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Laíns I, Wang JC, Cui Y, Katz R, Vingopoulos F, Staurenghi G, Vavvas DG, Miller JW, Miller JB. Retinal applications of swept source optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). Prog Retin Eye Res 2021;84:100951.Abstract
The advent of optical coherence tomography (OCT) revolutionized both clinical assessment and research of vitreoretinal conditions. Since then, extraordinary advances have been made in this imaging technology, including the relatively recent development of swept-source OCT (SS-OCT). SS-OCT enables a fast scan rate and utilizes a tunable swept laser, thus enabling the incorporation of longer wavelengths than conventional spectral-domain devices. These features enable imaging of larger areas with reduced motion artifact, and a better visualization of the choroidal vasculature, respectively. Building on the principles of OCT, swept-source OCT has also been applied to OCT angiography (SS-OCTA), thus enabling a non-invasive in depth-resolved imaging of the retinal and choroidal microvasculature. Despite their advantages, the widespread use of SS-OCT and SS-OCTA remains relatively limited. In this review, we summarize the technical details, advantages and limitations of SS-OCT and SS-OCTA, with a particular emphasis on their relevance for the study of retinal conditions. Additionally, we comprehensively review relevant studies performed to date to the study of retinal health and disease, and highlight current gaps in knowledge and opportunities to take advantage of swept source technology to improve our current understanding of many medical and surgical chorioretinal conditions. We anticipate that SS-OCT and SS-OCTA will continue to evolve rapidly, contributing to a paradigm shift to more widespread adoption of new imaging technology to clinical practice.
Douglas VP, Douglas KA, Cestari DM. Ophthalmic manifestations of dementing disorders. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2021;32(6):515-520.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Dementia is a term for loss of memory, language, problem-solving, and other thinking abilities, which significantly interferes with daily life. Certain dementing conditions may also affect visual function. The eye is an accessible window to the brain that can provide valuable information for the early diagnosis of people who suffer from Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies as well as from more rare causes of dementias, such as Creutzfeldt-Jacob and Huntington's diseases. Herein, we present the ocular manifestations of neurocognitive disorders focusing on the neuro-ophthalmic ones and further discuss potential ocular biomarkers that could help in early detection of these disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Ophthalmic examination along with the recent developments in in-vivo testing have provided a strong foundation of useful knowledge about brain disorder in neurodegenerative diseases without the need for invasive studies. Currently, a number of visual measures, such as visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, pupil response, and saccades in addition to various ophthalmic tests, such as electroretinogram, visual evoked potential, optical coherence tomography (OCT), and OCT-angiography have been widely used and evaluated as potential biomarkers for different stages of dementia. SUMMARY: Ophthalmologic and neuro-ophthalmic evaluation is evolving as an important part of the early diagnosis and management of people with dementia. A particular focus on ocular biomarkers in dementing illnesses has arisen over the past few years and there are several promising measures and imaging tools that have been proposed as potential biomarkers for these diseases.
Genadry KC, Shrock C, O'Shea D, Vatsa R, Shah AS, Gise R, Lipsett SC. Traumatic Hyphema. J Emerg Med 2021;61(6):740-741.
Liou V, Yoon M. Comparative Incidence of Periocular Surgical Site Infections with Increased Surgical Mask Use during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2021;:1-6.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of surgical mask use on infection rates for office-based periocular surgeries during the pandemic. METHODS: An Institutional Review Board-approved retrospective review of medical records identified patients who had an office-based oculofacial plastic surgery procedure during the pandemic between March and December 2020. Statistical analysis was used to compare this group to patients that underwent procedures between March and December 2019, prior to the pandemic when neither surgeon nor patient wore a surgical mask. RESULTS: The study consisted of 680 patients. Thirty-one different types of procedures were encountered. The incidence of infections in 2020 compared to 2019 was not statistically significant (1.12% (n = 3) versus 1.21% (n = 5), p = 1). All patients with infections were treated with oral antibiotics and improved without long-term complications. CONCLUSIONS: Periocular surgical site infections are uncommon, and the wearing of surgical masks by patient and surgeon during our office-based oculofacial procedures did not change the incidence of SSIs.
Moon JY, Garg I, Cui Y, Katz R, Zhu Y, Le R, Lu Y, Lu ES, Ludwig CA, Elze T, Wu DM, Eliott D, Miller JW, Kim LA, Husain D, Vavvas DG, Miller JB. Wide-field swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography in the assessment of retinal microvasculature and choroidal thickness in patients with myopia. Br J Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Pathological myopia (PM) is a leading cause of blindness worldwide. We aimed to evaluate microvascular and chorioretinal changes in different stages of myopia with wide-field (WF) swept-source (SS) optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA). METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional observational study included 186 eyes of 122 patients who had undergone imaging between November 2018 and October 2020. Vessel density (VD) and vessel skeletonised density (VSD) of superficial capillary plexus, deep capillary plexus and whole retina, as well as foveal avascular zone parameters, retinal thickness (RT) and choroidal thickness (CT), were calculated. RESULTS: This study evaluated 75 eyes of 48 patients with high myopia (HM), 43 eyes of 31 patients with mild to moderate myopia and 68 eyes of 53 age-matched controls. Controlling for age and the presence of systemic hypertension, we found that HM was associated with decrease in VD and VSD in all layers on 12×12 mm² scans. Furthermore, HM was associated with a VD and VSD decrease in every Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study grid, with a larger decrease temporally (βVD=-0.39, βVSD=-10.25, p<0.01). HM was associated with decreased RT and CT. Reduction in RT was outside the macular region, while reduction in CT was in the macular region. CONCLUSION: Using WF SS-OCTA, we identified reduction in microvasculature and structural changes associated with myopia. Decrease in VD and VSD was greater in the temporal quadrant, and reductions in RT and CT were uneven across the retina. Further work may help identify risk factors for the progression of PM and associated vision-threatening complications.
Gowrisankaran S, Shah AS, Roberts TL, Wiecek E, Chinn RN, Hawash KK, O'Brien MJ, Howell DR, Meehan WP, Raghuram A. Association between post-concussion symptoms and oculomotor deficits among adolescents. Brain Inj 2021;:1-11.Abstract
PURPOSE: To examine the association between Post-Concussion Symptom Scale (PCSS) scores, Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS) scores, and oculomotor deficits post-concussion. METHODS: Records of adolescent patients examined in a multidisciplinary concussion clinic between July 2014 and May 2019 were reviewed. PCSS and CISS scores, results of eye examination and oculomotor assessment, concussion history, and demographics were abstracted. RESULTS: One hundred and forty patient records (median age, 15.3 years; 52 males, presented 109 days (median) from their most recent concussion) met inclusion criteria. Mean total scores on PCSS and CISS were 46.67 ± 25.89 and 27.13 ± 13.22, respectively, and were moderately correlated with each other (r = 0.53, p < .001). Oculomotor deficits were observed in 123 (88%) patients. Step-wise linear regression identified increased PCSS total score to be significantly associated with decreased amplitude of accommodation (p < .001). Increased CISS total score was significantly associated with receded near point of convergence, developmental eye movement test error scores, and cause of concussion. CONCLUSION: High PCSS scores may indicate an accommodation deficit and thus prompt an oculomotor assessment in patients following a concussion. Using the CISS and a detailed oculomotor assessment may reveal underlying oculomotor deficits, which may benefit from treatment.
Doshi H, Solli E, Elze T, Pasquale LR, Wall M, Kupersmith MJ. Unsupervised Machine Learning Identifies Quantifiable Patterns of Visual Field Loss in Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021;10(9):37.Abstract
Purpose: Archetypal analysis, a form of unsupervised machine learning, identifies archetypal patterns within a visual field (VF) dataset such that any VF is described as a weighted sum of its archetypes (ATs) and has been used to quantify VF defects in glaucoma. We applied archetypal analysis to VFs affected by nonglaucomatous optic neuropathy caused by idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). Methods: We created an AT model from 2862 VFs prospectively collected from 330 eyes in the IIH Treatment Trial (IIHTT). We compared baseline IIH AT patterns with their descriptive VF classifications from the IIHTT. Results: The optimum IIH AT model yielded 14 ATs resembling VF patterns reported in the IIHTT. Baseline VFs contained four or fewer meaningful ATs in 147 (89%) of study eyes. AT2 (mild general VF depression pattern) demonstrated the greatest number of study eyes with meaningful AT weight at baseline (n = 114), followed by AT1 (n = 91). Other ATs captured patterns of blind spot enlargement, hemianopia, arcuate, nasal defects, and more nonspecific patterns of general VF depression. Of all ATs, AT1 (normal pattern) had the strongest correlation with mean deviation (r = 0.69, P < 0.001). For 65 of the 93 VFs with a dominant AT, this AT matched the expert classification. Conclusions: Archetypal analysis identifies quantifiable, archetypal VF defects that resemble those commonly seen in IIH. Translational Relevance: Archetypal analysis provides a quantitative, objective method of measuring and monitoring disease-specific regional VF defects in IIH.
Pasquale LR, Gong L, Wiggs JL, Pan L, Yang Z, Wu M, Yang Z, Chen DF, Zeng W. Development of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma-Like Features in a Rhesus Macaque Colony From Southern China. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021;10(9):20.Abstract
Purpose: To describe the ocular phenotype of spontaneous glaucoma in a non-human primate colony. Methods: In total, 722 Rhesus macaque monkeys aged 10 to 25 years underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus photography (FP), and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements. Monkeys with baseline cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) <0.5 were used to establish baseline ocular features. A subset was followed longitudinally for three years and compared to glaucoma suspects on the basis of OCT/FP criteria. Results: The average IOP under ketamine sedation and average CDR for the entire colony was 13.0 ± 4.3 mm Hg and 0.38 ± 0.07, respectively. The mean baseline conscious IOP of glaucoma suspects (N = 18) versus controls (N = 108) was 16.2 ± 3.5 mm Hg and 13.9 ± 2.3 mm Hg, respectively (P = 0.001). All glaucoma suspects had unremarkable slit lamp examinations and open angles based on anterior segment OCT. Baseline global circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness was 91.5 ± 11.0 µM versus 102.7 ± 8.5 µM in suspects and controls, respectively (P < 0.0001). All sectors on the baseline circumpapillary OCT showed a significant reduction in RNFL thickness versus controls (P ≤ 0.0022) except for the temporal sector (P ≥ 0.07). In three-year longitudinal analysis, neither CDR nor OCT parameters changed in controls (N = 40; P ≥ 0.16), whereas significant increase in CDR (P = 0.018) and nominally significant decreases in two OCT sectors (nasal, P = 0.023 and nasal inferior, P = 0.046) were noted in suspects. Conclusions: Members of a nonhuman primate colony exhibit important ophthalmic features of human primary open-angle glaucoma. Translational Relevance: Identification of a spontaneous model of glaucoma in nonhuman primates represents an unprecedented opportunity to elucidate the natural history, pathogenesis and effective therapeutic strategies for the disease.
Konstantinou EK, Shaikh N, Ramsey DJ. Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome associated with chorioretinopathy and nyctalopia: a case report and review of the literature. Ophthalmic Genet 2021;:1-7.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report a rare case of Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome (BHD) with progressive chorioretinopathy. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 55-year-old woman presented with longstanding nyctalopia attributed to a congenital retinal dystrophy, but no prior genetic testing. Her posterior pole examination demonstrated retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) mottling with extensive macular drusen and paracentral chorioretinal atrophy, consistent with a fleck retinopathy. Her past medical history was remarkable for nephrectomy for unilateral renal malignancy, parotid tumors and thyroid nodules. Dark adaptation time was prolonged, and electroretinography (ERG) revealed abnormal waveforms with depressed amplitudes. Genetic testing confirmed a deletion mutation in the folliculin (FLCN) gene and was negative for other relevant mutations, including EFEMP1 responsible for autosomal dominant macular and peripapillary drusen in Doyne honeycomb retinal dystrophy and TIMP3 responsible for Sorsby Fundus Dystrophy. CONCLUSION: BHD is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder with multi-systemic clinical manifestations caused by a mutation in the FLCN gene. Affected individuals are prone to renal and pulmonary cysts, renal cancer, and fibrofolliculomas. Reports on ocular manifestations of BHD include eyelid fibrofolliculomas, flecked chorioretinopathy, choroidal melanoma, choroidal melanoma with sector melanocytosis, and retinal pigment epithelial micro-detachments. In this case of BHD, we note a fleck retinopathy with bilateral chorioretinal atrophy, displaying a phenotype of extensive chorioretinopathy associated with impaired dark adaptation and ERG abnormalities. ABBREVIATIONS: BHD: Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome; FLCN: Folliculin. RPE: retinal pigment epithelium; OD: Oculus dexter (right eye); OS: Oculus sinister (left eye). OU: Oculus uterque (both eyes); ERG: electroretinogram; mfERG: multifocal electroretinography. ffERG: full-field electroretinography; FAF: fundus autofluorescence; OCT: optical coherence tomography; FA: fluorescein angiography; DA: dark-adapted; LA: light-adapted; mTOR: mammalian target of rapamycin; EFEMP1: epithelial growth factor-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1; VPS13B: Vacuolar Protein Sorting 13 Homolog B; AGBL5: AATP/GTP-Binding Protein Like 5; ALMS1: Alstrom Syndrome 1; COL1BA1: Collagen Type I Beta, Alpha Chain 1; PDE6A: Rod Phosphodiesterase 6-alpha; USH2A: Usherin 2a; VCAN: Versican; RP: Retinitis pigmentosa; AR: Autosomal recessive.
Rosenblatt TR, Vail D, Ludwig CA, Al-Moujahed A, Pasricha MV, Ji MH, Callaway NF, Moshfeghi DM. Fall risk in patients with pseudophakic monovision. Can J Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Vision changes can precipitate falls in the elderly resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that pseudophakic monovision and ensuing anisometropia and aniseikonia impact elderly fall risk. This study assessed fall risk in patients with pseudophakic monovision, pseudophakic single vision distance (classic cataract surgery), and cataracts with no surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective single-institution cohort study PARTICIPANTS: Patients with bilateral cataracts diagnosed at 60 years of age or older who underwent bilateral cataract surgery (monovision or single vision distance) or did not undergo any cataract surgery (n = 13 385). Patients with unilateral surgery or a fall prior to cataract diagnosis were excluded. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Stanford Research Repository. Time-to-fall analysis was performed across all 3 groups. Primary outcome was hazard ratio (HR) for fall after second eye cataract surgery or after bilateral cataract diagnosis. RESULTS: Of 13 385 patients (241 pseudophakic monovision, 2809 pseudophakic single vision, 10 335 no surgery), 850 fell after cataract diagnosis. Pseudophakic monovision was not associated with fall risk after controlling for age, sex, and myopia. Pseudophakic single-vision patients had a decreased time to fall compared with no-surgery patients (log rank, p < 0.001). Older age at cataract diagnosis (HR =1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.06, p < 0.001) or at time of surgery (HR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07, p < 0.001) increased fall risk, as did female sex (HR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.10-1.51, p = 0.002) and preexisting myopia (HR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.01-1.71, p = 0.046) among nonsurgical patients. CONCLUSIONS: Pseudophakic monovision did not impact fall risk, but pseudophakic single vision may increase falls compared with patients without cataract surgery.
Jowett N, Pineda R. Corneal and Facial Sensory Neurotization in Trigeminal Anesthesia. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2021;29(3):459-470.Abstract
Trigeminal anesthesia may yield blindness and facial disfigurement, secondary to neurotrophic keratopathy and trigeminal trophic syndrome. This article summarizes contemporary medical and emerging surgical approaches for the therapeutic management of this rare and devastating disease state.

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