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Sobrin L, Susarla G, Stanwyck L, Rouhana JM, Li A, Pollack S, Igo RP, Jensen RA, Li X, Ng MCY, Smith AV, Kuo JZ, Taylor KD, Freedman BI, Bowden DW, Penman A, Chen CJ, Craig JE, Adler SG, Chew EY, Cotch MF, Yaspan B, Mitchell P, Wang JJ, Klein BEK, Wong TY, Rotter JI, Burdon KP, Iyengar SK, Segrè AV. Gene Set Enrichment Analsyes Identify Pathways Involved in Genetic Risk for Diabetic Retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol 2022;233:111-123.Abstract
To identify functionally related genes associated with diabetic retinopathy (DR) risk using gene set enrichment analyses applied to genome-wide association study meta-analyses. METHODS: We analyzed DR GWAS meta-analyses performed on 3246 Europeans and 2611 African Americans with type 2 diabetes. Gene sets relevant to 5 key DR pathophysiology processes were investigated: tissue injury, vascular events, metabolic events and glial dysregulation, neuronal dysfunction, and inflammation. Keywords relevant to these processes were queried in 4 pathway and ontology databases. Two GSEA methods, Meta-Analysis Gene set Enrichment of variaNT Associations (MAGENTA) and Multi-marker Analysis of GenoMic Annotation (MAGMA), were used. Gene sets were defined to be enriched for gene associations with DR if the P value corrected for multiple testing (Pcorr) was <.05. RESULTS: Five gene sets were significantly enriched for numerous modest genetic associations with DR in one method (MAGENTA or MAGMA) and also at least nominally significant (uncorrected P < .05) in the other method. These pathways were regulation of the lipid catabolic process (2-fold enrichment, Pcorr = .014); nitric oxide biosynthesis (1.92-fold enrichment, Pcorr = .022); lipid digestion, mobilization, and transport (1.6-fold enrichment, P = .032); apoptosis (1.53-fold enrichment, P = .041); and retinal ganglion cell degeneration (2-fold enrichment, Pcorr = .049). The interferon gamma (IFNG) gene, previously implicated in DR by protein-protein interactions in our GWAS, was among the top ranked genes in the nitric oxide pathway (best variant P = .0001). CONCLUSIONS: These GSEA indicate that variants in genes involved in oxidative stress, lipid transport and catabolism, and cell degeneration are enriched for genes associated with DR risk. NOTE: Publication of this article is sponsored by the American Ophthalmological Society.
Belinsky I, Creighton FX, Mahoney N, Petris CK, Callahan AB, Campbell AA, Kazim M, Lee HHB, Yoon MK, Dagi Glass LR. Teprotumumab and Hearing Loss: Case Series and Proposal for Audiologic Monitoring. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2022;38(1):73-78.Abstract
PURPOSE: To present a protocol for audiologic monitoring in the setting of teprotumumab treatment of thyroid eye disease, motivated by 4 cases of significant hearing loss, and review the relevant literature. METHODS: Cases of hearing loss in the setting of teprotumumab were retrospectively elicited as part of a multi-institutional focus group, including oculoplastic surgeons, a neurotologist and an endocrinologist. A literature review was performed. RESULTS: An aggregate of 4 cases of teprotumumab-associated hearing loss documented by formal audiologic testing were identified among 3 clinicians who had treated 28 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Teprotumumab may cause a spectrum of potentially irreversible hearing loss ranging from mild to severe, likely resulting from the inhibition of the insulin-like growth factor-1 and the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor pathway. Due to the novelty of teprotumumab and the lack of a comprehensive understanding of its effect on hearing, the authors endorse prospective investigations of hearing loss in the setting of teprotumumab treatment. Until the results of such studies are available, the authors think it prudent to adopt a surveillance protocol to include an audiogram and tympanometry before, during and after infusion, and when prompted by new symptoms of hearing dysfunction.
Tao JP, Aakalu VK, Freitag SK, Sobel RK, Foster JA, Wladis EJ, McCulley TJ, Yen MT. Homeopathic Agents or Vitamins in Reducing Ecchymosis after Oculofacial Surgery: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2022;129(2):220-226.Abstract
PURPOSE: To review the published literature to determine the efficacy and safety of homeopathic agents or vitamins in reducing ecchymosis after oculofacial surgery or laser surgery. METHODS: A literature search was conducted in the PubMed database initially in December 2019 and updated in March 2020 to identify all studies in the English language literature on the use of homeopathic agents or vitamins in oculofacial procedures, including laser surgery. The search yielded 124 citations, and 11 articles met all inclusion criteria for this assessment. A panel methodologist then assigned a level of evidence rating for each study. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria; 9 were rated level I, and 2 were rated level III. RESULTS: The agents studied in the articles identified included oral or topical Arnica montana (AM), oral Melilotus extract, topical vitamin K oxide, and topical AM combined with Rhododendron tomentosum. Metrics to describe ecchymosis varied. In 7 controlled studies, perioperative AM provided no or negligible benefit versus placebo. In 2 studies, vitamin K cream was equivalent to placebo. One study of oral Melilotus extract had less ecchymosis compared with controls in paranasal and eyelid ecchymosis at postoperative day (POD) 7, but not at PODs 1 and 4. A lone cohort study of combined topical AM and R. tomentosum lacked objective metrics and adequate controls. No serious side effects from administration of homeopathic agents or vitamins were identified. CONCLUSIONS: The current literature does not support the use of AM, vitamin K oxide, R. tomentosum, or Melilotus extract for reducing ecchymosis after oculofacial surgery or pulsed dye laser surgery.
Maleki A, Anesi SD, Look-Why S, Manhapra A, Foster SC. Pediatric uveitis: A comprehensive review. Surv Ophthalmol 2022;67(2):510-529.Abstract
Pediatric uveitis accounts for 5-10% of all uveitis. Uveitis in children differs from adult uveitis in that it is commonly asymptomatic and can become chronic and cause damage to ocular structures. The diagnosis might be delayed for multiple reasons, including the preverbal age and difficulties in examining young children. Pediatric uveitis may be infectious or noninfectious in etiology. The etiology of noninfectious uveitis is presumed to be autoimmune or autoinflammatory. The most common causes of uveitis in this age group are idiopathic and juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis. The stepladder approach for the treatment of pediatric uveitis is based on expert opinion and algorithms proposed by multidisciplinary panels. Uveitis morbidities in pediatric patients include cataract, glaucoma, and amblyopia. Pediatric patients with uveitis should be frequently examined until remission is achieved. Once in remission, the interval between follow-up visits can be extended; however, it is recommended that even after remission the child should be seen every 8-12 weeks depending on the history of uveitis and the medications used. Close follow up is also necessary as uveitis can flare up during immunomodulatory therapy. It is crucial to measure the impact of uveitis, its treatment, and its complications on the child and the child's family. Visual acuity can be considered as an acceptable criterion for assessing visual function. Additionally, the number of cells in the anterior chamber can be a measure of disease activity. We review different aspects of pediatric uveitis. We discuss the mechanisms of noninfectious uveitis, including autoimmune and autoinflammatory etiologies, and the risks of developing uveitis in children with systemic rheumatologic diseases. We address the risk factors for developing morbidities, the Standardization of Uveitis Nomenclature (SUN) criteria for timing and anatomical classifications, and describe a stepladder approach in the treatment of pediatric uveitis based on expert opinion and algorithms proposed by multi-disciplinary panels. In this review article, We describe the most common entities for each type of anatomical classification and complications of uveitis for the pediatric population. Additionally, we address monitoring of children with uveitis and evaluation of Quality of Life.
Jacobs HIL, Schoemaker D, Torrico-Teave H, Zuluaga Y, Velilla-Jimenez L, Ospina-Villegas C, Lopera F, Arboleda-Velasquez JF, Quiroz YT. Specific Abnormalities in White Matter Pathways as Interface to Small Vessels Disease and Cognition in Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy Individuals. Brain Connect 2022;12(1):52-60.Abstract
Background: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is characterized by leukoencephalopathy leading to cognitive impairment. Subtle cognitive deficits can be observed early in the course of the disease, before the occurrence of the first stroke. Therefore, markers that can predict disease progression at this early stage, when interventions are likely to alter disease course, are needed. We aimed to examine the biological cascade of microstructural and macrostructural white matter (WM) abnormalities underlying cognitive deficits in CADASIL. Methods: We examined 20 nondemented CADASIL mutation carriers and 23 noncarriers who underwent neuropsychological evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging. Using probabilistic tractography of key WM tracts, we examined group differences in diffusivity measures and WM hyperintensity volume. Successive mediation models examined whether tract-specific WM abnormalities mediated subtle cognitive differences between CADASIL mutation carriers and noncarriers. Results: The largest effect size differentiating the two groups was observed for left superior longitudinal fasciculus-temporal (SLFt) diffusivity (Cohen's f = 0.49). No group differences were observed with a global diffusion measure. These specific microstructural differences in the SLFt were associated with higher WM hyperintensities burden, and subtle executive deficits in CADASIL mutation carriers. Discussion: Worse diffusivity in the left SLFt is related to greater severity of small vessel disease and worse executive functioning in the asymptomatic stage of the disease. Worse diffusivity of the left SLFt may potentially hold promise as an indicator of disease progression. Impact statement Diffusion tensor imaging outperforms conventional imaging of subcortical small vessel disease as a potential marker of future disease progression. Here we identified the left superior longitudinal temporal fasciculus as a critical white matter fiber bundle, of which worse diffusivity can link presence of cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy mutations to greater severity of small vessel disease and worse executive functioning in asymptomatic stages of the disease. This tract may hold promise and deserves further examination as an early indicator of disease progression.
Chen ZJ, Lu SY, Rong SS, Ho M, Ng DS-C, Chen H, Gong B, Yam JC, Young AL, Brelen M, Tham CC, Pang CP, Chen LJ. Genetic associations of central serous chorioretinopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;106(11):1542-1548.Abstract
AIMS: To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) by a systematic review and meta-analysis, and to compare the association profiles between CSCR, neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). METHODS: We searched the EMBASE, PubMed and Web of Science for genetic studies of CSCR from the starting dates of the databases to 12 September 2020. We then performed meta-analyses on all SNPs reported by more than two studies and calculated the pooled OR and 95% CIs. We also conducted sensitivity analysis and adopted the funnel plot to assess potential publication bias. RESULTS: Totally 415 publications were reviewed, among them 10 were eligible for meta-analysis. We found 10 SNPs that have been reported at least twice. Meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis confirmed significant associations between CSCR and six SNPs in three genes, namely age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) (rs10490924, OR=1.37; p=0.00064), complement factor H (CFH) (rs800292, OR=1.44; p=7.80×10-5; rs1061170, OR=1.34; p=0.0028; rs1329428, OR=1.40; p=0.012; and rs2284664, OR=1.36; p=0.0089) and tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 10a (TNFRSF10A) (rs13278062, OR=1.34; p=1.44×10-15). Among them, only TNFRSF10A rs13278062 showed the same trend of effect on CSCR, nAMD and PCV, while the SNPs in ARMS2 and CFH showed opposite trends in the SNP associations. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed the associations of ARMS2, CFH and TNFRSF10A with CSCR, and revealed that ARMS2, CFH and TNFRSF10A may affect different phenotypic expressions of CSCR, nAMD and PCV.
Li Y, Hall NE, Pershing S, Hyman L, Haller JA, Lee AY, Lee CS, Chiang M, Lum F, Miller JW, Lorch A, Elze T. Age, Gender, and Laterality of Retinal Vascular Occlusion: A Retrospective Study from the IRIS® Registry. Ophthalmol Retina 2022;6(2):161-171.Abstract
PURPOSE: Retinal vascular occlusion is a leading cause of profound irreversible visual loss, but the understanding of the disease is insufficient. We systematically investigated the age, gender, and laterality at the onset of retinal artery occlusion (RAO) and retinal vein occlusion (RVO) in the Intelligent Research in Sight (IRIS®) Registry. DESIGN: Retrospective registry cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with retinal vascular occlusion participating in the IRIS® Registry. METHODS: Patients who received a diagnosis of retinal vascular occlusion between 2013 and 2017 were included. Those with unspecified gender or laterality were excluded when conducting the relevant analyses. Patients were categorized into RAO, with subtypes transient retinal artery occlusion (TRAO), partial retinal artery occlusion (PRAO), branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO), and central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), and into RVO, with subtypes venous engorgement (VE), branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Age was evaluated as a categorical variable (5-year increments). We investigated the association of age, gender, and laterality with the onset frequency of retinal vascular occlusion subtypes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The frequency of onset of RAO and RVO subtypes by age, gender and laterality. RESULTS: A total of 1 251 476 patients with retinal vascular occlusion were included, 23.8% of whom had RAO, whereas 76.2% had RVO. Of these, 1 248 656 and 798 089 patients were selected for analyses relevant to gender and laterality, respectively. The onset frequency of all subtypes increased with age. PRAO, BRAO, CRAO, and CRVO presented more frequently in men (53.5%, 51.3%, 52.6%, and 50.4%, respectively), whereas TRAO, VE, and BRVO presented more frequently in women (54.9%, 56.0%, and 54.5% respectively). All RAO subtypes and BRVO showed a right-eye onset preference (TRAO, 51.7%; PRAO, 54.4%; BRAO, 53.5%; CRAO, 53.4%; and BRVO, 51.0%), whereas VE and CRVO exhibited a left-eye onset preference (53.3% and 50.9%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although retinal vascular occlusion incidence increases with age regardless of subtypes, we found various subtype-specific disease-onset differences related to gender and, in particular, ocular laterality. These findings may improve understanding of the specific cause of retinal vascular occlusions of different subtypes and their relationships with structural and anatomic asymmetries of the vascular system.
De Arrigunaga S, Aziz K, Lorch AC, Friedman DS, Armstrong GW. A Review of Ophthalmic Telemedicine for Emergency Department Settings. Semin Ophthalmol 2022;37(1):83-90.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Patients presenting to emergency departments for ophthalmic emergencies benefit from prompt evaluation. However, Few emergency departments (EDs) have ophthalmologists on call, and eye care provided in EDs without ophthalmic services can be inaccurate. METHODS: We review the current state of ophthalmic telemedical care in EDs and highlight important considerations when implementing telemedicine in this setting. RESULTS: Telemedicine allows ophthalmologists to work with on-site emergency care providers to interview and examine patients remotely in EDs, enabling proper assessment of patient history, visual acuity, pupils, intraocular pressure, as well as the anterior and posterior segment. To date, patients' perceptions of this new model of care have been largely positive. DISCUSSION: The use of telemedical consultations for remote evaluation of patients with ophthalmic complaints stands to improve the quality of care provided to patients and extend the reach of remote ophthalmologists. The onset of the COVID-19 pandemic and the risk of in-person care further highlights the potential for telemedicine to augment existing models of emergency care.
Engelhard SB, Haripriya A, Namburar S, Pistilli M, Daniel E, Kempen JH. Dropped Nucleus during Cataract Surgery in South India: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2022;29(3):271-278.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine incidence, risk factors for, and outcomes of dropped nucleus (DN) during cataract surgery. METHODS: This is a matched case-control study at the Aravind Eye Hospital in Madurai, India. Out of 184 consecutive DN cases, 171 were included. The case immediately preceding the DN case by the same surgeon served as matched concurrent control. The proportion of cataract surgeries with DN was calculated with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Conditional logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios for potential risk factors. RESULTS: Among 415,487 consecutive cataract surgeries, incidence risk of DN was 0.044% [95% CI 0.038%, 0.051%], or 0.44 per 1,000 surgeries in 52 months. Significant preoperative risk factors were posterior polar cataract (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 21.73, p = .003); suspected loose zonules (aOR 8.85, p < .001); older age (aOR 1.57, p = .001); and presence of diabetes mellitus (aOR 1.79, p = .03). Associated intraoperative complications included zonular dialysis (OR 34.49, p < .001), vitreous disturbance (OR 193.36, p < .001), and posterior capsule rent (OR 384.39, p < .001). Phacoemulsification and manual small incision cataract surgery did not significantly differ in DN incidence. DN most commonly occurred during nucleus removal (35.1%) or during/immediately following hydrodissection (24.0%). Visual outcomes of DN were worse than controls on average, but 51.9% achieved visual acuity 20/40 or better at 1 month. CONCLUSIONS: DN occurred rarely, with low absolute risk even when a strong risk factor was present. Nearly all cases followed posterior capsular rent or zonular dialysis, usually with observed vitreous loss. In spite of increased risk of postoperative complications in the DN group, the majority achieved favorable results.
Pivodic A, Johansson H, Smith LEH, Hård A-L, Löfqvist C, Yoder BA, Hartnett EM, Wu C, Bründer M-C, Lagrèze WA, Stahl A, Al-Hawasi A, Larsson E, Lundgren P, Gränse L, Sunnqvist B, Tornqvist K, Wallin A, Holmström G, Albertsson-Wikland K, Nilsson S, Hellström A. Development and validation of a new clinical decision support tool to optimize screening for retinopathy of prematurity. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;106(11):1573-1580.Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Prematurely born infants undergo costly, stressful eye examinations to uncover the small fraction with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) that needs treatment to prevent blindness. The aim was to develop a prediction tool (DIGIROP-Screen) with 100% sensitivity and high specificity to safely reduce screening of those infants not needing treatment. DIGIROP-Screen was compared with four other ROP models based on longitudinal weights. METHODS: Data, including infants born at 24-30 weeks of gestational age (GA), for DIGIROP-Screen development (DevGroup, N=6991) originate from the Swedish National Registry for ROP. Three international cohorts comprised the external validation groups (ValGroups, N=1241). Multivariable logistic regressions, over postnatal ages (PNAs) 6-14 weeks, were validated. Predictors were birth characteristics, status and age at first diagnosed ROP and essential interactions. RESULTS: ROP treatment was required in 287 (4.1%)/6991 infants in DevGroup and 49 (3.9%)/1241 in ValGroups. To allow 100% sensitivity in DevGroup, specificity at birth was 53.1% and cumulatively 60.5% at PNA 8 weeks. Applying the same cut-offs in ValGroups, specificities were similar (46.3% and 53.5%). One infant with severe malformations in ValGroups was incorrectly classified as not needing screening. For all other infants, at PNA 6-14 weeks, sensitivity was 100%. In other published models, sensitivity ranged from 88.5% to 100% and specificity ranged from 9.6% to 45.2%. CONCLUSIONS: DIGIROP-Screen, a clinical decision support tool using readily available birth and ROP screening data for infants born GA 24-30 weeks, in the European and North American populations tested can safely identify infants not needing ROP screening. DIGIROP-Screen had equal or higher sensitivity and specificity compared with other models. DIGIROP-Screen should be tested in any new cohort for validation and if not validated it can be modified using the same statistical approaches applied to a specific clinical setting.
Sharon Y, Anesi SD, Martinez CE, Huang AJW, Foster CS, Chu DS. Repository Corticotropin Injection as an Alternative Treatment for Refractory Ocular Mucous Membrane Pemphigoid. Cornea 2022;41(1):45-51.Abstract
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report the clinical course and outcome of patients with refractory ocular mucous membrane pemphigoid (MMP) treated by repository corticotropin injection (RCI). METHODS: Patients with biopsy-proven ocular MMP treated with RCI from 3 tertiary medical centers were evaluated. Medical records between January 2013 and January 2021 were reviewed and deidentified to retrieve relevant disease-related data. Primary outcome measures included conjunctival inflammatory activity, change in Foster clinical conjunctival scarring staging after RCI treatment, and the development of ocular and systemic complications. RESULTS: Included were 15 patients (10 women and 5 men; 36-95 yrs of age) with a mean follow-up of 4.5 years. Most of the patients (80%) had Foster stage 3 at presentation, and all patients had active MMP. Each patient had failed to respond to at least 1 immunomodulatory drug during the follow-up, and 9 (60%) patients had treatment failure of at least 2 other agents before the use of RCI. The mean duration of RCI treatment was 21 months (range, 3-54 mo). Foster stage did not change in any of the 15 patients at the last follow-up. Nine patients continued RCI therapy at the last follow-up, and in all of them, the disease activity of MMP was well controlled. No serious adverse events because of RCI were documented during the follow-up in any treated patient. CONCLUSIONS: RCI may serve as an alternative or an adjunctive treatment in patients with severe and refractory ocular MMP. Treatment with RCI seems to be safe and well-tolerated.
Succar T, Beaver HA, Lee AG. Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on ophthalmology medical student teaching: educational innovations, challenges, and future directions. Surv Ophthalmol 2022;67(1):217-225.Abstract
Graduate medical education (GME) in ophthalmology has faced and overcome many challenges over the past years, and 2020 has been a game-changer. Although the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus pandemic disrupted medical education globally, ophthalmic educators rapidly transformed their curricula to novel and effective virtual learning formats. Thus, while the COVID-19 outbreak has been one of the most significant challenges faced in the history of medical education, it has also provided an impetus to develop innovative teaching practices, bringing with it unprecedented success in allowing medical students to continue their education in ophthalmology despite these challenges. We review and appraise novel educational interventions implemented by various institutions in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, highlighting their effectiveness, challenges and proposing future directions beyond the pandemic. Many of these innovations will persist even after the end of the pandemic because they have proven that face-to-face learning is not required for all aspects of the ophthalmic GME curriculum. As ophthalmic educators harness the power of educational technology it is critical that their novel educational initiatives are incorporated into competency-based curricula with assessments mapped to the competencies. Future research should focus on evaluating the impact of this transformation to virtual learning environments on student performances as well as implementing longitudinal assessment strategies for clinical competence in workplace-based practice.
Yu-Wai-Man P, Newman NJ, Carelli V, La Morgia C, Biousse V, Bandello FM, Clermont CV, Campillo LC, Leruez S, Moster ML, Cestari DM, Foroozan R, Sadun A, Karanjia R, Jurkute N, Blouin L, Taiel M, Sahel J-A, Sahel J-A. Natural history of patients with Leber hereditary optic neuropathy-results from the REALITY study. Eye (Lond) 2022;36(4):818-826.Abstract
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: REALITY is an international observational retrospective registry of LHON patients evaluating the visual course and outcome in Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Demographics and visual function data were collected from medical charts of LHON patients with visual loss. The study was conducted in 11 study centres in the United States of America and Europe. The collection period extended from the presymptomatic stage to at least more than one year after onset of vision loss (chronic stage). A Locally Weighted Scatterplot Smoothing (LOWESS) local regression model was used to analyse the evolution of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) over time. RESULTS: 44 LHON patients were included; 27 (61%) carried the m.11778G>A ND4 mutation, 8 (18%) carried the m.3460G>A ND1 mutation, and 9 (20%) carried the m.14484T>C ND6 mutation. Fourteen (32%) patients were under 18 years old at onset of vision loss and 5 (11%) were below the age of 12. The average duration of follow-up was 32.5 months after onset of symptoms. At the last observed measure, mean BCVA was 1.46 LogMAR in ND4 patients, 1.52 LogMAR in ND1 patients, and 0.97 LogMAR in ND6 patients. The worst visual outcomes were reported in ND4 patients aged at least 15 years old at onset, with a mean BCVA of 1.55 LogMAR and no tendency for spontaneous recovery. The LOESS modelling curve depicted a severe and permanent deterioration of BCVA. CONCLUSIONS: Amongst LHON patients with the three primary mtDNA mutations, adult patients with the m.11778G>A ND4 mutation had the worst visual outcomes, consistent with prior reports.
Pundlik S, Nigalye A, Laíns I, Mendez KM, Katz R, Kim J, Kim IK, Miller JB, Vavvas D, Miller JW, Luo G, Husain D. Area under the dark adaptation curve as a reliable alternate measure of dark adaptation response. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;106(10):1450-1456.Abstract
PURPOSE: Quantification of dark adaptation (DA) response using the conventional rod intercept time (RIT) requires very long testing time and may not be measurable in the presence of impairments due to diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). The goal of this study was to investigate the advantages of using area under the DA curve (AUDAC) as an alternative to the conventional parameters to quantify DA response. METHODS: Data on 136 eyes (AMD: 98, normal controls: 38) from an ongoing longitudinal study on AMD were used. DA was measured using the AdaptDx 20 min protocol. AUDAC was computed from the raw DA characteristic curve at different time points, including 6.5 min and 20 min (default). The presence of AMD in the given eye was predicted using a logistic regression model within the leave-one-out cross-validation framework, with DA response as the predictor while adjusting for age and gender. The DA response variable was either the AUDAC values computed at 6.5 min (AUDAC6.5) or at 20 min (AUDAC20) cut-off, or the conventional RIT. RESULTS: AUDAC6.5 was strongly correlated with AUDAC20 (β=86, p<0.001, R2=0.87). The accuracy of predicting the presence of AMD using AUDAC20 was 76%, compared with 79% when using RIT, the current gold standard. In addition, when limiting AUDAC calculation to 6.5 min cut-off, the predictive accuracy of AUDAC6.5 was 80%. CONCLUSIONS: AUDAC can be a valuable measure to quantify the overall DA response and can potentially facilitate shorter testing duration while maintaining diagnostic accuracy.

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