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Ahangari N, Munoz DG, Coulombe J, Gray DA, Engle EC, Cheng L, Woulfe J. Nuclear IMPDH Filaments in Human Gliomas. J Neuropathol Exp Neurol 2021;Abstract
The analysis of nuclear morphology plays an important role in glioma diagnosis and grading. We previously described intranuclear rods (rods) labeled with the SDL.3D10 monoclonal antibody against class III beta-tubulin (TUBB3) in human ependymomas. In a cohort of adult diffuse gliomas, we identified nuclear rods in 71.1% of IDH mutant lower-grade gliomas and 13.7% of IDH wild-type glioblastomas (GBMs). The presence of nuclear rods was associated with significantly longer postoperative survival in younger (≤65) GBM patients. Consistent with this, nuclear rods were mutually exclusive with Ki67 staining and their prevalence in cell nuclei inversely correlated with the Ki67 proliferation index. In addition, rod-containing nuclei showed a relative depletion of lamin B1, suggesting a possible association with senescence. To gain insight into their functional significance, we addressed their antigenic properties. Using a TUBB3-null mouse model, we demonstrate that the SDL.3D10 antibody does not bind TUBB3 in rods but recognizes an unknown antigen. In the present study, we show that rods show immunoreactivity for the nucleotide synthesizing enzymes inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) and cytidine triphosphate synthetase. By analogy with the IMPDH filaments that have been described previously, we postulate that rods regulate the activity of nucleotide-synthesizing enzymes in the nucleus by sequestration, with important implications for glioma behavior.
Dana R, Farid M, Gupta PK, Hamrah P, Karpecki P, McCabe CM, Nijm L, Pepose JS, Pflugfelder S, Rapuano CJ, Saini A, Gibbs SN, Broder MS. Expert consensus on the identification, diagnosis, and treatment of neurotrophic keratopathy. BMC Ophthalmol 2021;21(1):327.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Neurotrophic keratopathy (NK) is a relatively uncommon, underdiagnosed degenerative corneal disease that is caused by damage to the ophthalmic branch of the trigeminal nerve by conditions such as herpes simplex or zoster keratitis, intracranial space-occupying lesions, diabetes, or neurosurgical procedures. Over time, epithelial breakdown, corneal ulceration, corneal melting (thinning), perforation, and loss of vision may occur. The best opportunity to reverse ocular surface damage is in the earliest stage of NK. However, patients typically experience few symptoms and diagnosis is often delayed. Increased awareness of the causes of NK, consensus on when and how to screen for NK, and recommendations for how to treat NK are needed. METHODS: An 11-member expert panel used a validated methodology (a RAND/UCLA modified Delphi panel) to develop consensus on when to screen for and how best to diagnose and treat NK. Clinicians reviewed literature on the diagnosis and management of NK then rated a detailed set of 735 scenarios. In 646 scenarios, panelists rated whether a test of corneal sensitivity was warranted; in 20 scenarios, they considered the adequacy of specific tests and examinations to diagnose and stage NK; and in 69 scenarios, they rated the appropriateness of treatments for NK. Panelist ratings were used to develop clinical recommendations. RESULTS: There was agreement on 94% of scenarios. Based on this consensus, we present distinct circumstances when we strongly recommend or may consider a test for corneal sensitivity. We also present recommendations on the diagnostic tests to be performed in patients in whom NK is suspected and treatment options for NK. CONCLUSIONS: These expert recommendations should be validated with clinical data. The recommendations represent the consensus of experts, are informed by published literature and experience, and may improve outcomes by helping improve diagnosis and treatment of patients with NK.
Li Y, Mitchell W, Elze T, Zebardast N. Association Between Diabetes, Diabetic Retinopathy, and Glaucoma. Curr Diab Rep 2021;21(10):38.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The strength of the relationship between diabetes, diabetic retinopathy (DR), and glaucoma remains controversial. We review evidence supporting and refuting this association and explore mechanistic pathological and treatment relationships linking these diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: While studies have shown diabetes/DR may increase the risk for glaucoma, this remains inconsistently demonstrated. Diabetes/DR may contribute toward glaucomatous optic neuropathy indirectly (either by increasing intraocular pressure or vasculopathy) or through direct damage to the optic nerve. However, certain elements of diabetes may slow glaucoma progression, and diabetic treatment may concurrently be beneficial in glaucoma management. Diabetes plays a significant role in poor outcomes after glaucoma surgery. While the relationship between diabetes/DR and glaucoma remains controversial, multiple mechanistic links connecting pathophysiology and management of diabetes, DR, and glaucoma have been made. However, a deeper understanding of the causes of disease association is needed.
Musayeva A, Unkrig JC, Zhutdieva MB, Manicam C, Ruan Y, Laspas P, Chronopoulos P, Göbel ML, Pfeiffer N, Brochhausen C, Daiber A, Oelze M, Li H, Xia N, Gericke A. Betulinic Acid Protects from Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in the Mouse Retina. Cells 2021;10(9)Abstract
Ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) events are involved in the pathophysiology of numerous ocular diseases. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that betulinic acid protects from I/R injury in the mouse retina. Ocular ischemia was induced in mice by increasing intraocular pressure (IOP) to 110 mm Hg for 45 min, while the fellow eye served as a control. One group of mice received betulinic acid (50 mg/kg/day p.o. once daily) and the other group received the vehicle solution only. Eight days after the I/R event, the animals were killed and the retinal wholemounts and optic nerve cross-sections were prepared and stained with cresyl blue or toluidine blue, respectively, to count cells in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) of the retina and axons in the optic nerve. Retinal arteriole responses were measured in isolated retinas by video microscopy. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed in retinal cryosections and redox gene expression was determined in isolated retinas by quantitative PCR. I/R markedly reduced cell number in the GCL and axon number in the optic nerve of the vehicle-treated mice. In contrast, only a negligible reduction in cell and axon number was observed following I/R in the betulinic acid-treated mice. Endothelial function was markedly reduced and ROS levels were increased in retinal arterioles of vehicle-exposed eyes following I/R, whereas betulinic acid partially prevented vascular endothelial dysfunction and ROS formation. Moreover, betulinic acid boosted mRNA expression for the antioxidant enzymes SOD3 and HO-1 following I/R. Our data provide evidence that betulinic acid protects from I/R injury in the mouse retina. Improvement of vascular endothelial function and the reduction in ROS levels appear to contribute to the neuroprotective effect.
Muralidharan S, Ichhpujani P, Bhartiya S, Singh RB. Eye-tunes: role of music in ophthalmology and vision sciences. Ther Adv Ophthalmol 2021;13:25158414211040890.Abstract
Although the healing effect of music has been recognized since time immemorial, there has been a renewed interest in its use in modern medicine. This can be attributed to the increasing focus on holistic healing and on the subjective and objective aspects of well-being. In ophthalmology, this has ranged from using music for patients undergoing diagnostic procedures and surgery, as well as for doctors and the operation theatre staff during surgical procedures. Music has proven to be a potent nonpharmacological sedative and anxiolytic, allaying both the pain and stress of surgery. This review aims to explore the available evidence about the role of music as an adjunct for diagnostic and surgical procedures in current ophthalmic practices.
Boland MV, Corcoran KJ, Lee AY. Changes in Performance of Glaucoma Surgeries 1994 through 2017 Based on Claims and Payment Data for United States Medicare Beneficiaries. Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2021;4(5):463-471.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate trends in glaucoma procedures in the United States Medicare population and to evaluate which physicians are performing newer procedures. DESIGN: Analysis of publicly available claims and payment data. PARTICIPANTS: Surgeons and beneficiaries enrolled in United States Medicare between 1994 and 2017. METHODS: Data regarding payments to physicians by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) were downloaded for the years 2012 through 2017. Data regarding claims to CMS by physicians were requested and processed between 1994 and 2017. Procedure counts from both data sets then were normalized for changes in the Medicare population, with 1995 as the baseline. The normalized volumes of procedures over time were visualized, as were geographic distributions of surgeons and their volume of procedures. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Trends in procedure counts over time, geographic distribution of surgeons, and their volume of procedures. RESULTS: The number of trabeculectomies continues to decline and now is similar to the number of tubes. Use of the relatively new trabecular bypass shunts has increased rapidly. Surgeons performing these procedures are less likely to be performing traditional glaucoma surgeries as well. The number of laser-based cyclodestruction procedures increased after introduction of the endoscopic technique and again with the introduction of so-called micropulse procedures. The procedure counts obtained with physician payment data consistently are lower than those from claims data given the limitations of the payment data. CONCLUSIONS: Glaucoma practice patterns change each time a new device or procedure is introduced. Collectively, the use of new microinvasive glaucoma surgery procedures has increased rapidly such that they now account for a significant majority of glaucoma surgeries. Given the almost complete lack of comparative data to inform surgeon choices regarding these procedures, it will be important that randomized studies are carried out to fill this gap.
Neitzel AJ, Wolf B, Guo X, Shakarchi AF, Madden NA, Repka MX, Friedman DS, Collins ME. Effect of a Randomized Interventional School-Based Vision Program on Academic Performance of Students in Grades 3 to 7: A Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Ophthalmol 2021;139(10):1104-1114.Abstract
Importance: Uncorrected refractive error in school-aged children may affect learning. Objective: To assess the effect of a school-based vision program on academic achievement among students in grades 3 to 7. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cluster randomized clinical trial was conducted in Baltimore City Public Schools during school years from 2016 to 2019 among 2304 students in grades 3 to 7 who received eye examinations and eyeglasses. Intervention: Participating schools were randomized 1:1:1 to receive eye examinations and eyeglasses during 1 of 3 school years (2016-2017, 2017-2018, and 2018-2019). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was 1-year intervention impact, measured by effect size (ES), defined as the difference in score on an academic test (i-Ready or Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers tests on reading and mathematics) between intervention and control groups measured in SD units, comparing cohort 1 (intervention) with cohorts 2 and 3 (control) at the end of program year 1 and comparing cohort 2 (intervention) with cohort 3 (control) at the end of program year 2. The secondary outcome was 2-year intervention impact, comparing ES in cohort 1 (intervention) with cohort 3 (control) at the end of program year 2. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to assess the impact of the intervention. Analysis was performed on an intention-to-treat basis. Results: Among the 2304 students included in the study, 1260 (54.7%) were girls, with a mean (SD) age of 9.4 (1.4) years. The analysis included 964 students (41 schools) in cohort 1, 775 students (41 schools) in cohort 2, and 565 students (38 schools) in cohort 3. There were 1789 Black students (77.6%), 388 Latinx students (16.8%), and 406 students in special education (17.6%). There was an overall 1-year positive impact (ES, 0.09; P = .02) as assessed by the i-Ready reading test during school year 2016-2017. Positive impact was also observed among female students (ES, 0.15; P < .001), those in special education (ES, 0.25; P < .001), and students who performed in the lowest quartile at baseline (ES, 0.28; P < .001) on i-Ready reading and among students in elementary grades on i-Ready mathematics (ES, 0.03; P < .001) during school year 2016-2017. The intervention did not show a sustained impact at 2 years or on Partnership for Assessment of Readiness for College and Careers testing. Conclusions and Relevance: Students in grades 3 to 7 who received eyeglasses through a school-based vision program achieved better reading scores. Students had improved academic achievement over 1 year; however, a sustained impact was not observed after 2 years. Trial Registration: The Registry of Efficacy and Effectiveness Studies Identifier: 1573.1v1.
Uemura A, Fruttiger M, D'Amore PA, De Falco S, Joussen AM, Sennlaub F, Brunck LR, Johnson KT, Lambrou GN, Rittenhouse KD, Langmann T. VEGFR1 signaling in retinal angiogenesis and microinflammation. Prog Retin Eye Res 2021;84:100954.Abstract
Five vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) ligands (VEGF-A, -B, -C, -D, and placental growth factor [PlGF]) constitute the VEGF family. VEGF-A binds VEGF receptors 1 and 2 (VEGFR1/2), whereas VEGF-B and PlGF only bind VEGFR1. Although much research has been conducted on VEGFR2 to elucidate its key role in retinal diseases, recent efforts have shown the importance and involvement of VEGFR1 and its family of ligands in angiogenesis, vascular permeability, and microinflammatory cascades within the retina. Expression of VEGFR1 depends on the microenvironment, is differentially regulated under hypoxic and inflammatory conditions, and it has been detected in retinal and choroidal endothelial cells, pericytes, retinal and choroidal mononuclear phagocytes (including microglia), Müller cells, photoreceptor cells, and the retinal pigment epithelium. Whilst the VEGF-A decoy function of VEGFR1 is well established, consequences of its direct signaling are less clear. VEGFR1 activation can affect vascular permeability and induce macrophage and microglia production of proinflammatory and proangiogenic mediators. However the ability of the VEGFR1 ligands (VEGF-A, PlGF, and VEGF-B) to compete against each other for receptor binding and to heterodimerize complicates our understanding of the relative contribution of VEGFR1 signaling alone toward the pathologic processes seen in diabetic retinopathy, retinal vascular occlusions, retinopathy of prematurity, and age-related macular degeneration. Clinically, anti-VEGF drugs have proven transformational in these pathologies and their impact on modulation of VEGFR1 signaling is still an opportunity-rich field for further research.
Böhm M, Müller M, Paul J, Hemkeppler E, Kohnen T. Intraoperative OCT versus Scheimpflug and Swept-Source OCT measurements for anterior eye parameters. J Cataract Refract Surg 2021;Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare agreement of anterior segment parameter measurements using an intraoperative optical coherence tomography (iOCT) of a femtosecond laser (LenSx) during interface docking to the eye to preoperative Scheimpflug-tomography (Pentacam AXL) and swept-source optical coherence tomography (IOL Master 700). SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany. DESIGN: Retrospective study. METHODS: Ninty-five eyes of 66 patients who had planned OCT-guided femtosecond laser-assisted lens surgery were included. Anterior segment measurements were performed in mydriasis prior to surgery using Scheimpflug-tomography and swept-source optical coherence tomography. After surgery iOCT images were analysed using a modification of the FIJI image processing program. Outcome measures included external anterior chamber depth (ACD), central corneal thickness (CCT) and central lens thickness (LT). RESULTS: The ACD measured with the iOCT was -0.011±0.126mm smaller (p=0.389) than with theswept-source OCT and -0.059±0.185mm than with the Scheimpflug-tomography (p=0.003). The swept-source OCT measures a -0.047±0.146mm smaller ACD than the Scheimpflug-tomography (p=0.002). The measurements of CCT using the iOCT and the Scheimpflug-tomography (-0.705±20.837μm, p=0.742) and the LT measurements of swept-source OCT and iOCT (-0.050±0.089mm, p<0.001) show no clinically relevant difference. Just the ACD between the iOCT and the Scheimpflug-tomography shows a clinically relevant difference. CONCLUSION: The comparison of the anterior segment parameters of intraoperative optical coherence tomography with swept-source optical coherence tomography showed no clinically relevant differences regarding the ACD and the lens thickness. However, Scheimpflug-tomography versus intraoperative optical coherence tomography measures a small clinically relevant difference for ACD.
Wishart TFL, Flokis M, Shu DY, Das SJ, Lovicu FJ. Hallmarks of lens aging and cataractogenesis. Exp Eye Res 2021;210:108709.Abstract
Lens homeostasis and transparency are dependent on the function and intercellular communication of its epithelia. While the lens epithelium is uniquely equipped with functional repair systems to withstand reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated oxidative insult, ROS are not necessarily detrimental to lens cells. Lens aging, and the onset of pathogenesis leading to cataract share an underlying theme; a progressive breakdown of oxidative stress repair systems driving a pro-oxidant shift in the intracellular environment, with cumulative ROS-induced damage to lens cell biomolecules leading to cellular dysfunction and pathology. Here we provide an overview of our current understanding of the sources and essential functions of lens ROS, antioxidative defenses, and changes in the major regulatory systems that serve to maintain the finely tuned balance of oxidative signaling vs. oxidative stress in lens cells. Age-related breakdown of these redox homeostasis systems in the lens leads to the onset of cataractogenesis. We propose eight candidate hallmarks that represent common denominators of aging and cataractogenesis in the mammalian lens: oxidative stress, altered cell signaling, loss of proteostasis, mitochondrial dysfunction, dysregulated ion homeostasis, cell senescence, genomic instability and intrinsic apoptotic cell death.
Walton DS, Yeung HH. Glaucoma following Infant Lensectomy: 2021 Update. Klin Monbl Augenheilkd 2021;238(10):1065-1068.Abstract
PURPOSE: To review information pertaining to glaucoma following infant lensectomy surgery and to provide evidence to support the responsible mechanism of this condition. METHODS AND RESULTS: Described risk factors and proposed mechanisms for infantile aphakic glaucoma were assessed. The clinical evidence observed in affected glaucoma patients was analyzed, and evidence of postoperative anterior chamber fibrosis was reviewed and interpreted. CONCLUSION: The review and assessment of laboratory and clinical evidence support the proposal that infantile aphakic glaucoma is caused, in part, by postoperative anterior chamber fibroization related to lens cell dispersion and active epithelial-mesenchymal transition with resultant filtration angle tissue injury and loss of function.
Maidana DE, Gonzalez-Buendia L, Miller JW, Vavvas DG. Local photoreceptor cell death differences in the murine model of retinal detachment. Sci Rep 2021;11(1):18798.Abstract
To investigate local cell death differences in the attached and detached retina at different regions in a murine experimental retinal detachment model. Subretinal injection of sodium hyaluronate was performed in eight-week-old C57BL/6J mice. Retinal regions of interest were defined in relation to their distance from the peak of the retinal detachment, as follows: (1) attached central; (2) attached paracentral; (3) detached apex; and (4) detached base. At day 0, the outer nuclear layer cell count for the attached central, attached paracentral, detached apex, and detached base was 1247.60 ± 64.62, 1157.80 ± 163.33, 1264.00 ± 150.7, and 1013.80 ± 67.16 cells, respectively. There were significant differences between the detached base vs. attached central, and between detached base vs. detached apex at day 0. The detached apex region displayed a significant and progressive cell count reduction from day 0 to 14. In contrast, the detached base region did not show progressive retinal degeneration in this model. Moreover, only the detached apex region had a significant and progressive cell death rate compared to baseline. Immediate confounding changes with dramatic differences in cell death rates are present across regions of the detached retina. We speculate that mechanical and regional differences in the bullous detached retina can modify the rate of cell death in this model.
Wiegand I, Wolfe JM. Target value and prevalence influence visual foraging in younger and older age. Vision Res 2021;186:87-102.Abstract
The prevalence and reward-value of targets have an influence on visual search. The strength of the effect of an item's reward-value on attentional selection varies substantially between individuals and is potentially sensitive to aging. We investigated individual and age differences in a hybrid foraging task, in which the prevalence and value of multiple target types was varied. Using optimal foraging theory measures, foraging was more efficient overall in younger than older observers. However, the influence of prevalence and value on target selections was similar across age groups, suggesting that the underlying cognitive mechanisms are preserved in older age. When prevalence was varied but target value was balanced, younger and older observers preferably selected the most frequent target type and were biased to select another instance of the previously selected target type. When value was varied, younger and older observers showed a tendency to select high-value targets, but preferences were more diverse between individuals. When value and prevalence were inversely related, some observers showed particularly strong preferences for high-valued target types, while others showed a preference for high-prevalent, albeit low-value, target types. In younger adults, individual differences in the selection choices correlated with a personality index, suggesting that avoiding selections of low-value targets may be related to reward-seeking behaviour.

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