Nelson Syndrome: Clival Invasion of Corticotroph Pituitary Adenoma Resulting in Alternating Sixth Nerve Palsies. J Neuroophthalmol 2021;41(1):114-118.Abstract.
ABSTRACT: A 44-year-old woman presented with 2 painful and self-limited episodes of binocular horizontal diplopia within 1 year that at the beginning were thought to be secondary to microvascular insult. Her medical history was significant for Cushing syndrome status post transsphenoidal resection with bilateral adrenalectomy 4 years prior, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Neuro-ophthalmic evaluation was significant for left abduction deficit and incomitant esotropia consistent with left abducens nerve palsy. Of note, the patient had experienced a similar episode but on the contralateral side a few months prior. Although initially MRI of the brain demonstrated stable residual postoperative finding in the sella, upon review, an heterogenous T-1 hypointense marrow in the clivus was noted. Hypermetabolism of the clivus was also noted on computed tomography positron emission tomography of the skull base. A clival biopsy demonstrated a corticotroph adenoma with elevated proliferation index and scattered mitoses. A corticotroph pituitary adenoma after adrenalectomy, also known as Nelson syndrome, was diagnosed. Radiation therapy was offered to the patient, and resolution of symptoms was gradually observed.