.19-32 years) were studied. ERG responses to a series of full-field stimuli were obtained under scotopic and photopic conditions and were used to categorize the CSNB patients as complete (cCSNB) or incomplete (iCSNB). Rod and cone photoreceptor (R(ROD), S(ROD), R(CONE), S(CONE)) and rod-driven postreceptor (V(MAX), log σ) response parameters were calculated from the a- and b-waves. Cone-driven responses to 30 Hz flicker and ON and OFF responses to a long duration (150 ms) flash were also obtained. Dark-adapted thresholds were measured. Analysis of variance was used to compare data from patients with cCSNB, patients with iCSNB, and controls. RESULTS: We found significant reduction in saturated photoreceptor amplitude (R(ROD), R(CONE)) but normal photoreceptor sensitivity (S(ROD), S(CONE)) in both CSNB groups. Rod-driven postreceptor response amplitude (V(MAX)) and sensitivity (log σ) were significantly reduced in CSNB. Log σ was significantly worse in cCSNB than in iCSNB; this was the only scotopic parameter that differed between the two CSNB groups. Photopic b-wave amplitude increased monotonically with stimulus strength in CSNB patients rather than showing a normal photopic hill. The amplitude of the 30-Hz flicker response was reduced compared with controls, more so in iCSNB than in cCSNB. The mean dark-adapted threshold was significantly elevated in CSNB, more so in cCSNB than in iCSNB. CONCLUSIONS: These results are evidence of normal photoreceptor function (despite the low saturated photoresponse amplitude) and anomalous postreceptor retinal circuitry.
Poole Perry LJ, Jakobiec FA, Zakka FR, Reichel E, Herwig MC, Perry A, Brat DJ, Grossniklaus HE. Reactive retinal astrocytic tumors (so-called vasoproliferative tumors): histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic studies of four cases. Am J Ophthalmol 2013;155(3):593-608.e1.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the cellular nature of and diagnostic terminology used in connection with acquired retinal "vasoproliferative tumors." DESIGN: Retrospective clinicopathologic study. METHODS: Clinical records and microscopic slides of 4 enucleated globes were reviewed. Special stains and immunohistochemical probes for CD31, CD34, p53, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), CD163, and Ki67 (cell replication) were employed; ultrastructural and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses were performed. RESULTS: Tumors were located inferotemporally in middle-aged patients. They were uniformly composed of compacted elongated, GFAP-positive spindle cells (due to intermediate filaments identified ultrastructurally) with a Ki67 index of less than 1%. Rosenthal fibers and eosinophilic granular bodies were observed. Hyalinized periodic acid-Schiff-positive vessels were widely separated. CD31 and CD34 revealed a sparse microvasculature. Tumor-associated exudate spread predominantly subretinally. The retinal pigment epithelium had undergone extensive placoid fibrous metaplasia with focal ossification. P53 upregulation, BRAF-KIAA gene rearrangement, and IDH1R132H mutation typically associated with low-grade astrocytic neoplasms were absent. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal "vasoproliferative" tumors have been mischaracterized, because they actually display a paucity of microvessels. Proliferating fibrous astrocytes with a very low proliferation index predominate, without immunohistochemical or genetic evidence favoring a neoplasm. Subretinal exudate appeared capable of provoking widespread fibrous metaplasia of the pigment epithelium that was mainly responsible for secondary retinal damage. The term "reactive retinal astrocytic tumor" is proposed as more appropriate for this entity. In carefully selected progressive lesions, consideration should be given to earlier surgical intervention before extensive subretinal exudate accumulates and pigment epithelial proliferation with fibrous metaplasia ensues.
Patel M, Vavvas DG. Fundus autofluorescence in ampiginous choroiditis. Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina 2013;44(4):393-7.Abstract
Fundus autofluorescence (FAF) is being increasingly employed in the evaluation of retinal diseases. We report the first description of FAF findings during the natural history of ampiginous choroiditis and correlate these findings to fundus photography, infrared imaging, and cross-sectional optical coherence tomography. In a patient with a 12-month recurring, relapsing course of ampiginous choroiditis, there was a predictable pattern of FAF findings. At the time of presentation with a whitish-yellow, creamy clinical lesion, FAF reveals a diffuse, subtle hyperautofluorescence at the site of activity. As the clinical lesion fades, the FAF takes on a more intense, discrete, coalesced hyperautofluorescence, which decreases and becomes stippled over time, eventually giving way to a patch of hypoautofluorescence at the site of inactivity. Examination over the patient's long course suggests that FAF evolves predictably during exacerbations and remissions, and the FAF findings reveal activity well after the clinical lesion resolves. FAF is a simple, noninvasive, and effective modality for following the evolution of ampiginous choroiditis.

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