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Zang B, Rong SS, Ding XX, Zou B, Zang DX, Wang Y, Xu KM, Feng D, Li D. [The impact of diabetic retinopathy on vision-related quality of life]. Zhonghua Yan Ke Za Zhi 2022;58(10):760-768.Abstract
Objective: To assess the effect of diabetic retinopathy (DR) on vision-related quality of life (VRQoL) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, patients with type 2 diabetes residing in 15 residency communities in Fushun, Liaoning province were enrolled from July 2012 to May 2013. We measured the VRQoL by the 25-item National Eye Institute Visual Function Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ-25). Patients were grouped according to their age, gender, presence of visual impairment, and affected eyes. NEI-VFQ-25 scores were compared between/among groups using the Wilcoxon rank-sum test or Kruskal-Wallis H test. The severity of DR in the eyes was graded into no DR, mild non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR), moderate NPDR, severe NPDR, and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR). Severity scores from both eyes were then summarized to create a single per-person grade ranging from 1 (no DR in either eye) to 7 (bilateral PDR). Generalized linear models were used to assess the linear relationship between NEI-VFQ-25 scores and DR severity. Locally weighted scatterplot smoothing plots were generated to evaluate the possible nonlinear associations between concatenated severity of DR and VRQoL. Results: A total of 1 537 patients were recruited, including 836 (54.4%) with no DR, 479 (31.2%) with mild NPDR, 90 (5.9%) with moderate NPDR, 72 (4.7%) with severe NPDR and 60 (3.9%) with PDR. Compared with patients with unilateral DR, bilaterally involved subjects were statistically significantly compromised in general vision [70.2 (66.5, 72.5) vs. 68.9 (63.9, 71.6), Z=90.222, P=0.038], near activities [90.5 (85.8, 94.0) vs. 88.8 (84.5, 92.5), Z=114.942, P=0.005], dependency [91.1 (85.6, 96.5) vs. 89.3 (83.8, 94.5), Z=91.934, P=0.033], mental health [80.0 (73.4, 84.9) vs. 77.5 (70.8, 82.0), Z=118.388, P=0.003], role difficulties [76.8 (70.1, 82.4) vs. 74.5 (67.6, 80.6), Z =90.791, P=0.036] and NEI-VFQ-25 composite [88.3 (84.2, 91.0) vs. 86.9 (82.8, 90.1), Z=96.207, P=0.024]. Scores on general vision (χ2=85.665), near activities (χ2=78.462), distance activities (χ2=145.489), social function (χ2=53.629), dependency (χ2=86.710), mental health (χ2=68.281), role difficulties (χ2=45.357), color vision (χ2=68.176), peripheral vision (χ2=116.179) and NEI-VFQ-25 composite (χ2=133.291) decreased gradually as DR severity increased (all P<0.001). On role difficulties, locally weighted scatterplot smoothing plots showed significant"turning points"from bilateral mild NPDR to mild NPDR/>mild NPDR (slope m=-4.7) and from moderate NPDR/≥moderate NPDR to severe NPDR/≥severe NPDR (slope m=-12.6). Conclusion: Both greater severity and bilaterality of DR were associated with lower vision-specific VRQoL, particularly role difficulties and mental health.
Nguyen X-T-A, Thiadens AAHJ, Fiocco M, Tan W, McKibbin M, Klaver CCCW, Meester-Smoor MA, Van Cauwenbergh C, Strubbe I, Vergaro A, Pott J-WR, Hoyng CB, Leroy BP, Zemaitiene R, Khan KN, Boon CJF. Outcome of cataract surgery in patients with retinitis pigmentosa. Am J Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess the visual outcome of cataract surgery in patients with retinitis pigmentosa (RP). DESIGN: Retrospective, non-comparative clinical study. METHODS: Preoperative, intraoperative and postoperative data of patients with RP undergoing cataract surgery were collected from several expertise centers across Europe. RESULTS: In total, 295 eyes of 225 patients were included in the study. The mean age at surgery of the first eye was 56.1 ± 17.9 years. Following surgery, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) improved significantly from 1.03 to 0.81 logMAR (i.e. 20/214 to 20/129 Snellen) in the first treated eye (-0.22 logMAR; 95% CI: -0.31 to -0.13; p < 0.001), and from 0.80 to 0.56 logMAR (i.e. 20/126 to 20/73 Snellen) in the second treated eye (-0.24 logMAR; 95% CI: -0.32 to -0.15; p < 0.001). Marked BCVA improvements (postoperative change in BCVA of ≥ 0.3 logMAR) were observed in 87 out of 226 patients (39%). Greater odds for marked visual improvements were observed in patients with moderate visual impairment or worse. The most common complications were zonular dialysis (n = 15; 5%), and (exacerbation of) cystoid macular edema (n = 14; 5%), respectively. Postoperative posterior capsular opacifications were present in 111 out of 295 (38%) eyes. CONCLUSION: Significant improvements in BCVA are observed in most patients with RP following cataract surgery. Baseline BCVA is a predictor for visual outcome. Preoperative evaluation should include the assessment of potential zonular insufficiency and the presence of CME, as they are relatively common, and may increase the risk for complications.
Oke I, Badami A, Kosteva KL, Wu K, Desai MA. Systemic Barriers in Receiving Electronically Prescribed Glaucoma Medications. J Glaucoma 2022;31(10):812-815.Abstract
PRCIS: Over a third of electronically prescribed glaucoma medications were not picked up within 1 month of patient request. Feedback-driven protocols may help minimize treatment interruptions attributed to electronic prescribing. PURPOSE: Glaucoma treatment relies on long-term medication compliance and many socioeconomic factors impact the ability of patients to receive their medications. This study aims to quantify treatment interruptions attributable to electronically prescribed medications and propose interventions to minimize this barrier. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of the electronic prescribing patterns at a tertiary care hospital serving a socioeconomically diverse patient population. Glaucoma medication refill requests received over a 6-week interval were reviewed and patient pharmacies were contacted 1 month after the request date to determine whether the medication was received by the patient. Patients who did not pick up the prescriptions were contacted and consented to participate in a survey to identify the barriers to acquiring the medications. RESULTS: Refill requests of 198 glaucoma medications met the inclusion criteria and the most common classes were prostaglandin analogs (44%) and alpha-2-agonists (21%). Medications were not obtained within 1 month in 71 (35.9%) cases. Prior authorization requirement was significantly associated with patients not obtaining their medication (odds ratio, 0.07; 95% confidence interval, 0.03-0.45). Patient reported challenges to successful receipt electronically prescribed medications included insurance coverage (32.2%) and pharmacy availability (22.6%). CONCLUSIONS: Approximately a third of electronically prescribed glaucoma medications were not received by patients within a month of refill request due to the need for prior authorization, insurance coverage, and pharmacy availability. A mechanism to alert providers and to address these barriers to medication access may minimize treatment interruption and disease progression.
Margeta MA, Yin Z, Madore C, Pitts KM, Letcher SM, Tang J, Jiang S, Gauthier CD, Silveira SR, Schroeder CM, Lad EM, Proia AD, Tanzi RE, Holtzman DM, Krasemann S, Chen DF, Butovsky O. Apolipoprotein E4 impairs the response of neurodegenerative retinal microglia and prevents neuronal loss in glaucoma. Immunity 2022;55(9):1627-1644.e7.Abstract
The apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) allele is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer disease and a decreased risk of glaucoma, but the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we found that in two mouse glaucoma models, microglia transitioned to a neurodegenerative phenotype characterized by upregulation of Apoe and Lgals3 (Galectin-3), which were also upregulated in human glaucomatous retinas. Mice with targeted deletion of Apoe in microglia or carrying the human APOE4 allele were protected from retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss, despite elevated intraocular pressure (IOP). Similarly to Apoe-/- retinal microglia, APOE4-expressing microglia did not upregulate neurodegeneration-associated genes, including Lgals3, following IOP elevation. Genetic and pharmacologic targeting of Galectin-3 ameliorated RGC degeneration, and Galectin-3 expression was attenuated in human APOE4 glaucoma samples. These results demonstrate that impaired activation of APOE4 microglia is protective in glaucoma and that the APOE-Galectin-3 signaling can be targeted to treat this blinding disease.
Baldwin G, Sokol JT, Ludwig CA, Miller JB. A Comparative Study of Traditional Scleral Buckling to a New Technique: Guarded Light Pipe with Heads-Up Three-Dimensional Visualization. Clin Ophthalmol 2022;16:3079-3088.Abstract
Purpose: The guarded light pipe is a recently described alternative endoillumination technique to chandelier illumination. We sought to compare the outcomes of scleral buckling (SB) under indirect ophthalmoscopy (ID) to heads-up three-dimensional visualization with a guarded light pipe (3DGLP). Methods: A retrospective comparative study was performed, including 47 eyes that underwent SB for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) repair with either traditional ID (n = 31) or 3DGLP (n = 16). Results: The single surgery anatomic success rate was 87.0% in the ID group and 87.5% in the 3DGLP group. The final anatomic success rate was 100% in both groups. The median (interquartile range) post-operative logMAR was 0.10 (0.0-0.20) in the ID group and 0.08 (0.02-0.69) in the 3DGLP group (p = 0.51). The median operative time was 107 (94-123) minutes in the ID group and 100 (90-111) minutes in the 3DGLP group (p = 0.25). Among eyes that underwent subretinal fluid drainage, the operative time was significantly longer in the ID group compared to the 3DGLP group, 113 (100-135) minutes vs 93 (85-111) minutes (p = 0.035). There were no post-operative complications in the ID group and one complication of self-resolving vitreous hemorrhage associated with a malfunctioning cryoprobe in the 3DGLP group (p = 0.34). There were no cases of post-operative cataract progression in either group. Conclusion: Compared to traditional SB, 3DGLP improves ergonomics and educational value with similar anatomical, visual, intra and post-operative outcomes and may result in shorter operative time in cases requiring subretinal fluid drainage.
Vingopoulos F, Kasetty M, Garg I, Silverman RF, Katz R, Vasan RA, Lorch AC, Luo ZK, Miller JB. Active Learning to Characterize the Full Contrast Sensitivity Function in Cataracts. Clin Ophthalmol 2022;16:3109-3118.Abstract
Background: To characterize contrast sensitivity function (CSF) in cataractous and pseudophakic eyes compared to healthy control eyes using a novel quantitative CSF test with active learning algorithms. Methods: This is a prospective observational study at an academic medical center. CSF was measured in eyes with visually significant cataract, at least 2+ nuclear sclerosis (NS) and visual acuity (VA) ≥ 20/50, in pseudophakic eyes and in healthy controls with no more than 1+ NS and no visual complaints, using the Manifold Contrast Vision Meter. Outcomes included Area under the Log CSF (AULCSF) and CS thresholds at 1, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree (cpd). A subgroup analysis as performed on cataract eyes with VA ≥ 20/25. Results: A total of 167 eyes were included, 58 eyes in the cataract group, 77 controls, and 32 pseudophakic eyes with respective median AULCSF of 1.053 (0.352) vs 1.228 (0.318) vs 1.256 (0.360). In our multivariate regression model, cataract was associated with significantly reduced AULCSF (P= 0.04, β= -0.11) and contrast threshold at 6 cpd (P= 0.01, β= -0.16) compared to controls. Contrast threshold at 6 cpd was significantly reduced even in the subgroup of cataractous eyes with VA ≥ 20/25 (P=0.02, β=-0.16). Conclusion: The novel qCSF test detected disproportionate significant contrast deficits at 6 cpd in cataract eyes; this remained significant even in the cataractous eyes with VA ≥ 20/25. CSF testing may enhance cataract evaluation and surgical decision-making, particularly in patients with subjective visual complaints despite good VA.
Lennikov A, Yang M, Chang K, Pan L, Saddala MS, Lee C, Ashok A, Cho K-S, Utheim TP, Chen DF. Direct modulation of microglial function by electrical field. Front Cell Dev Biol 2022;10:980775.Abstract
Non-invasive electric stimulation (ES) employing a low-intensity electric current presents a potential therapeutic modality that can be applied for treating retinal and brain neurodegenerative disorders. As neurons are known to respond directly to ES, the effects of ES on glia cells are poorly studied. A key question is if ES directly mediates microglial function or modulates their activity merely via neuron-glial signaling. Here, we demonstrated the direct effects of ES on microglia in the BV-2 cells-an immortalized murine microglial cell line. The low current ES in a biphasic ramp waveform, but not that of rectangular or sine waveforms, significantly suppressed the motility and migration of BV-2 microglia in culture without causing cytotoxicity. This was associated with diminished cytoskeleton reorganization and microvilli formation in BV-2 cultures, as demonstrated by immunostaining of cytoskeletal proteins, F-actin and β-tubulin, and scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, ES of a ramp waveform reduced microglial phagocytosis of fluorescent zymosan particles and suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in BV-2 cells as shown by Proteome Profiler Mouse Cytokine Array. The results of quantitative PCR and immunostaining for cyclooxygenase-2, Interleukin 6, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α corroborated the direct suppression of LPS-induced microglial responses by a ramp ES. Transcriptome profiling further demonstrated that ramp ES effectively suppressed nearly half of the LPS-induced genes, primarily relating to cellular motility, energy metabolism, and calcium signaling. Our results reveal a direct modulatory effect of ES on previously thought electrically "non-responsive" microglia and suggest a new avenue of employing ES for anti-inflammatory therapy.
Vemula SK, Kim SA, Muvavarirwa T, Bell JL, Whitman MC. Impaired Extraocular Muscle Innervation Is Present Before Eye Opening in a Mouse Model of Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2022;63(10):4.Abstract
Purpose: To determine if extraocular muscles (EOMs) from mice with nystagmus show abnormalities in myofiber composition and innervation, as seen in EOMs from human nystagmus patients, and to determine when in development those changes occur. Methods: Balb/c albino mice were crossed to pigmented mice to generate heterozygous mice, which were mated to create experimental litters containing albinos and wild-type controls. Orbits were harvested from adult animals (12 weeks old); on postnatal day (P)0, P10, P14, and P21; and from 6-week-old animals. EOM sections were collected from the intraorbital portion of the muscles. Sections were immunostained for slow and fast myosin and for neuromuscular junctions (NMJs). The proportion of each myofiber subtype and the density and size of NMJs were quantified. Initial innervation patterns were assessed using whole-mount immunostaining of embryonic day (E)13.5 embryos expressing IslMN:GFP. Results: Adult albino EOMs display an increased proportion of slow myofibers, larger slow myofibers, and a decreased density of NMJs-similar to human nystagmus patients. The percentage of NMJs on slow myofibers is also lower in albino animals. The initial innervation pattern of the incoming ocular motor neurons is normal in E13.5 albino embryos. Differences in the proportion of slow and fast myofiber subtypes are present as early as P14, and a lower percentage of NMJs on slow myofibers is present by P21. There is a lower density of NMJs on albino EOMs as early as P10, prior to eye opening. Conclusions: Changes in NMJ development observed before eye opening indicate that nystagmus is not solely secondary to poor vision.
Madjedi KM, Stuart KV, Chua SYL, Luben RN, Warwick A, Pasquale LR, Kang JH, Wiggs JL, Lentjes MA, Aschard H, Sattar N, Foster PJ, Khawaja AP, for and the and Consortium MRFGCUKBEV. The Association between Serum Lipids and Intraocular Pressure in 2 Large United Kingdom Cohorts. Ophthalmology 2022;129(9):986-996.Abstract
PURPOSE: Serum lipids are modifiable, routinely collected blood test features associated with cardiovascular health. We examined the association of commonly collected serum lipid measures (total cholesterol [TC], high-density lipoprotein cholesterol [HDL-C], low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C], and triglycerides) with intraocular pressure (IOP). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study in the UK Biobank and European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Norfolk cohorts. PARTICIPANTS: We included 94 323 participants from the UK Biobank (mean age, 57 years) and 6230 participants from the EPIC-Norfolk (mean age, 68 years) cohorts with data on TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, and triglycerides collected between 2006 and 2009. METHODS: Multivariate linear regression adjusting for demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, medical, and ophthalmic covariables was used to examine the associations of serum lipids with corneal-compensated IOP (IOPcc). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Corneal-compensated IOP. RESULTS: Higher levels of TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C were associated independently with higher IOPcc in both cohorts after adjustment for key demographic, medical, and lifestyle factors. For each 1-standard deviation increase in TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C, IOPcc was higher by 0.09 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.06-0.11 mmHg; P < 0.001), 0.11 mmHg (95% CI, 0.08-0.13 mmHg; P < 0.001), and 0.07 mmHg (95% CI, 0.05-0.09 mmHg; P < 0.001), respectively, in the UK Biobank cohort. In the EPIC-Norfolk cohort, each 1-standard deviation increase in TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C was associated with a higher IOPcc by 0.19 mmHg (95% CI, 0.07-0.31 mmHg; P = 0.001), 0.14 mmHg (95% CI, 0.03-0.25 mmHg; P = 0.016), and 0.17 mmHg (95% CI, 0.06-0.29 mmHg; P = 0.003). An inverse association between triglyceride levels and IOP in the UK Biobank (-0.05 mmHg; 95% CI, -0.08 to -0.03; P < 0.001) was not replicated in the EPIC-Norfolk cohort (P = 0.30). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that serum TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C are associated positively with IOP in 2 United Kingdom cohorts and that triglyceride levels may be associated negatively. Future research is required to assess whether these associations are causal in nature.
Morris AH, Horvat C, Stagg B, Grainger DW, Lanspa M, Orme J, Clemmer TP, Weaver LK, Thomas FO, Grissom CK, Hirshberg E, East TD, Wallace CJ, Young MP, Sittig DF, Suchyta M, Pearl JE, Pesenti A, Bombino M, Beck E, Sward KA, Weir C, Phansalkar S, Bernard GR, Thompson TB, Brower R, Truwit J, Steingrub J, Hiten DR, Willson DF, Zimmerman JJ, Nadkarni V, Randolph AG, Curley MAQ, Newth CJL, Lacroix J, Agus MSD, Lee KH, deBoisblanc BP, Moore FA, Evans SR, Sorenson DK, Wong A, Boland MV, Dere WH, Crandall A, Facelli J, Huff SM, Haug PJ, Pielmeier U, Rees SE, Karbing DS, Andreassen S, Fan E, Goldring RM, Berger KI, Oppenheimer BW, Ely WE, Pickering BW, Schoenfeld DA, Tocino I, Gonnering RS, Pronovost PJ, Savitz LA, Dreyfuss D, Slutsky AS, Crapo JD, Pinsky MR, James B, Berwick DM. Computer clinical decision support that automates personalized clinical care: a challenging but needed healthcare delivery strategy. J Am Med Inform Assoc 2022;Abstract
How to deliver best care in various clinical settings remains a vexing problem. All pertinent healthcare-related questions have not, cannot, and will not be addressable with costly time- and resource-consuming controlled clinical trials. At present, evidence-based guidelines can address only a small fraction of the types of care that clinicians deliver. Furthermore, underserved areas rarely can access state-of-the-art evidence-based guidelines in real-time, and often lack the wherewithal to implement advanced guidelines. Care providers in such settings frequently do not have sufficient training to undertake advanced guideline implementation. Nevertheless, in advanced modern healthcare delivery environments, use of eActions (validated clinical decision support systems) could help overcome the cognitive limitations of overburdened clinicians. Widespread use of eActions will require surmounting current healthcare technical and cultural barriers and installing clinical evidence/data curation systems. The authors expect that increased numbers of evidence-based guidelines will result from future comparative effectiveness clinical research carried out during routine healthcare delivery within learning healthcare systems.
Lin LY, Pan W, Ying G-S, Binenbaum G. Ocular Findings in Children with Headache. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2022;:1-8.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the prevalence of ophthalmological findings suggesting an ocular cause for headache or occult neurological disease, among children with headache. METHODS: Retrospective cross-sectional study on children with headache at a tertiary outpatient ophthalmology clinic. All children underwent sensorimotor, anterior segment, and dilated fundoscopic examinations, with or without cycloplegic refraction. Prevalence of one or more new findings of ocular or occult neurological cause of headache, including glaucoma, uveitis, optic nerve elevation, or possible asthenopia from strabismus or refractive issues. Headache characteristics and associated symptoms were evaluated as risk factors for ocular findings. RESULTS: Among 1,878 children with headache (mean age 10 yrs, range 2-18), 492 (26.1%, 95% CI 24.3-28.2%) children had one or more new ocular findings that could cause headache or indicate intracranial disease: refractive issues (342, 18.2%), strabismus (83, 4.4%), optic nerve elevation (51, 2.7%; 26 with papilledema, 25 with pseudopapilledema), uveitis (6, 0.3%), and glaucoma (2, 0.1%). Shorter headache duration was associated with ocular findings (p = .047), but headache frequency, photophobia, nausea/vomiting, and visual changes were not. In univariable analysis, visual changes (p ≤ .001), nausea/vomiting (p ≤ .002), and morning headache (p = .02) were associated with optic nerve elevation. CONCLUSION: An ophthalmologic examination including cycloplegic refraction is indicated in children with headache, as one-quarter have a treatable ocular condition, which may be related to the headache, or sign of intracranial pathology. While nausea, visual changes, or morning headache should raise concern, coincident visual, ocular, or systemic symptoms are not reliable predictors of discovering ocular pathology in a child with headache.
Moussa K, Begaj T, Ma K, Barrantes PC, Eliott D, Sobrin L. Systemic lymphoma masquerading as Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome: Report of a case with multimodal imaging and histopathology. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2022;27:101643.Abstract
Purpose: To report a case of systemic diffuse large B cell lymphoma presenting with ocular manifestations and neurologic findings resembling Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada syndrome. Observations: A 51-year-old Caucasian man presented with headache, ear pain, and blurry vision in both eyes. He was found to have bilateral exudative retinal detachments. After a short period of initial improvement with high dose systemic corticosteroid, his condition significantly worsened. An extensive work-up, including a kidney biopsy, led to a diagnosis of systemic diffuse large B cell lymphoma. He had excellent recovery following treatment with appropriate chemotherapy. Conclusions and Importance: Systemic malignancy may present with ocular manifestations and may masquerade as another diagnosis. An unexpected clinical course may suggest an alternative diagnosis. A broad systemic work-up including an evaluation for malignancy should be considered for patients presenting with unexplained exam or systemic findings.
Zeng R, Vingopoulos F, Wang M, Bannerman A, Wescott HE, Baldwin G, Katz R, Koch T, Elze T, Kim LA, Vavvas DG, Husain D, Miller JB. Structure-function association between contrast sensitivity and retinal thickness (total, regional, and individual retinal layer) in patients with idiopathic epiretinal membrane. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate structure-function associations between retinal thickness, visual acuity (VA), and contrast sensitivity (CS), using the quantitative contrast sensitivity function (qCSF) method in patients with idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM). METHODS: Retrospective, cross-sectional observational study. Patients with a diagnosis of idiopathic ERM were included. Patients underwent complete ophthalmic examination, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography imaging (SD-OCT) (SPECTRALIS® Heidelberg), and CS testing using the qCSF method. Outcomes included area under the log CSF (AULCSF), contrast acuity (CA), and CS thresholds at 1, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree (cpd). RESULTS: A total of 102 eyes of 79 patients were included. Comparing standardized regression coefficients, retinal thickness in most ETDRS sectors was associated with larger reductions in AULCSF, CA, and CS thresholds at 3 and 6 cpd than those in logMAR VA. These differences in effect on VA and CS metrics were more pronounced in the central subfield and inner ETDRS sectors. Among the retinal layers, increased INL thickness had the most detrimental effect on visual function, being significantly associated with reductions in logMAR VA, AULCSF, CA, and CS thresholds at 3 and 6 cpd (all p < .01), as well as at 1.5 and 12 cpd (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Retinal thickness seems to be associated with larger reductions in contrast sensitivity than VA in patients with ERM. Measured with the qCSF method, contrast sensitivity may serve as a valuable adjunct visual function metric for patients with ERM.
Marmamula S, Barrenkala NR, Kumbham TR, Modepalli SB, Yellapragada R, Khanna RC, Friedman DS. Impact of an intervention for avoidable vision loss on visual function in the elderly-The Hyderabad Ocular Morbidity in Elderly Study (HOMES). Eye (Lond) 2022;Abstract
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To report the impact of interventions for avoidable vision impairment (VI) on the visual function of elderly residents in 'homes for the aged' in India. METHODS: Participants aged ≥60 years were recruited. A comprehensive eye examination was conducted by trained examiners and interventions were provided. Trained social investigators administered the Indian Vision Function questionnaire (INDVFQ) to assess visual function before and after the intervention (spectacles, cataract surgery or laser capsulotomy). Lower scores on IVFQ imply better visual function. VI was defined as presenting visual acuity worse than 6/18 in the better eye. VI due to cataract, uncorrected refractive errors, and posterior capsular opacification after cataract surgery were considered avoidable VI. RESULTS: The mean age of the participants (n = 613) was 73.8 years (standard deviation: 8.1 years) and 378 (62.2%) were women. 64/103 (62.1%) participants who had avoidable VI at baseline were evaluated after the intervention. Significant gains were observed in all four domains of visual function. There was a 14.9% improvement in mobility scores (33.8 versus 28.8; p = 0.03), a 19.9% improvement in the activity limitations score (36.8 versus 29.5; p < 0.01), a 10.9% improvement in the psychosocial impact score (41.1 versus 36.6; p < 0.01) and a 13.6% improvement in the visual symptoms score (49.2 versus 42.5 p < 0.01). Overall, the mean IVFQ score improved by 16.4% (47.6 versus 39.8; p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: Elderly individuals in residential care with avoidable VI had a significant improvement in visual function after relatively low-cost interventions such as spectacles and cataract surgery. Strategies are needed to provide these interventions for the elderly in 'homes for the aged' in India.
Ogawa Y, Dana R, Kim S, Jain S, Rosenblatt MI, Perez VL, Clayton JA, Alves M, Rocha EM, Amparo F, Seo KY, Wang Y, Shen J, Oh JY, Vanathi M, Nair S, Na K-S, Riemens A, Sippel K, Soifer M, Wang S, Trindade M, Kim MK, Yoon CH, Yagi R, Hiratsuka R, Ogawa M, Shimizu E, Sato Y, Pflugfelder S, Tsubota K. Multicenter prospective validation study for international chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease consensus diagnostic criteria. Ocul Surf 2022;26:200-208.Abstract
PURPOSE: To validate the international chronic ocular graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) diagnostic criteria (ICCGVHD) compared to the National Institute of Health diagnostic criteria 2014 (NIH2014) for chronic ocular GVHD. METHODS: Between 2013 and 2019, the study enrolled 233 patients with or without chronic ocular GVHD combined with the presence or absence of systemic chronic GVHD in an internationally prospective multicenter and observational cohort from 9 institutions. All patients were evaluated for four clinical parameters of ICCGVHD. RESULTS: The relation between the ICCGVHD score (0-11) and NIH2014 eye score (0-4) was relatively high (r = 0.708, 95% CI: 0.637-0.767, p < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity of ICCGVHD for NIH 2014 for 233 patients were 94.3% (95% CI: 89.6%-98.1%) and 71.7% (95% CI: 63.0-79.5%), respectively (cutoff value of the ICCGVHD score = 6). The positive predictive value was 77.1% (95% CI: 71.1%-82.1%), and the negative predictive value was 87.0% (95% CI:81.6-92.5%). For the patients with systemic GVHD (n = 171), the sensitivity and specificity were 94.2% and 67.2%, respectively (ICCGVHD-score cutoff value = 6). By receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.903 (95% CI: 0.859-0.948). For patients without systemic GVHD (n = 62), the sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 76.7%, respectively (ICCGVHD-score cutoff value = 6). The AUC was 0.891 (95% CI 0.673-1.000). CONCLUSIONS: Good sensitivity, specificity, predictive value and correlation were found between ICCGVHD and NIH2014. ICCGVHD scores ≥6 can be useful to diagnose ocular GVHD with or without systemic GVHD for clinical research.

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