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da Palma MM, Igelman AD, Ku C, Burr A, You JY, Place EM, Wang N-K, Oh JK, Branham KE, Zhang X, Ahn J, Gorin MB, Lam BL, Ronquillo CC, Bernstein PS, Nagiel A, Huckfeldt R, Cabrera MT, Kelly JP, Bakall B, Iannaccone A, Hufnagel RB, Zein WM, Koenekoop RK, Birch DG, Yang P, Fahim AT, Pennesi ME. Characterization of the Spectrum of Ophthalmic Changes in Patients With Alagille Syndrome. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2021;62(7):27.Abstract
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the phenotypic spectrum of ophthalmic findings in patients with Alagille syndrome. Methods: We conducted a retrospective, observational, multicenter, study on 46 eyes of 23 subjects with Alagille syndrome. We reviewed systemic and ophthalmologic data extracted from medical records, color fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography, visual fields, electrophysiological assessments, and molecular genetic findings. Results: Cardiovascular abnormalities were found in 83% of all cases (of those, 74% had cardiac murmur), whereas 61% had a positive history of hepatobiliary issues, and musculoskeletal anomalies were present in 61% of all patients. Dysmorphic facies were present in 16 patients, with a broad forehead being the most frequent feature. Ocular symptoms were found in 91%, with peripheral vision loss being the most frequent complaint. Median (range) Snellen visual acuity of all eyes was 20/25 (20/20 to hand motion [HM]). Anterior segment abnormalities were present in 74% of the patients; of those, posterior embryotoxon was the most frequent finding. Abnormalities of the optic disc were found in 52%, and peripheral retinal abnormalities were the most frequent ocular finding in this series, found in 96% of all patients. Fifteen JAG1 mutations were identified in 16 individuals; of those, 6 were novel. Conclusions: This study reports a cohort of patients with Alagille syndrome in which peripheral chorioretinal changes were more frequent than posterior embryotoxon, the most frequent ocular finding according to a number of previous studies. We propose that these peripheral chorioretinal changes are a new hallmark to help diagnose this syndrome.
Aminkhani A, Sharifi S, Hosseinzadeh P. Chemical Constituent, Antimicrobial Activity, and Synergistic Effect of the Stem, Leaf, and Flower Essential Oil of the Artemisia fragrans Willd. from Khoy. Chem Biodivers 2021;18(8):e2100241.Abstract
Artemisia fragrans is commonly used as a folk medicine as antispasmodic, anti-pyretic, anti-inflammatory, and abortifacient agents. The villagers use its pungent odor to repel rodents, mites, and pests, as well as its essential oil and smoke after burning to treat lung infections after uprooting the plant. Herein, we extracted the essential oils (EOs) of different parts of the plant and analyzed their chemical compositions and antibacterial activities. The chemical analysis led to the identification of 73, 59, and 57 compounds in the EOs of the stem, leaf, and flower, respectively. All of the EOs exhibited antibacterial activities against both G+ and G- bacteria. The EOs of the leaf and flower were more effective against tested bacteria, except B. anthracis and P. aeruginosa, compared to that of the stem. The binary combination of the EOs (stem and flower) or (stem and leaf) showed a synergistic effect. Statistical analysis indicated EOs of leaf and flower are more potent than that of the stem. These findings suggest the application of leaf and flower of the plant, which not only can prevent its uprooting but also ensure better therapeutic function.
Green MB, Daly MK, Laver NMV, Lefebvre DR. Adult-onset asthma and periocular xanthogranuloma - A rare infiltrative disease of the orbit and eyelid. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2021;22:101043.Abstract
Purpose: To present a case of adult onset asthma with periocular xanthogranuloma (AAPOX), and discuss existing literature on adult orbital xanthogranulomatous diseases (AOXGDs) and their treatment. Observations: A 63 year old male presented with progressive bilateral eyelid swelling with overlying yellow plaques associated with asthma. CT scan showed periorbital swelling with enlargement of the superior and lateral rectus muscles bilaterally. Biopsy demonstrated orbital xanthogranulomatous disease with increased IgG4 plasma cells. The patient was treated with intralesional triamcinolone, oral prednisone, and cyclophosphamide without significant improvement. Surgical debulking was eventually performed which improved his external symptoms until he was lost to follow up 15 months later. Conclusions and Importance: AOXGDs are a group of rare infiltrative diseases of the eyelids and orbit that can be associated with significant systemic morbidities. While they all have similar underlying histopathologic features, appreciating the clinical difference between these diseases is important in understanding patient prognosis and ensuring appropriate clinical monitoring. There is also growing research demonstrating that AAPOX, along with other AOXGDs, may represent part of a continuum of IgG4 related disease, similar to what is seen in this case. There is currently no reliably effective treatment for AOXGDs, and additional research into the management of these diseases is necessary.
Joseph S, Varadaraj V, Dave SR, Lage E, Lim D, Aziz K, Dudgeon S, Ravilla TD, Friedman DS. Investigation of the Accuracy of a Low-Cost, Portable Autorefractor to Provide Well-Tolerated Eyeglass Prescriptions: A Randomized Crossover Trial. Ophthalmology 2021;128(12):1672-1680.Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare patient preferences for eyeglasses prescribed using a low-cost, portable wavefront autorefractor versus standard subjective refraction (SR). DESIGN: Randomized, cross-over clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged 18 to 40 years presenting with refractive errors (REs) to a tertiary eye hospital in Southern India. METHODS: Participants underwent SR followed by autorefraction (AR) using the monocular version of the QuickSee device (PlenOptika Inc). An independent optician, masked to the refraction approach, prepared eyeglasses based on each refraction approach. Participants (masked to refraction source) were randomly assigned to use SR- or AR-based eyeglasses first, followed by the other pair, for 1 week each. At the end of each week, participants had their vision checked and were interviewed about their experience with the eyeglasses. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Patients preferring eyeglasses were chosen using AR and SR. RESULTS: The 400 participants enrolled between March 26, 2018, and August 2, 2019, had a mean (standard deviation) age of 28.4 (6.6) years, and 68.8% were women. There was a strong correlation between spherical equivalents using SR and AR (r = 0.97, P < 0.001) with a mean difference of -0.07 diopters (D) (95% limits of agreement [LoA], -0.68 to 0.83). Of the 301 patients (75.2%) who completed both follow-up visits, 50.5% (n = 152) and 49.5% (n = 149) preferred glasses prescribed using SR and AR, respectively (95% CI, 45.7-56.3; P = 0.86). There were no differences in demographic or vision characteristics between participants with different preferences (P > 0.05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: We observed a strong agreement between the prescriptions from SR and AR, and eyeglasses prescribed using SR and AR were equally preferred by patients. Wider use of prescribing based on AR alone in resource-limited settings is supported by these findings.
Makuloluwa AK, Hamill KJ, Rauz S, Bosworth L, Haneef A, Romano V, Williams RL, Dartt DA, Kaye SB. Biological tissues and components, and synthetic substrates for conjunctival cell transplantation. Ocul Surf 2021;Abstract
The conjunctiva is the largest component of the ocular surface. It can be damaged by various pathological processes leading to scarring, loss of tissue and dysfunction. Depending on the amount of damage, restoration of function may require a conjunctival graft. Numerous studies have investigated biological and synthetic substrates in the search for optimal conditions for the ex vivo culture of conjunctival epithelial cells that can be used as tissue grafts for transplantation. These substrates have advantages and disadvantages that are specific to the characteristics of each material; the development of an improved material remains a priority. This review is the second of a two-part review in The Ocular Surface. In the first review, the structure and function of the conjunctiva was evaluated with a focus on the extracellular matrix and the basement membrane, and biological and mechanical characteristics of the ideal substrate with recommendations for further studies. In this review the types of biological and synthetic substrates used for conjunctival transplantation are discussed including substrates based on the extracellular matrix. .
Xiong J, Yu C, Su T, Ge Q-M, Shi W-Q, Tang L-Y, Shu H-Y, Pan Y-C, Liang R-B, Li Q-Y, Shao Y. Altered brain network centrality in patients with mild cognitive impairment: an fMRI study using a voxel-wise degree centrality approach. Aging (Albany NY) 2021;13(11):15491-15500.Abstract
PURPOSE: Previous studies in patients with Alzheimer's disease have shown amyloid beta accumulation in the brain and abnormal brain activity, with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) in early stages of the disease. The aim of the current study was to investigate functional connectivity in patients with MCI. METHODS: We recruited 24 subjects in total, including 12 patients with MCI (6 men and 6 women) and 12 healthy controls (HCs) (6 men and 6 women), matched for age, gender, and lifestyle factors. All subjects underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging scans and voxel-wise degree centrality (DC) was used to evaluate alterations in the strength of brain network connectivity. RESULTS: The DC value of the left inferior temporal gyrus was lower in MCI but significantly higher in the right fusiform gyrus and the left supplementary motor area, compared with HCs. The DC value in left inferior temporal gyrus correlated positively with disease duration and negatively with Mini-Mental State Examination. ROC curve analysis of brain regions showed acceptable specificity and accuracy of DC values between MCIs and HCs in the area under the curve (right fusiform gyrus, 0.955; left supplementary motor area, 0.992; left inferior temporal gyrus, 1.000). CONCLUSIONS: Abnormal functional connectivity in brain regions of patients with MCI may reflect the pathological process of Alzheimer's disease development and could prove useful in clinical diagnosis and treatment.
Oswald J, Kegeles E, Minelli T, Volchkov P, Baranov P. Transplantation of miPSC/mESC-derived retinal ganglion cells into healthy and glaucomatous retinas. Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2021;21:180-198.Abstract
Optic neuropathies, including glaucoma, are a group of neurodegenerative diseases, characterized by the progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), leading to irreversible vision loss. While previous studies demonstrated the potential to replace RGCs with primary neurons from developing mouse retinas, their use is limited clinically. We demonstrate successful transplantation of mouse induced pluripotent stem cell (miPSC)/mouse embryonic stem cell (mESC)-derived RGCs into healthy and glaucomatous mouse retinas, at a success rate exceeding 65% and a donor cell survival window of up to 12 months. Transplanted Thy1-GFP+ RGCs were able to polarize within the host retina and formed axonal processes that followed host axons along the retinal surface and entered the optic nerve head. RNA sequencing of donor RGCs re-isolated from host retinas at 24 h and 1 week post-transplantation showed upregulation of cellular pathways mediating axonal outgrowth, extension, and guidance. Additionally, we provide evidence of subtype-specific diversity within miPSC-derived RGCs prior to transplantation.
Ozawa H, Usui Y, Takano Y, Horiuchi N, Kuribayashi T, Kurihara T, Smith LEH, Tsubota K, Tomita Y. Iris metastasis as the initial presentation of metastatic esophageal cancer diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy: A case report. Medicine (Baltimore) 2021;100(22):e26232.Abstract
RATIONALE: Metastasis of neoplasms to the eye is quite uncommon. In this case report, we describe a patient where primary esophageal cancer was diagnosed by fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) of an iris tumor. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 70-year-old male complained of redness and discomfort in the right eye. DIAGNOSIS AND INTERVENTIONS: The patient's right eye was diagnosed as idiopathic uveitis, and a topical steroid was administered. As vitreous opacities were observed even after topical therapy, oral prednisolone was administered. On slit-lamp examination of the right eye, an iris mass with neovascularization was seen in the anterior chamber. A metastatic tumor was suspected, and FNAB was performed. Histology revealed squamous cell carcinoma. Systemic workup revealed esophageal cancer with several metastases. Best-corrected visual acuity decreased to 20/400, and intraocular pressure was 40 mmHg in the right eye. Two iris tumors with neovascularization were present extending into the anterior chamber with posterior iris synechiae and 360 degree peripheral anterior synechiae. Intraocular pressure in the right eye was medically managed with hypotensive eye drops and oral acetazolamide. Iris metastases were treated with 40 Gray of radiation therapy and concurrent chemotherapy. OUTCOMES: The tumor regressed, but intraocular pressure was refractory to treatment because of 360 degree goniosynechial closure. The right eye lost light perception six months after treatment commenced, and the patient died 9 months after the onset of therapy due to multiple systemic metastases. LESSONS: This is a rare case of masquerade syndrome without systemic symptoms in which FNAB of an iris tumor led to a diagnosis of metastatic esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Although the patient lost his sight due to uncontrollable ocular hypertension, systemic chemotherapy, and radiation therapy were initially effective in the treatment of the metastatic iris tumor. As the prognosis of patients with metastatic iris tumors is poor, it is important for ophthalmologists to consider such diagnoses and conduct systemic investigations when necessary.
Ou J, Zhou Z, Dai R, Zhang J, Zhao S, Wu X, Lan W, Ren Y, Cui L, Lan Q, Lu L, Seto D, Chodosh J, Wu J, Zhang G, Zhang Q. V367F Mutation in SARS-CoV-2 Spike RBD Emerging during the Early Transmission Phase Enhances Viral Infectivity through Increased Human ACE2 Receptor Binding Affinity. J Virol 2021;95(16):e0061721.Abstract
The current pandemic of COVID-19 is caused by a novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) is the critical determinant of viral tropism and infectivity. To investigate whether naturally occurring RBD mutations during the early transmission phase have altered the receptor binding affinity and infectivity, we first analyzed in silico the binding dynamics between SARS-CoV-2 RBD mutants and the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Among 32,123 genomes of SARS-CoV-2 isolates (December 2019 through March 2020), 302 nonsynonymous RBD mutants were identified and clustered into 96 mutant types. The six dominant mutations were analyzed applying molecular dynamics simulations (MDS). The mutant type V367F continuously circulating worldwide displayed higher binding affinity to human ACE2 due to the enhanced structural stabilization of the RBD beta-sheet scaffold. The MDS also indicated that it would be difficult for bat SARS-like CoV to infect humans. However, the pangolin CoV is potentially infectious to humans. The increased infectivity of V367 mutants was further validated by performing receptor-ligand binding enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), surface plasmon resonance, and pseudotyped virus assays. Phylogenetic analysis of the genomes of V367F mutants showed that during the early transmission phase, most V367F mutants clustered more closely with the SARS-CoV-2 prototype strain than the dual-mutation variants (V367F+D614G), which may derivate from recombination. The analysis of critical RBD mutations provides further insights into the evolutionary trajectory of early SARS-CoV-2 variants of zoonotic origin under negative selection pressure and supports the continuing surveillance of spike mutations to aid in the development of new COVID-19 drugs and vaccines. IMPORTANCE A novel coronavirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has caused the pandemic of COVID-19. The origin of SARS-CoV-2 was associated with zoonotic infections. The spike protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) is identified as the critical determinant of viral tropism and infectivity. Thus, whether mutations in the RBD of the circulating SARS-CoV-2 isolates have altered the receptor binding affinity and made them more infectious has been the research hot spot. Given that SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus, the significance of our research is in identifying and validating the RBD mutant types emerging during the early transmission phase and increasing human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor binding affinity and infectivity. Our study provides insights into the evolutionary trajectory of early SARS-CoV-2 variants of zoonotic origin. The continuing surveillance of RBD mutations with increased human ACE2 affinity in human or other animals is critical to the development of new COVID-19 drugs and vaccines against these variants during the sustained COVID-19 pandemic.
Saeedi O, Boland MV, D'Acunto L, Swamy R, Hegde V, Gupta S, Venjara A, Tsai J, Myers JS, Wellik SR, DeMoraes G, Pasquale LR, Shen LQ, Li Y, Elze T. Development and Comparison of Machine Learning Algorithms to Determine Visual Field Progression. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021;10(7):27.Abstract
Purpose: To develop and test machine learning classifiers (MLCs) for determining visual field progression. Methods: In total, 90,713 visual fields from 13,156 eyes were included. Six different progression algorithms (linear regression of mean deviation, linear regression of the visual field index, Advanced Glaucoma Intervention Study algorithm, Collaborative Initial Glaucoma Treatment Study algorithm, pointwise linear regression [PLR], and permutation of PLR) were applied to classify each eye as progressing or stable. Six MLCs were applied (logistic regression, random forest, extreme gradient boosting, support vector classifier, convolutional neural network, fully connected neural network) using a training and testing set. For MLC input, visual fields for a given eye were divided into the first and second half and each location averaged over time within each half. Each algorithm was tested for accuracy, sensitivity, positive predictive value, and class bias with a subset of visual fields labeled by a panel of three experts from 161 eyes. Results: MLCs had similar performance metrics as some of the conventional algorithms and ranged from 87% to 91% accurate with sensitivity ranging from 0.83 to 0.88 and specificity from 0.92 to 0.96. All conventional algorithms showed significant class bias, meaning each individual algorithm was more likely to grade uncertain cases as either progressing or stable (P ≤ 0.01). Conversely, all MLCs were balanced, meaning they were equally likely to grade uncertain cases as either progressing or stable (P ≥ 0.08). Conclusions: MLCs showed a moderate to high level of accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity and were more balanced than conventional algorithms. Translational Relevance: MLCs may help to determine visual field progression.
Binenbaum G, Chang MY, Heidary G, Morrison DG, Trivedi RH, Galvin JA, Pineles SL. Botulinum Toxin Injection for the Treatment of Strabismus: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2021;128(12):1766-1776.Abstract
PURPOSE: To review the available evidence comparing the effectiveness of extraocular muscle botulinum toxin type A (BTXA) injection with eye muscle surgery for restoring ocular alignment in children and adults with nonparalytic, nonrestrictive horizontal strabismus. METHODS: Literature searches in the PubMed Cochrane Library, and clinical trial databases with no date restrictions, but limited to articles published in English, were conducted last on January 10, 2021. The searches yielded 515 citations, 40 of which were reviewed in full text by the first author. Fourteen articles met the criteria for inclusion (randomized or nonrandomized comparative studies, or case series with a minimum 50 patients; evaluating extraocular muscle BTXA injection for initial or repeat treatment of horizontal, nonparalytic, nonrestrictive strabismus; with at least 6 months of follow-up) and were graded by a methodologist. RESULTS: The 14 included studies consisted of 2 randomized clinical trials, 3 nonrandomized comparative studies, and 9 case series. All 5 comparative studies were graded level II evidence, and the 9 case series were graded level III evidence. Successful motor outcomes after BTXA injection were relatively consistent across 4 of the 5 comparative studies at 60%, when adjustment was made for differential selection bias in 1 of the studies. In the 4 studies, successful motor outcomes after surgery ranged from 66% to 77% with a mean follow-up of 23 to 75 months, and the outcomes were not significantly different from those after BTXA injection. In the fifth level II study, success was significantly higher with BTXA injection than with surgery (94% vs. 72%). The level III BTXA case series demonstrated higher motor success rates of 87% to 89% when children were treated in 2 muscles at a time; rates were lower in adults treated with single-muscle BTXA injection. CONCLUSIONS: Extraocular muscle injection of BTXA achieves a high rate of successful motor alignment, comparable with that achieved after eye muscle surgery for nonparalytic, nonrestrictive horizontal strabismus. Good alignment may require multiple BTXA injections, and it is not yet clear whether sensory outcomes are equivalent for BTXA injections versus eye muscle surgery in young children.
Chen T, Jin L, Zhu W, Wang C, Zhang G, Wang X, Wang J, Yang K, Cochrane GM, Lamoureux EL, Friedman DS, Gilbert S, Lansingh VC, Resnikoff S, Zhao J, Xiao B, He M, Congdon N. Knowledge, attitudes and eye health-seeking behaviours in a population-based sample of people with diabetes in rural China. Br J Ophthalmol 2021;105(6):806-811.Abstract
AIMS: To assess knowledge of diabetes and acceptance of eye care among people with diabetes in rural China, to improve service uptake. METHODS: Population-based study of people in Guangdong, China, with glycosylated haemoglobin A1c≥6.5% and/or known history of diabetes. Between August and November 2014, participants answered a questionnaire (based on Delphi process/previous focus groups) on medical history, demographic characteristics, self-rated health and vision, knowledge about diabetes and diabetic retinopathy, quality of local healthcare, barriers to treatment, likely acceptance of eye exams and treatment, and interventions rated most likely to improve service uptake. Presenting visual acuity was assessed, fundus photography performed and images graded by trained graders. Potential predictors of accepting care were evaluated and confounders adjusted for using logistic regression. RESULTS: A total of 562 people (9.6% (256/5825), mean age 66.2±9.84 years, 207 (36.8%) men) had diabetes, 118 (22.3%) previously diagnosed. 'Very likely' or 'likely' acceptance of laser treatment (140/530=26.4%) was lower than for eye exams (317/530=59.8%, p<0.001). Predictors of accepting both exams and laser included younger age (p<.001) and prior awareness of diabetes diagnosis (p=0.004 and p=0.035, respectively). The leading barrier to receiving diabetes treatment was unawareness of diagnosis (409/454, 97.2%), while interventions rated most likely to improve acceptance of eye exams included reimbursement of travel costs (387/562, 73.0%), video or other health education (359/562, 67.7%) and phone call reminders (346/562, 65.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Improving diagnosis of diabetes, along with incentives, education and communication strategies, is most likely to enhance poor acceptance of diabetic eye care in this setting.

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