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Georgakopoulos CD, Tsapardoni FN, Makri OE, Vavvas D. TWO-YEAR RESULTS OF INTRAVITREAL INJECTIONS OF AFLIBERCEPT IN COATS DISEASE: A CASE REPORT. Retin Cases Brief Rep 2022;16(4):473-478.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report long-term results of treatment with intravitreal injections of aflibercept in a newly diagnosed case of Coats disease. METHODS: An 18-year-old man presented to the retina clinic of our hospital complaining of blurred vision in the right eye for the past 3 months. His past medical and ocular history were unremarkable. The best-corrected visual acuity was 20/200 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Fundoscopy in the right eye revealed extensive macular edema with a circinate ring of hard exudates in the posterior pole temporally to the macula. Optical coherence tomography demonstrated macular edema with subretinal fluid. Peripheral telangiectasias and light bulb aneurysms in the inferior temporal arcade as well as in the nasal far periphery were found in the right eye in fluorescein angiography, confirming the diagnosis of stage 2B Coats disease. The left eye was normal. RESULTS: The original therapeutic strategy proposed was antivascular endothelial growth factor injections in the right eye, followed by laser photocoagulation. However, the patient did not consent to laser treatment and was treated with aflibercept monotherapy with 8 monthly intravitreal injections of aflibercept, followed by 6 injections every 2 months for a total of 14 injections over a period of 2 years. The best-corrected visual acuity in the right eye improved to 20/25 while optical coherence tomography imaging revealed significant decrease in retinal thickness with resolution of macular edema, and fluorescein angiography demonstrated prominent regression of aneurysms and leakage. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case treated with aflibercept monotherapy, suggesting the significant role of vascular endothelial growth factor in vascular permeability in Coats and supporting the rationale that antivascular endothelial growth factors are a valuable therapeutic option for Coats disease.
Wang JC, Lu Y, Sobrin L, Husain D. MULTIMODAL IMAGING IN ACUTE RETINAL NECROSIS PRESENTING WITH MACULAR INVOLVEMENT. Retin Cases Brief Rep 2022;16(3):347-350.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report an unusual case of early macular necrosis in acute retinal necrosis and its features on multimodal imaging. METHODS: Findings on fundus examination, laboratory workup, fluorescein angiography, autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography, and optical coherence tomography angiography. RESULTS: A 31-year-old healthy woman presented with 1 week of photophobia and central scotoma of the right eye. Initial examination revealed vitritis, hyperemia of the optic disc, and a yellow-white macular lesion without any peripheral findings. Peripheral involvement was first noted only 4 days later. The patient was diagnosed with acute retinal necrosis secondary to varicella zoster virus and was successfully treated with intravitreal and oral antiviral medications. Optical coherence tomography imaging of the macular lesion showed involvement of both the inner and outer retina. Optical coherence tomography angiography revealed a large flow void in the choriocapillaris, which has not been previously demonstrated. CONCLUSION: Multimodal imaging offers valuable information in the evaluation of patients with acute retinal necrosis.
Pondelis NJ, Moulton EA. Supraspinal Mechanisms Underlying Ocular Pain. Front Med (Lausanne) 2021;8:768649.Abstract
Supraspinal mechanisms of pain are increasingly understood to underlie neuropathic ocular conditions previously thought to be exclusively peripheral in nature. Isolating individual causes of centralized chronic conditions and differentiating them is critical to understanding the mechanisms underlying neuropathic eye pain and ultimately its treatment. Though few functional imaging studies have focused on the eye as an end-organ for the transduction of noxious stimuli, the brain networks related to pain processing have been extensively studied with functional neuroimaging over the past 20 years. This article will review the supraspinal mechanisms that underlie pain as they relate to the eye.
Shah AS, Ugo Dodd M-M, Gokyigit B, Lorenz B, Laurent E, Sadiq MAA, Tsai C-B, Gravier N, Goberville M, Basiakos S, Zurakowski D, Dagi LR, Dagi LR. Worldwide outcomes of nasal transposition of the split lateral rectus muscle for strabismus associated with 3rd-nerve palsy. Br J Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine success rate and complications associated with nasal transposition of the split lateral rectus muscle (NTSLR) for treating strabismus from 3rd-nerve palsy. METHODS: An international, multicentre, registry of patients with unilateral 3rd-nerve palsy treated with NTSLR was created. Patients with concurrent surgery on the contralateral eye were excluded. Primary outcome was horizontal alignment within 15 prism dioptres (PD) of orthotropia. Incidence of technical difficulties and vision-threatening complications by 6 months post-procedure were reported. RESULTS: Ninety-eight patients met inclusion criteria. Median age was 33.5 years (IQR 10.75-46). Aetiologies included congenital (31%), neoplastic (16%) and traumatic (15%). Twenty-five per cent of patients had prior ipsilateral strabismus surgery. Median exotropia decreased from 70PD preoperatively (IQR 50-90) to 1PD postoperatively (IQR 0-15.5), with a success rate of 69%. Performing concurrent superior oblique muscle tenotomy (SOT) was independently associated with success (p=0.001). Technical challenges occurred in 30% of cases, independently associated with a history of ipsilateral strabismus surgery (p=0.01). Eleven per cent of patients had vision-threatening complications, independently associated with more posterior placement of the split lateral rectus (LR) muscle (p<0.001), and most commonly transient serous choroidal effusion. Surgical placement of the split LR muscle within 4.25 mm of the medial rectus (MR) muscle insertion reduced this risk. CONCLUSION: NTSLR significantly improved primary position alignment altered by 3rd-nerve palsy. Concurrent SOT and placement of the split LR muscle ≤4.25 mm posterior to the MR muscle insertion optimised outcomes. NTSLR proved technically challenging when prior ipsilateral strabismus surgery had been performed.
Marsiglia M, Chwalisz BK, Maher M. Neuroradiologic Imaging of Neurologic and Neuro-Ophthalmic Complications of Coronavirus-19 Infection. J Neuroophthalmol 2021;41(4):452-460.Abstract
BACKGROUND: To review the literature and provide a summary of COVID-19-related neurologic and neuro-ophthalmic complications. METHODS: The currently available literature was reviewed on PubMed and Google Scholar using the following keywords for searches: CNS, Neuro-Ophthalmology, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2, coronavirus, optic neuritis, pseudotumor cerebri, Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES), meningitis, encephalitis, acute necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalopathy, and Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes. RESULTS: Neuroradiologic findings of neurologic and neuro-ophthalmologic complications in relationship to COVID-19 infection were reviewed. Afferent visual pathway-related disorders with relevant imaging manifestations included fundus nodules on MRI, papilledema and pseudotumor cerebri syndrome, optic neuritis, Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis, vascular injury with thromboembolism and infarct, leukoencephalopathy, gray matter hypoxic injury, hemorrhage, infectious meningitis/encephalitis, acute necrotizing hemorrhagic encephalopathy, and PRES. Efferent visual pathway-related complications with relevant imaging manifestations were also reviewed, including orbital abnormalities, cranial neuropathy, Guillain-Barré and Miller Fisher syndromes, and nystagmus and other eye movement abnormalities related to rhombencephalitis. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 can cause central and peripheral nervous system disease, including along both the afferent and efferent components of visual axis. Manifestations of disease and long-term sequela continue to be studied and described. Familiarity with the wide variety of neurologic, ophthalmic, and neuroradiologic presentations can promote prompt and appropriate treatment and continue building a framework to understand the underlying mechanism of disease.
Inomata T, Nakamura M, Sung J, Midorikawa-Inomata A, Iwagami M, Fujio K, Akasaki Y, Okumura Y, Fujimoto K, Eguchi A, Miura M, Nagino K, Shokirova H, Zhu J, Kuwahara M, Hirosawa K, Dana R, Murakami A. Smartphone-based digital phenotyping for dry eye toward P4 medicine: a crowdsourced cross-sectional study. NPJ Digit Med 2021;4(1):171.Abstract
Multidimensional integrative data analysis of digital phenotyping is crucial for elucidating the pathologies of multifactorial and heterogeneous diseases, such as the dry eye (DE). This crowdsourced cross-sectional study explored a novel smartphone-based digital phenotyping strategy to stratify and visualize the heterogenous DE symptoms into distinct subgroups. Multidimensional integrative data were collected from 3,593 participants between November 2016 and September 2019. Dimension reduction via Uniform Manifold Approximation and Projection stratified the collected data into seven clusters of symptomatic DE. Symptom profiles and risk factors in each cluster were identified by hierarchical heatmaps and multivariate logistic regressions. Stratified DE subgroups were visualized by chord diagrams, co-occurrence networks, and Circos plot analyses to improve interpretability. Maximum blink interval was reduced in clusters 1, 2, and 5 compared to non-symptomatic DE. Clusters 1 and 5 had severe DE symptoms. A data-driven multidimensional analysis with digital phenotyping may establish predictive, preventive, personalized, and participatory medicine.
Finkelstein JB, Tremblay ES, Van Cain M, Farber-Chen A, Schumann C, Brown C, Shah AS, Rhodes ET. Pediatric Clinicians' Use of Telemedicine: Qualitative Interview Study. JMIR Hum Factors 2021;8(4):e29941.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Bedside manner describes how clinicians relate to patients in person. Telemedicine allows clinicians to connect virtually with patients using digital tools. Effective virtual communication or webside manner may require modifications to traditional bedside manner. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to understand the experiences of telemedicine providers with patient-to-provider virtual visits and communication with families at a single large-volume children's hospital to inform program development and training for future clinicians. METHODS: A total of 2 focus groups of pediatric clinicians (N=11) performing virtual visits before the COVID-19 pandemic, with a range of experiences and specialties, were engaged to discuss experiential, implementation, and practice-related issues. Focus groups were facilitated using a semistructured guide covering general experience, preparedness, rapport strategies, and suggestions. Sessions were digitally recorded, and the corresponding transcripts were reviewed for data analysis. The transcripts were coded based on the identified main themes and subthemes. On the basis of a higher-level analysis of these codes, the study authors generated a final set of key themes to describe the collected data. RESULTS: Theme consistency was identified across diverse participants, although individual clinician experiences were influenced by their specialties and practices. A total of 3 key themes emerged regarding the development of best practices, barriers to scalability, and establishing patient rapport. Issues and concerns related to privacy were salient across all themes. Clinicians felt that telemedicine required new skills for patient interaction, and not all were comfortable with their training. CONCLUSIONS: Telemedicine provides benefits as well as challenges to health care delivery. In interprofessional focus groups, pediatric clinicians emphasized the importance of considering safety and privacy to promote rapport and webside manner when conducting virtual visits. The inclusion of webside manner instructions within training curricula is crucial as telemedicine becomes an established modality for providing health care.
Siddiqui N, Chen EM, Parikh R, Douglas VP, Douglas KA, Feng PW, Armstrong GW. Epidemiology of United States Inpatient Open Globe Injuries from 2009-2015. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2021;28(6):469-478.Abstract
PURPOSE: To study the epidemiology of inpatient open globe injuries (OGI) in the United States (US). METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of patients with a primary diagnosis of OGI in the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) from 2009 to 2015. Sociodemographic characteristics, including age, gender, race, ethnicity, insurance, and income were stratified for comparison. Annual prevalence rates were calculated using 2010 US Census data. Statistical analysis included Chi-square tests, ANCOVA, and Tukey tests. RESULTS: A total of 6,821 US inpatient hospital discharge records met inclusion/exclusion criteria. The estimated national prevalence of OGI during the 5-year period from 2009 to 2015 was 34,061 (95% confidence interval [CI] 31,445-36,677). The overall annual prevalence rate was 1.58 per 100,000 per year (CI 1.56-1.59). Overall, average annual prevalence rates were highest among patients 85 years or older (7.72, CI 6.95-8.49), on Medicare (3.92, CI 3.84-4.00), males (2.28, CI 2.25-2.30), African Americans (2.38, CI 2.32-2.44), and Native Americans (1.80, CI 1.62-2.00). OGI rates were lowest among Whites (1.21, CI 1.19-1.22), females (0.89, CI 0.87-0.91), those with private insurance (0.84, CI 0.82-0.86), and Asians (0.69, CI 0.64-0.74). Being in the lowest income quartile was a risk factor for OGI (p < .05). CONCLUSIONS: Inpatient OGIs disproportionately affected those over 85, young males, elderly females, patients of African-American descent, on Medicare, and in the lowest income quartile. Additionally, children and young children had lower rates of OGI compared to adolescents. Further studies should delineate causes for socioeconomic differences in OGI rates to guide future public health measures.
Sharifi S, Sharifi H, Akbari A, Chodosh J. Systematic optimization of visible light-induced crosslinking conditions of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA). Sci Rep 2021;11(1):23276.Abstract
Gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA) is one of the most widely used photo-crosslinkable biopolymers in tissue engineering. In in presence of an appropriate photoinitiator, the light activation triggers the crosslinking process, which provides shape fidelity and stability at physiological temperature. Although ultraviolet (UV) has been extensively explored for photo-crosslinking, its application has been linked to numerous biosafety concerns, originated from UV phototoxicity. Eosin Y, in combination with TEOA and VC, is a biosafe photoinitiation system that can be activated via visible light instead of UV and bypasses those biosafety concerns; however, the crosslinking system needs fine-tuning and optimization. In order to systematically optimize the crosslinking conditions, we herein independently varied the concentrations of Eosin Y [(EY)], triethanolamine (TEOA), vinyl caprolactam (VC), GelMA precursor, and crosslinking times and assessed the effect of those parameters on the properties the hydrogel. Our data showed that except EY, which exhibited an optimal concentration (~ 0.05 mM), increasing [TEOA], [VA], [GelMA], or crosslinking time improved mechanical (tensile strength/modulus and compressive modulus), adhesion (lap shear strength), swelling, biodegradation properties of the hydrogel. However, increasing the concentrations of crosslinking reagents ([TEOA], [VA], [GelMA]) reduced cell viability in 3-dimensional (3D) cell culture. This study enabled us to optimize the crosslinking conditions to improve the properties of the GelMA hydrogel and to generate a library of hydrogels with defined properties essential for different biomedical applications.
Shen J, Rossato FA, Cano I, Ng YSE. Novel engineered, membrane-tethered VEGF-A variants promote formation of filopodia, proliferation, survival, and cord or tube formation by endothelial cells via persistent VEGFR2/ERK signaling and activation of CDC42/ROCK pathways. FASEB J 2021;35(12):e22036.Abstract
Therapeutic angiogenesis would be clinically valuable in situations such as peripheral vascular disease in diabetic patients and tissue reperfusion following ischemia or injury, but approaches using traditional isoforms of vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF) have had little success. The isoform VEGF165 is both soluble and matrix-associated, but can cause pathologic vascular changes. Freely diffusible VEGF121 is not associated with pathologic angiogenesis, but its failure to remain in the vicinity of the targeted area presents therapeutic challenges. In this study, we evaluate the cellular effects of engineered VEGF variants that tether extracellular VEGF121 to the cell membrane with the goal of activating VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) in a sustained, autologous fashion in endothelial cells. When expressed by primary human retinal endothelial cells (hRECs), the engineered, membrane-tethered variants eVEGF-38 and eVEGF-53 provide a lasting VEGF signal that induces cell proliferation and survival, increases endothelial permeability, promotes the formation of a cord/tube network, and stimulates the formation of elongated filopodia on the endothelial cells. The engineered VEGF variants activate VEGFR2, MAPK/ERK, and the Rho GTPase mediators CDC42 and ROCK, activities that are required for the formation of the elongated filopodia. The sustained, pro-angiogenic activities induced by eVEGF-38 and eVEGF-53 support the potential of engineered VEGF variants-overexpressing endothelial cells as a novel combination of gene and cell-based therapeutic strategy for stimulating endothelial cell-autologous therapeutic angiogenesis.
Yu C, Li C-Q, Ge Q-M, Shu H-Y, Liao X-L, Pan Y-C, Wu J-L, Su T, Zhang L-J, Liang R-B, Shao Y, Zeng E-M. Altered Resting State Functional Activity of Brain Regions in Neovascular Glaucoma: A Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. Front Neurosci 2021;15:800466.Abstract
Background: Neovascular glaucoma (NVG) is a serious eye disease that causes irreversible damage to the eye. It can significantly increase intraocular pressure and cause severe pain, as well as abnormal activity in the cortical and pre-cortical visual systems. However, there are few studies in this area. This trial assessed the altered regional brain activity in patients with NVG using the percentage of fluctuation amplitude (PerAF) method. Methods: Resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) scans were conducted in 18 individuals with NVG and 18 healthy controls (HCs), matched for education level, gender, and age. The PerAF method was applied to assess brain activity. Mean PerAF values of brain regions in NVG and HCs were compared using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Results: Lower PerAF values were found in the NVG group than in controls in the right anterior cingulate and paracingulate gyri (ACG.R), right superior occipital gyrus (SOG.R) and left superior frontal gyrus (orbital part) (ORBsup.L) (p < 0.001). In contrast, PerAF value was higher in NVG patients than in controls in the left inferior temporal gyrus (ITG.L) (p < 0.001). The hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS) and visual analog score (VAS) were significantly and positively correlated with PerAF in ITG.L (r = 0.9331, p < 0.0001; and r = 0.7816, p = 0.0001, respectively). Conclusion: Abnormal activity in the patient's brain regions further confirms that the NVG affects the entire brain, not just the visual pathways and posterior retinal mechanisms (including the hypothalamic lateral geniculate nucleus and the primary visual cortex). This strengthens our understanding of the NVG and provides potential diagnostic and therapeutic support for patients who are difficult to diagnose and treat early.
Sun JK, Josic K, Melia M, Glassman AR, Bailey C, Chalam KV, Chew EY, Cukras C, Grover S, Jaffe GJ, Lee R, Nielsen JS, Thompson DJS, Wiley HE, Ferris FL, Ferris FL. Conversion of Central Subfield Thickness Measurements of Diabetic Macular Edema Across Cirrus and Spectralis Optical Coherence Tomography Instruments. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021;10(14):34.Abstract
Purpose: Develop equations to convert Cirrus central subfield thickness (CST) to Spectralis CST equivalents and vice versa in eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods: The DRCR Retina Network Protocol O data were split randomly to train (70% sample) and validate (30% sample) conversion equations. Data from an independent study (CADME) also validated the equations. Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement between predicted and observed values evaluated the equations. Results: Protocol O included 374 CST scan pairs from 187 eyes (107 participants). The CADME study included 150 scan pairs of 37 eyes (37 participants). Proposed conversion equations are Spectralis = 40.78 + 0.95 × Cirrus and Cirrus = 1.82 + 0.94 × Spectralis regardless of age, sex, or CST. Predicted values were within 10% of observed values in 101 (90%) of Spectralis and 99 (88%) of Cirrus scans in the validation data; and in 136 (91%) of the Spectralis and 148 (99%) of the Cirrus scans in the CADME data. Adjusting for within-eye correlations, 95% of conversions are estimated to be within 17% (95% confidence interval, 14%-21%) of CST on Spectralis and within 22% (95% confidence interval, 18%-28%) of CST on Cirrus. Conclusions: Conversion equations developed in this study allow the harmonization of CST measurements for eyes with DME using a mix of current Cirrus and Spectralis device images. Translational Relevance: The CSTs measured on Cirrus and Spectralis devices are not directly comparable owing to outer boundary segmentation differences. Converting CST values across spectral domain optical coherence tomography instruments should benefit both clinical research and standard care efforts.
Waxman S, Brazile BL, Yang B, Lee P-Y, Hua Y, Gogola AL, Lam P, Voorhees AP, Rizzo JF, Jakobs TC, Sigal IA. Lamina cribrosa vessel and collagen beam networks are distinct. Exp Eye Res 2021;:108916.Abstract
Our goal was to analyze the spatial interrelation between vascular and collagen networks in the lamina cribrosa (LC). Specifically, we quantified the percentages of collagen beams with/without vessels and of vessels inside/outside of collagen beams. To do this, the vasculature of six normal monkey eyes was labeled by perfusion post-mortem. After enucleation, coronal cryosections through the LC were imaged using fluorescence and polarized light microscopy to visualize the blood vessels and collagen beams, respectively. The images were registered to form 3D volumes. Beams and vessels were segmented, and their spatial interrelationship was quantified in 3D. We found that 22% of the beams contained a vessel (range 14%-32%), and 21% of vessels were outside beams (13%-36%). Stated differently, 78% of beams did not contain a vessel (68%-86%), and 79% of vessels were inside a beam (64%-87%). Individual monkeys differed significantly in the fraction of vessels outside beams (p < 0.01 by linear mixed effect analysis), but not in the fraction of beams with vessels (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences between contralateral eyes in the percent of beams with vessels and of vessels outside beams (p > 0.05). Our results show that the vascular and collagenous networks of the LC in monkey are clearly distinct, and the historical notions that each LC beam contains a vessel and all vessels are within beams are inaccurate. We postulate that vessels outside beams may be relatively more vulnerable to mechanical compression by elevated IOP than are vessels shielded inside of beams.
Hennein L, Robbins SL. Thyroid-Associated Orbitopathy: Management and Treatment. J Binocul Vis Ocul Motil 2021;:1-15.Abstract
Thyroid-associated orbitopathy (TAO) is a leading cause of orbital and strabismus symptoms in adults. Over the last decade, new treatments have greatly changed available options to alleviate symptoms and improve outcomes. This article discusses the pathophysiology and natural disease course of TAO, including when to pursue urgent treatment and when to consider other diagnoses. This article highlights the interventions that may alter the disease course and offers a comprehensive review on evidence-based interventions for both supportive therapy and systemic agents. The surgical strategies and principles for the treatment of TAO are discussed, including indications for combined surgical interventions and varying surgical techniques.

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