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Ji MH, Callaway NF, Ludwig CA, Vail D, Al-Moujahed A, Rosenblatt TR, Leng T, Sanislo SR, Moshfeghi DM. Visual acuity and progression of macular atrophy in patients receiving intravitreal anti-VEGF for age-related macular degeneration. Eur J Ophthalmol 2022;32(1):429-435.Abstract
PURPOSE: Whether intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) cause retinal atrophy is still a subject of debate. We reported 13 eyes that received several injections of anti-VEGF for wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) with good visual acuity despite geographic atrophy on imaging. METHODS: This is a case series study conducted at Byers Eye Institute at Stanford University. Patients of three retina specialists with wet AMD who received six or more intravitreal injection of anti-VEGFs with visual acuity of 20/60 or better and incomplete RPE and outer retina atrophy (iRORA) or complete RPE and outer retinal atrophy (cRORA) were enrolled in this case series. Different imaging modalities were reviewed by three retina specialists comparing the baseline with the most recent exam. RESULTS: About 13 eyes of 10 patients met the selection criteria. Eleven eyes were classified as iRORA and 2 as cRORA. Despite the development of macular atrophy on imaging after an average of 38.1 injections, eyes maintained stable visual acuity. CONCLUSION: The discrepancy between structural and functional findings in this cohort suggests that patients treated by anti-VEGF drugs exhibit divergent clinical outcomes for currently unknown reasons. The authors propose anti-VEGF may affect melanosomes within RPE without disrupting RPE and photoreceptors function completely. This requires further investigation.
Scelfo C, Elhusseiny AM, Alkharashi M. Effect of inferior oblique myectomy on primary position when combined with lateral rectus recession for intermittent exotropia. Eur J Ophthalmol 2022;32(1):559-562.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the surgical success and need for adjustment due to overcorrection in patients who undergo inferior oblique myectomy (IOM) combined with lateral rectus recession (LRc) for intermittent exotropia in the setting of inferior oblique overaction. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of patients with intermittent exotropia who underwent LRc using adjustable sutures alone versus LRc combined with IOM between January 2010 and July 2018 at our institution. Binocular alignment was recorded before and within one week of surgery. Evaluation measures noted were surgical success (defined as distance alignment of ⩽10 prism diopters) and need for postoperative adjustment due to overcorrection. RESULTS: Of 48 patients, 24 underwent LRc alone and 24 underwent LRc combined with IOM; all 48 patients had adjustable sutures. Surgical success was significantly higher in the LRc alone group (91.6%) compared with the LRc with IOM group (62.5%) (p = 0.036). The need for postoperative adjustment due to overcorrection was also significantly higher in the LRc with IOM group (20.8%) compared with the LRc alone group (0%) (p = 0.049). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, more patients needed adjustment for overcorrection after undergoing LRc combined with IOM versus LRc alone. Since the tertiary action of the inferior oblique is abduction it is possible that, in patients with inferior oblique overaction, surgically weakening the inferior oblique causes more esodeviation and overcorrection. Thus, surgical correction of exotropia and inferior oblique overaction using LRc combined with IOM may lead to overcorrection and increased need for postoperative adjustment.
Mudie LI, Guo X, Slavin RE, Madden N, Wolf R, Owoeye J, Friedman DS, Repka MX, Collins ME. Baltimore Reading and Eye Disease Study: vision outcomes of school-based eye care. Can J Ophthalmol 2022;57(1):36-40.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: There are unmet needs for refractive correction in the pediatric population, especially in high-poverty communities. We reported the impact of refractive correction on vision outcomes over a 2-year follow-up in the Baltimore Reading and Eye Disease Study. DESIGN: Prospective, school-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Students of second and third grades who were prescribed glasses during baseline assessment. METHODS: We conducted baseline eye exams in 12 Baltimore public schools during the fall of school year 2014-15 with follow-up visits in the spring of school year 2014-15 (first follow-up) and school year 2015-16 (second follow-up). Visual acuity (VA) was measured at distance and near with correction. Refractive status was determined based on the eye with the larger refractive error and categorized as myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: VA in better-seeing and worse-seeing eye at first and second follow-up, and acuity improvement from baseline. RESULTS: In the 206 students (84% African American) who completed the first follow-up, both distance (from 0.14 ± 0.20 to 0.05 ± 0.10 logMAR) and near presenting VA (from 0.08 ± 0.16 to 0.03 ± 0.06 logMAR) improved from the baseline assessment; children with more severe hyperopia showed improvement in near VA by 0.05 ± 0.16 logMAR. Children who were prescribed glasses through a school-based research study had improved vision, which was sustained into the following school year. CONCLUSIONS: Many second and third graders in Baltimore Schools needed refractive correction and benefited from provision of glasses with sustained vision improvement over the 2-year observation.
Collins ME, Guo X, Mudie LI, Slavin RE, Madden N, Chang D, Owoeye J, Repka MX, Friedman DS. Baseline vision results from the Baltimore Reading and Eye Disease Study. Can J Ophthalmol 2022;57(1):29-35.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: We describe the Baltimore Reading and Eye Disease Study, report baseline ocular findings, and explore the feasibility of eye examinations in the school setting. DESIGN: Prospective, school-based cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Students in second and third grades. METHODS: Baseline eye examinations, including near and distance presenting visual acuity (VA), stereopsis, ocular alignment, dilated retinal examination, and cycloplegic refraction, were performed in 12 Baltimore public schools during the 2014-15 school year. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Presenting VA, prevalence of refractive error, and other ocular findings. RESULTS: Among the 1054 eligible students, 321 participated. There were 271 (84.4%) African American and 186 (57.9%) female students; mean age was 7.9 ± 0.8 years. Cycloplegia was achieved in 308. The mean presenting distance and near VA was 0.1 ± 0.2 logMAR (range -0.1 to 1.5) and 0.1 ± 0.2 logMAR (range 0.0-1.6) in the better-seeing eye, respectively. The most common ocular findings were +1.00 diopter (D) or greater hyperopia (34.7%), -0.50 D or greater myopia (29.5%), 1.00 D or greater astigmatism (23.4%), and convergence insufficiency (7.2%). Thirty-seven (11.5%) children needed referral to an eye care provider; 10% of students required glasses full-time. CONCLUSIONS: Whereas the majority of second and third grade students in this study have good VA and minimal refractive error, 1 in 9 have an ocular finding necessitating further evaluation. It was feasible to conduct cycloplegic eye examinations in the school setting.
Böhm M, Leon P, Wylęgała A, Ong Tone S, Condron T, Jurkunas U. Cost-effectiveness analysis of preloaded versus non-preloaded Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty for the treatment of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy in an academic centre. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;106(7):914-922.Abstract
AIMS: To determine the cost-effectiveness of preloaded Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (pDMEK) versus non-preloaded DMEK (n-pDMEK) for the treatment of Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD). METHODS: From a societal and healthcare perspective, this retrospective cost-effectiveness analysis analysed a cohort of 58 patients with FECD receiving pDMEK (n=38) or n-pDMEK (n=30) from 2016 to 2018 in the Department of Ophthalmology, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, USA. Exclusion criteria were previous ocular surgeries (other than uncomplicated cataract surgery), including other keratoplasty procedures, ocular pathological conditions as glaucoma, amblyopia, laser treatments, or any retinal or corneal disease. The main outcome parameters were the incremental cost-utility ratio (ICUR) and net monetary benefit (NMB). RESULTS: pDMEK was less costly compared with n-pDMEK (healthcare: $13 886 vs $15 329; societal: $20 805 vs $22 262), with a slighter greater utility (QALY 0.6682 vs QALY 0.6640) over a time horizon of 15 years. pDMEK offered a slightly higher clinical effectiveness (+0.0042 QALY/patient) at a lower cost (healthcare: -$1444 per patient; societal: -$1457 per patient) in improving visual acuity in this cohort of patients with FECD. pDMEK achieved a favourable ICUR and NMB compared with n-pDMEK. Based on sensitivity analyses performed, the economic model was robust. CONCLUSIONS: From the societal and healthcare perspective, pDMEK was less costly and generated comparable utility values relative to n-pDMEK. Therefore, pDMEK appears to be cost-effective and cost saving with respect to n-pDMEK. Further long-term follow-up data are needed to confirm these findings.
Wai KM, Vingopoulos F, Garg I, Kasetty M, Silverman RF, Katz R, Laíns I, Miller JW, Husain D, Vavvas DG, Kim LA, Miller JB. Contrast sensitivity function in patients with macular disease and good visual acuity. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;106(6):839-844.Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Contrast sensitivity function (CSF) may better estimate a patient's visual function compared with visual acuity (VA). Our study evaluates the quick CSF (qCSF) method to measure visual function in eyes with macular disease and good letter acuity. METHODS: Patients with maculopathies (retinal vein occlusion, macula-off retinal detachment, dry age-related macular degeneration and wet age-related macular degeneration) and good letter acuity (VA ≥20/30) were included. The qCSF method uses an intelligent algorithm to measure CSF across multiple spatial frequencies. All maculopathy eyes combined and individual macular disease groups were compared with healthy control eyes. Main outcomes included area under the log CSF (AULCSF) and six CS thresholds ranging from 1 cycle per degree (cpd) to 18 cpd. RESULTS: 151 eyes with maculopathy and 93 control eyes with VA ≥20/30 were included. The presence of a maculopathy was associated with significant reduction in AULCSF (β: -0.174; p<0.001) and CS thresholds at all spatial frequencies except for 18 cpd (β: -0.094 to -0.200 log CS, all p<0.01) compared with controls. Reductions in CS thresholds were most notable at low and intermediate spatial frequencies (1.5 cpd, 3 cpd and 6 cpd). CONCLUSION: CSF measured with the qCSF active learning method was found to be significantly reduced in eyes affected by macular disease despite good VA compared with healthy control eyes. The qCSF method is a promising clinical tool to quantify subtle visual deficits that may otherwise go unrecognised by current testing methods.
Ludwig CA, Jabbehdari S, Ji M, Vail D, Al-Moujahed A, Rosenblatt T, Azad AD, Veerappan M, Callaway NF, Moshfeghi DM. Higher prevalence of fundus haemorrhages in early-screened (NEST Study) as compared to late-screened (SUNDROP Study) newborn populations. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;106(5):676-680.Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine whether timing of ophthalmic screening influences prevalence of neonatal fundus haemorrhages. We compared the prevalence of fundus haemorrhages in two populations: term newborns screened early (less than 72 hours) and preterm newborns screened late (4-11 weeks). Additionally, we reviewed the literature on timing and prevalence of newborn haemorrhages. METHODS: Retrospective observational cohort study. Infants who underwent wide-angle ophthalmic digital imaging over one overlapping year in the Newborn Eye Screen Testing (NEST) or Stanford University Network for Diagnosis of Retinopathy of Prematurity (SUNDROP) programme were included. The PubMed database was filtered to include English-language articles dating back to 1950. Nine articles were selected for review based on inclusion of the prevalence of newborn fundus haemorrhages at multiple time points. RESULTS: A total of 202 patients received early imaging in the NEST cohort and 73 patients received late imaging in the SUNDROP cohort. In the NEST cohort, 20.2% of newborns had haemorrhages. In contrast, we found haemorrhages in only one case or 1.4% of the SUNDROP cohort. Using prevalence data from nine additional studies, we developed a predicted probabilities model of newborn haemorrhages. Per this model, the probability of seeing a haemorrhage if you screen an infant at 1 hour is 18.8%, at 2 weeks is 2.9% and at 1 month is 0.28%. CONCLUSION: We found a significant difference in the prevalence of fundus haemorrhages between the early-screened NEST cohort and the late-screened, preterm SUNDROP cohort. Likely, this difference is due to the transient nature of most newborn haemorrhages.
North VS, Reshef ER, Lee NG, Lefebvre DR, Freitag SK, Yoon MK. Lower eyelid malposition following repair of complex orbitofacial trauma. Orbit 2022;41(2):193-198.Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare the incidence of lower eyelid malposition following repair of isolated orbital floor fractures with that of complex orbitofacial fractures (defined as multi-wall fractures or prior orbital fracture repairs requiring revision) by oculofacial plastic surgeons via a transconjunctival or swinging eyelid approach. METHODS: Retrospective review of 175 patients who underwent surgical repair of orbital fractures at our institution. The primary outcomes were the occurrence of lower eyelid malposition (ectropion, entropion, and eyelid retraction) and the need for subsequent surgical correction. RESULTS: Of 95 patients with isolated orbital floor fractures, 4 developed eyelid malposition (4.2%), 1 of which required surgical repair (1.1%). Of 80 patients with complex orbitofacial fractures (48 multi-wall fractures, 32 secondary revisions), 10 had pre-operative eyelid malposition and were excluded from further analysis. Fourteen of the remaining 70 patients developed postoperative eyelid malposition (20%), 3 of which required surgical repair (4.3%). The difference in the occurrence of eyelid malposition between groups was statistically significant (p = .001), but the difference in rates of those requiring subsequent repair was not (p = .182). There was no statistically significant difference in the occurrence of eyelid malposition when considering other surgical factors including lateral canthotomy, conjunctival closure, implant material, or anterior rim screws. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of lower eyelid malposition following orbital fracture repair via a fornix-based approach was significantly higher for the repair of complex orbitofacial fractures than for isolated floor fractures. However, very few patients in either group required surgical repair for eyelid malposition. Surgical factors including implant material did not affect outcomes.
Lu ES, Cui Y, Le R, Zhu Y, Wang JC, Laíns I, Katz R, Lu Y, Zeng R, Garg I, Wu DM, Eliott D, Vavvas DG, Husain D, Miller JW, Kim LA, Miller JB. Detection of neovascularisation in the vitreoretinal interface slab using widefield swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in diabetic retinopathy. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;106(4):534-539.Abstract
AIMS: To compare the efficacy of diabetic retinal neovascularisation (NV) detection using the widefield swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (WF SS-OCTA) vitreoretinal interface (VRI) Angio slab and SS-OCT VRI Structure slab. METHODS: A prospective, observational study was performed at Massachusetts Eye and Ear from January 2019 to June 2020. Patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR), patients with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy and patients with diabetes but without diabetic retinopathy were included. All patients were imaged with WF SS-OCTA using the 12×12 mm Angio scan protocol centred on the fovea and optic disc. The en-face SS-OCTA VRI Angio slab and SS-OCT VRI Structure slab were evaluated for the presence or absence of NV. SS-OCTA B-scan was used to classify NV according to cross-sectional morphology (forward, tabletop or flat). All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS V.26.0. RESULTS: One hundred and forty-two eyes of 89 participants were included in the study. VRI Angio detected NV at higher rates compared with VRI Structure (p<0.05). Combining VRI Angio and Structure improved detection rates compared with VRI Angio alone (p<0.05). Due to segmentation errors of the internal limiting membrane, NV with flat morphological classification had lower rates of detection on VRI Angio compared with NV with forward and tabletop morphology (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: WF SS-OCTA 12×12 mm VRI Angio and SS-OCT VRI Structure imaging centred on the fovea and optic disc detected NV with high sensitivity and low false positives. The VRI slab may be useful to diagnose and monitor PDR in clinical practice.
Wang J, Cui Y, Vingopoulos F, Kasetty M, Silverman RF, Katz R, Kim L, Miller JB. Disorganisation of retinal inner layers is associated with reduced contrast sensitivity in retinal vein occlusion. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;106(2):241-245.Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine if disorganisation of retinal inner layers (DRIL) is associated with reduced contrast sensitivity (CS) in patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) with a history of macular oedema (ME). METHODS: Prospective, observational cohort study. Patients with a history of ME secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) or branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) from October 2017 to July 2019 at a single institution were included. Patients underwent complete ophthalmic examination, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and CS testing using the quick contrast sensitivity function (qCSF) method. Eyes with coexisting macular disease were excluded. SD-OCT images were analysed for presence and extent of DRIL, intraretinal fluid (IRF), subretinal fluid (SRF), hyperreflective foci, epiretinal membrane (ERM), external limiting membrane (ELM) disruption, ellipsoid zone (EZ) disruption, central macular thickness (CMT) and central foveal thickness (CFT). Multivariable mixed-effect linear regressions were performed for the area under the log contrast sensitivity function (AULCSF) using Stata (StataCorp). P values <0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: 58 visits from 31 patients were included (1.9±1.2 visits per patient). 29 (50%) were for CRVO. The average age was 63.9±10.5 years. On multivariable analysis, DRIL extent (p<0.001), CMT (p=0.007), CFT (p=0.024) and moderate cataract (p=0.001) were significantly associated with worse AULCSF. CONCLUSIONS: DRIL extent is associated with reduced CS in eyes with ME secondary to RVO. DRIL is an imaging feature that has important implications for visual function.
Chirapapaisan C, Muller RT, Sahin A, Cruzat A, Cavalcanti BM, Jamali A, Pavan-Langston D, Hamrah P. Effect of herpes simplex keratitis scar location on bilateral corneal nerve alterations: an in vivo confocal microscopy study. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;106(3):319-325.Abstract
AIMS: To evaluate the impact of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-induced scar location on bilateral corneal nerve alterations using laser in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). METHODS: Central and peripheral corneal subbasal nerve density (CSND) were assessed bilaterally in 39 patients with unilateral HSV-induced corneal scars (21 central scars (CS), 18 peripheral scars (PS)) using IVCM. Results were compared between patients and 24 age-matched controls. CSND was correlated to corneal sensation for all locations. RESULTS: Overall patients revealed significant decrease of CSND in the central and peripheral cornea (9.13±0.98 and 6.26±0.53 mm/mm2, p<0.001), compared with controls (22.60±0.77 and 9.88±0.49 mm/mm2). CS group showed a decrease in central (8.09±1.30 mm/mm2) and total peripheral nerves (5.15±0.62 mm/mm2) of the affected eyes, whereas PS group demonstrated a decrease in central (10.34±1.48 mm/mm2) and localised peripheral nerves only in the scar area (4.22±0.77 mm/mm2) (all p<0.001). In contralateral eyes, CSND decreased in the central cornea of the CS group (16.88±1.27, p=0.004), and in the peripheral area, mirroring the scar area in the affected eyes of the PS group (7.20±0.87, p=0.032). Corneal sensation significantly decreased in the whole cornea of the affected, but not in contralateral eyes (p<0.001). A positive correlation between CSND and corneal sensation was found in all locations (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with HSV scar demonstrate bilateral CSND decrease as shown by IVCM. CSND and corneal sensation decrease in both central and peripheral cornea in affected eyes, although only in the scar area in PS group. Interestingly, diminishment of CSND was found locally in the contralateral eyes, corresponding and mirroring the scar location in the affected eyes.
Yu G, Seto BK, Yamada K, Zeng K, Arroyo JG. COMBINED PNEUMATIC AND ENZYMATIC VITREOLYSIS FOR SEVERE CASES OF VITREOMACULAR TRACTION. Retin Cases Brief Rep 2022;16(5):631-636.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of combined pneumatic and enzymatic vitreolysis for treatment of severe cases of vitreomacular traction (VMT). METHODS: We analyzed a retrospective, consecutive series of five patients diagnosed with severe VMT refractory to pneumatic vitreolysis who then received an additional ocriplasmin injection while their gas bubble from pneumatic vitreolysis was still present between February 2015 and February 2019. Vitreomacular traction release was confirmed using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. RESULTS: Four of the five patients treated with combined pneumatic and enzymatic vitreolysis achieved VMT release by Day 28, and all cases eventually achieved complete VMT release. In addition to having VMT refractory to pneumatic vitreolysis, patient characteristics included broad adhesion diameter (>1,500 µ m, n = 1), presence of epiretinal membrane (n = 2), age >65 years (n = 4), and pseudophakia (n = 1). The visual acuity improved by three or more lines at 6 months in both of the patients with initial vision worse than 20/50 on an Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart but not in those whose vision was already fairly good (i.e., visual acuity >20/60). None of the patients experienced the following complications after receiving this combined treatment: retinal tears or detachments, vitreous floaters, and ellipsoid zone changes. CONCLUSION: Sequential, combined pneumatic and enzymatic vitreolysis resulted in VMT release in all 5 cases (4 cases by 28 days) and may be a potentially useful alternative to surgical intervention for refractory VMT cases.
Cohen LM, Liou VD, Cunnane ME, Yoon MK. Radiographic analysis of fatty infiltration of the extraocular muscles in thyroid eye disease. Orbit 2022;41(1):53-58.Abstract
PURPOSE: Fatty infiltration of the extraocular muscles has been described radiographically in patients with thyroid eye disease (TED), yet it has not been studied on a large scale nor quantified. Our purpose was to define and characterize this entity in patients with TED. METHODS: An IRB-approved cross-sectional retrospective review of medical records identified patients with a clinical diagnosis of TED and at least one CT of the orbits. A 2:1 age and sex-matched control population consisted of patients without a history nor radiographic evidence of orbital disease or systemic thyroid abnormality. The presence of fatty infiltration in each extraocular rectus muscle was defined using Hounsfield units (HU). Laterality, muscles involved, and pattern of fatty infiltration were also evaluated. Student's t-tests, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare TED and control groups. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 252 patients with TED and 504 age and sex-matched controls. Fatty infiltration was significantly more prevalent in TED patients (36/252, 14.3%) compared to controls (11/504, 2.2%) (p < .001). The mean density of fat infiltration was significantly lower in TED patients (-40.4 HU) than controls (-34.8 HU) (p = .048). In TED patients, the frequency of muscle involvement was inferior rectus (61.8%), lateral rectus (19.7%), superior rectus (11.8%) and medial rectus (6.6%), which was not significantly different than controls (p > .05). Most muscles (88.2%) in the TED group exhibited a heterogeneous pattern of infiltration, which did not differ from controls (p = .34). CONCLUSIONS: This study characterizes fatty infiltration of the extraocular muscles in patients with TED.

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