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Pivodic A, Nilsson S, Stahl A, Smith LEH, Hellström A. Validation of the Retinopathy of Prematurity Activity Scale (ROP-ActS) using retrospective clinical data. Acta Ophthalmol 2021;99(2):201-206.Abstract
PURPOSE: The International Neonatal Consortium recently published a proposed retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) activity scale intended for use in clinical trials after validation. The aim of this study was to validate the ROP activity scale (ROP-ActS) in a ROP screened cohort with protocol based collected data by evaluating the ability of the ROP-Act scores to predict ROP treatment. In addition, we aimed to evaluate the scale's sensitivity characteristic of disease severity by studying association with gestational age (GA) in comparison with conventionally used ROP stage and zone. METHODS: A cohort of 535 preterm infants with 3324 ROP examinations with an end-point of ROP treatment or end of screening in Gothenburg, Sweden, was included. Median GA was 28.1 weeks, 47.5% were girls, and 74 (13.8%) infants were treated for ROP. The validation was performed by estimating probabilities for ROP treatment, and by applying logistic and linear regression. RESULTS: The original ROP-ActS was overall well-ordered with respect to ability to predict ROP treatment but could be improved by re-ordering score 3 (zone II stage 1) and 5 (zone III stage 3) based on our clinical cohort data. The modified ROP-ActS was superior to ROP stage and zone in the prediction analysis of ROP treatment. Modified ROP-ActS was more strongly related to GA than currently used ROP stage, but not zone. CONCLUSION: In the studied cohort, the modified ROP-ActS could better predict ROP treatment compared to ROP stage and zone. Retinopathy of Prematurity Activity Scale (ROP-ActS) had a superior sensitivity characteristic studied through association to GA than conventionally used ROP stage.
Cui Y, Zhu Y, Wang JC, Lu Y, Zeng R, Katz R, Vingopoulos F, Le R, Laíns I, Wu DM, Eliott D, Vavvas DG, Husain D, Miller JW, Kim LA, Miller JB. Comparison of widefield swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography with ultra-widefield colour fundus photography and fluorescein angiography for detection of lesions in diabetic retinopathy. Br J Ophthalmol 2021;105(4):577-581.Abstract
AIMS: To compare widefield swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (WF SS-OCTA) with ultra-widefield colour fundus photography (UWF CFP) and fluorescein angiography (UWF FA) for detecting diabetic retinopathy (DR) lesions. METHODS: This prospective, observational study was conducted at Massachusetts Eye and Ear from December 2018 to October 2019. Proliferative DR, non-proliferative DR and diabetic patients with no DR were included. All patients were imaged with a WF SS-OCTA using a Montage 15×15 mm scan. UWF CFP and UWF FA were taken by a 200°, single capture retinal imaging system. Images were independently evaluated for the presence or absence of DR lesions including microaneurysms (MAs), intraretinal microvascular abnormalities (IRMAs), neovascularisation elsewhere (NVE), neovascularisation of the optic disc (NVD) and non-perfusion areas (NPAs). All statistical analyses were performed using SPSS V.25.0. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-two eyes of 101 participants were included in the study. When compared with UWF CFP, WF SS-OCTA was found to be superior in detecting IRMAs (p<0.001) and NVE/NVD (p=0.007). The detection rates of MAs, IRMAs, NVE/NVD and NPAs in WF SS-OCTA were comparable with UWF FA images (p>0.05). Furthermore, when we compared WF SS-OCTA plus UWF CFP with UWF FA, the detection rates of MAs, IRMAs, NVE/NVD and NPAs were identical (p>0.005). Agreement (κ=0.916) between OCTA and FA in classifying DR was excellent. CONCLUSION: WF SS-OCTA is useful for identification of DR lesions. WF SS-OCTA plus UWF CFP may offer a less invasive alternative to FA for DR diagnosis.
Agrawal R, Testi I, Lee CS, Tsui E, Blazes M, Thorne JE, Okada AA, Smith JR, McCluskey PJ, Kempen JH, Tappeiner C, Agarwal M, Bodaghi B, Nguyen QD, Gupta V, De Smet MD, Zierhut M, Pavesio C, Pavesio C. Evolving consensus for immunomodulatory therapy in non-infectious uveitis during the COVID-19 pandemic. Br J Ophthalmol 2021;105(5):639-647.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Immunomodulatory therapy (IMT) is often considered for systemic treatment of non-infectious uveitis (NIU). During the evolving coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, given the concerns related to IMT and the increased risk of infections, an urgent need for guidance on the management of IMT in patients with uveitis has emerged. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of international uveitis experts was conducted. An expert steering committee identified clinical questions on the use of IMT in patients with NIU during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using an interactive online questionnaire, guided by background experience and knowledge, 139 global uveitis experts generated consensus statements for IMT. In total, 216 statements were developed around when to initiate, continue, decrease and stop systemic and local corticosteroids, conventional immunosuppressive agents and biologics in patients with NIU. Thirty-one additional questions were added, related to general recommendations, including the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and hydroxychloroquine. RESULTS: Highest consensus was achieved for not initiating IMT in patients who have suspected or confirmed COVID-19, and for using local over systemic corticosteroid therapy in patients who are at high-risk and very high-risk for severe or fatal COVID-19. While there was a consensus in starting or initiating NSAIDs for the treatment of scleritis in healthy patients, there was no consensus in starting hydroxychloroquine in any risk groups. CONCLUSION: Consensus guidelines were proposed based on global expert opinion and practical experience to bridge the gap between clinical needs and the absence of medical evidence, to guide the treatment of patients with NIU during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Baumal CR, Sarraf D, Bryant T, Gui W, Muakkassa N, Pichi F, Querques G, Choudhry N, Teke MY, Govetto A, Invernizzi A, Eliott D, Gaudric A, Cunha de Souza E, Naysan J, Lembo A, Lee GC, Freund BK. Henle fibre layer haemorrhage: clinical features and pathogenesis. Br J Ophthalmol 2021;105(3):374-380.Abstract
BACKGROUND: To describe the clinical presentation and characteristic imaging features of deep retinal haemorrhages primarily located in the Henle fibre layer (HFL) of the macula. The spectrum of aetiologies and a comprehensive theory of pathogenesis are presented. METHODS: This is a retrospective, multicentre case series evaluating eyes with retinal haemorrhage in HFL. Clinical features, underlying aetiology, systemic and ocular risk factors, visual acuity, and multimodal imaging including fundus photography and cross-sectional and en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) are presented. RESULTS: Retinal haemorrhages localised to HFL in 33 eyes from 23 patients were secondary to acute blunt trauma to the head (n=2), eye (n=1) and trunk (n=1), ruptured intracranial aneurysm (Terson's syndrome, n=3), general anaesthesia (n=1), epidural anaesthesia (n=1), hypertension with anaemia (n=1), decompression retinopathy (n=1), postvitrectomy with intraocular gas (n=1), retinal vein occlusion (n=7), myopic degeneration (n=2), macular telangiectasia type 2 (n=1), and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (n=1). Defining clinical features included deep retinal haemorrhage with feathery margin and petaloid pattern radiating from the fovea. OCT demonstrated characteristic hyper-reflectivity from the haemorrhage delineated by obliquely oriented fibres in the Henle layer. Spontaneous resolution of HFL haemorrhage occurred after 3 months in 15 patients with follow-up. CONCLUSION: The characteristic petaloid-shaped, deep intraretinal haemorrhage with a feathery margin localised to HFL is associated with various disorders. The terminology 'Henle fiber layer hemorrhage (HH)' is proposed to describe the clinical and OCT findings, which may result from abnormal retinal venous pressure from systemic or local retinovascular disorders affecting the deep capillary plexus or from choroidal vascular abnormalities.
Tieger MG, Rodriguez M, Wang JC, Obeid A, Ryan C, Gao X, Kakulavarapu S, Mardis PJ, Madhava ML, Maloney SM, Adika AZ, Peddada KV, Sioufi K, Stefater JA, Forbes NJ, Capone A, Emerson GG, Joseph DP, Regillo C, Hsu J, Gupta O, Eliott D, Ryan EH, Yonekawa Y. Impact of contact versus non-contact wide-angle viewing systems on outcomes of primary retinal detachment repair (PRO study report number 5). Br J Ophthalmol 2021;105(3):410-413.Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Vitrectomy to repair retinal detachment is often performed with either non-contact wide-angle viewing systems or wide-angle contact viewing systems. The purpose of this study is to assess whether the viewing system used is associated with any differences in surgical outcomes of vitrectomy for primary non-complex retinal detachment repair. METHODS: This is a multicenter, interventional, retrospective, comparative study. Eyes that underwent non-complex primary retinal detachment repair by either pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) alone or in combination with scleral buckle/PPV in 2015 were evaluated. The viewing system at the time of the retinal detachment repair was identified and preoperative patient characteristics, intraoperative findings and postoperative outcomes were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 2256 eyes were included in our analysis. Of those, 1893 surgeries used a non-contact viewing system, while 363 used a contact lens system. There was no statistically significant difference in single surgery anatomic success at 3 months (p=0.72), or final anatomic success (p=0.40). Average postoperative visual acuity for the contact-based cases was logMAR 0.345 (20/44 Snellen equivalent) compared with 0.475 (20/60 Snellen equivalent) for non-contact (p=0.001). After controlling for numerous confounding variables in multivariable analysis, viewing system choice was no longer statistically significant (p=0.097). CONCLUSION: There was no statistically significant difference in anatomic success achieved for primary retinal detachment repair when comparing non-contact viewing systems to contact lens systems. Postoperative visual acuity was better in the contact-based group but this was not statistically significant when confounding factors were controlled for.
Caton MT, Zamani AA, Du R, Prasad S. Optic Neuropathy Due to Compression by an Ectatic Internal Carotid Artery Within the Orbital Apex. J Neuroophthalmol 2021;41(1):e103-e104.Abstract
ABSTRACT: Neurovascular compression is a rare but potentially treatable cause of optic neuropathy. Although incidental contact of the cisternal optic nerve and internal carotid artery (ICA) is common, compressive optic neuropathy occurring within the orbital apex has not been comprehensively described. We report a case of intra-orbital and intracanalicular optic nerve compression due to an ectatic ICA in a patient with congenital absence of the contralateral ICA. This report describes the complementary roles of advanced neuroimaging and neuro-ophthalmologic examination in rendering the diagnosis.
Wang Y, Carreno-Galeano JT, Singh RB, Dana R, Yin J. Long-term Outcomes of Punctal Cauterization in the Management of Ocular Surface Diseases. Cornea 2021;40(2):168-171.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term outcomes of surgical occlusion of lacrimal puncta using thermal cautery in the management of ocular surface diseases. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 80 consecutive patients from a single academic center who underwent punctal cauterization. Patient demographics, ocular history, symptoms, and signs of ocular surface diseases pre- and post-cauterization were recorded. RESULTS: A total of 80 patients (171 puncta) were included, with an average age of 59 years and a follow-up duration of 27 months. The most common ocular morbidity was ocular graft-versus-host disease (n = 36), followed by primary keratoconjunctivitis sicca (n = 15). Indications for punctal cauterization included plug loss (n = 51), difficulty in plug fitting (n = 11), plug-related complications (n = 6), recanalization of previous cauterization (n = 7), and severe ocular surface disease requiring permanent punctal closure (n = 4). After punctal cauterization, the percentage of eyes with severe (21%) and moderate (25%) dry eye decreased significantly (8% and 19% at 3 months and 6% and 17% at 12 months, P = 0.0006). Fifty-four percent of patients reported improvement in their symptoms. The rate of recanalization was 21% during the follow-up period. The use of topical corticosteroids was associated with higher recanalization rate. Associated complications were limited to temporary pain and swelling. CONCLUSIONS: Punctal cauterization is an effective modality in treating severe ocular surface diseases in patients who repeatedly lose punctal plugs, and it can be easily performed in a clinic setting without major complications. However, cauterization may need to be repeated in up to a quarter of cases because of recanalization.
Ong Tone S, Kocaba V, Böhm M, Wylegala A, White TL, Jurkunas UV. Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy: The vicious cycle of Fuchs pathogenesis. Prog Retin Eye Res 2021;80:100863.Abstract
Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy (FECD) is the most common primary corneal endothelial dystrophy and the leading indication for corneal transplantation worldwide. FECD is characterized by the progressive decline of corneal endothelial cells (CECs) and the formation of extracellular matrix (ECM) excrescences in Descemet's membrane (DM), called guttae, that lead to corneal edema and loss of vision. FECD typically manifests in the fifth decades of life and has a greater incidence in women. FECD is a complex and heterogeneous genetic disease where interaction between genetic and environmental factors results in cellular apoptosis and aberrant ECM deposition. In this review, we will discuss a complex interplay of genetic, epigenetic, and exogenous factors in inciting oxidative stress, auto(mito)phagy, unfolded protein response, and mitochondrial dysfunction during CEC degeneration. Specifically, we explore the factors that influence cellular fate to undergo apoptosis, senescence, and endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition. These findings will highlight the importance of abnormal CEC-DM interactions in triggering the vicious cycle of FECD pathogenesis. We will also review clinical characteristics, diagnostic tools, and current medical and surgical management options for FECD patients. These new paradigms in FECD pathogenesis present an opportunity to develop novel therapeutics for the treatment of FECD.
Liao C, Zhang J, Jiang Y, Huang S, Aung T, Foster PJ, Friedman D, He M. Long-term effect of YAG laser iridotomy on corneal endothelium in primary angle closure suspects: a 72-month randomised controlled study. Br J Ophthalmol 2021;105(3):348-353.Abstract
PURPOSES: To evaluate the effect of YAG laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) on corneal endothelial cell density (ECD) and morphology in primary angle closure suspects (PACS) over 72 months. METHODS: The Zhongshan Angle Closure Prevention Trial is a single-centre randomised controlled trial. Subjects with bilateral PACS received YAG LPI prophylactic treatment in one eye randomly, while the fellow eye served as control. Central corneal ECD and morphology were assessed using non-contact specular microscopy (SP-2000P, Topcon) at baseline, 6, 18, 36, 54 and 72 months postoperatively. Mixed model analysis was conducted to compare the difference between treated and fellow eyes. RESULTS: A total of 875 participants were included, with a mean age of 59.3±5.0 years and 83.5% female. The ECD declined significantly (p<0.001) over time in both treated and fellow eyes, but the treated eyes showed more progressive cell loss with increasing time (p<0.001). The difference in ECD loss between LPI-treated and fellow eyes was not significant at each follow-up until 72 months (4.9% in LPI eyes vs 4.2% in non-LPI eyes, p=0.003). Mean cell areas increased significantly over time in both treated and fellow eyes (p<0.001), but no longitudinal change was observed for hexagonality. In LPI-treated eyes, no significant correlation was found between age, gender, ocular biometrics, intraocular pressure and laser settings with endothelium change, except for time effect (p<0.01). CONCLUSION: ECD decreases over time primarily due to ageing effect. YAG LPI does not appear to cause clinically significant corneal endothelial damage over 72 months after treatment. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN45213099.
Wan MJ, AlShaker S, Hunter DG. Use of Botulinum Toxin in Ophthalmology. Handb Exp Pharmacol 2021;263:147-160.Abstract
Botulinum toxin is an important treatment for many conditions in ophthalmology, including strabismus, nystagmus, blepharospasm, hemifacial spasm, spastic and congenital entropion, corneal exposure, and persistent epithelial defects. The mechanism of action of botulinum toxin for both strabismus and nystagmus is the neuromuscular blockade and transient paralysis of extraocular muscles, but when botulinum toxin is used for some forms of strabismus, a single injection can convey indefinite benefits. There are two unique mechanisms of action that account for the long-term effect on ocular alignment: (1) the disruption of a balanced system of agonist-antagonist extraocular muscles and (2) the reestablishment of central control of alignment by the binocular visual system. For other ocular conditions, botulinum toxin acts through transient paralysis of periocular muscles. Botulinum toxin is a powerful tool in ophthalmology, achieving its therapeutic effects by direct neuromuscular blockade of extraocular and periocular muscles and by unique mechanisms related to the underlying structure and function of the visual system.
Jakobiec FA, Hanbazazh M, Barrantes PC, Yoon MK. Conjunctival Implantation Cyst in the Orbicularis Oculi Muscle: Review of a Possible Origin From Displaced Stem Cells With a Differential Diagnosis. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2021;37(1):1-11.Abstract
PURPOSE: To document a unique case of a corneal/conjunctival epithelial inclusion cyst located in the orbicularis oculi muscle with a comprehensive review of variant conjunctival cysts and simulating conditions. METHODS: Clinicopathologic case report with detailed histopathologic and immunohistochemical evaluation for cytokeratins combined with a tabulation of mimicking lesions and relevant literature citations. RESULTS: A 59-year-old man experienced severe blunt left periorbital trauma that resulted in a limbal partial-thickness corneal wound with an associated epithelial abrasion and a full-thickness eyelid laceration extending from the superior fornix to the margin. Several months after surgical repair of the eyelid a cyst appeared in the superior pretarsal skin. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical investigations supplied data suggesting that the cyst had a high probability of a corneoscleral limbal stem cell origin. Distinctive features of the lesion are contrasted with those of allied or simulating cysts. CONCLUSIONS: Stem cells are now believed to be located at the corneoscleral limbus, in the inferior fornix, in the medial canthal region, and at the eyelid margin where transitions from conjunctival epithelium to epidermal epithelium occur. Due to their replicative, hardy and robust nature, stem cells displaced to alien environments are most likely to survive and produce cysts. The cyst's corneal-type cytologic characteristics, the absence of goblet cells, and the expression of a broad spectrum of cytokeratin biomarkers in the current case give support to the proposal that limbal stem cells in the region of the corneal laceration were displaced to the eyelid orbicularis muscle and were responsible for this most extraordinary cyst. Comparison with other epithelial cystic linings lends further evidence for this conclusion.
Chen Y, Shao C, Fan N-W, Nakao T, Amouzegar A, Chauhan SK, Dana R. The functions of IL-23 and IL-2 on driving autoimmune effector T-helper 17 cells into the memory pool in dry eye disease. Mucosal Immunol 2021;14(1):177-186.Abstract
Long-lived memory T-helper 17 (Th17) cells actively mediate the chronic inflammation in autoimmune disorders, including dry eye disease (DED). The mechanisms responsible for the maintenance and reactivation of these cells in autoimmunity have been subject of investigation. However, the process through which memory Th17 are generated from their effector precursors remains to be elucidated. Herein, using our murine model of DED, we detect a linear transition from effector-to-memory Th17 cells during the abatement phase of acute inflammation, which is accompanied by persistently high levels of IL-23 and diminished levels of IL-2. In addition, in vitro culture of effector Th17 cells derived from the DED animals with IL-23, but not IL-2, leads to significant generation of memory Th17 cells, along with upregulated expression levels of IL-7R and IL-15R by these cells. Furthermore, supplementation of IL-2 abolishes and blockade of IL-2 enhances IL-23-induced generation of memory Th17 cells in vitro. Finally, in vivo blockade of IL-23 signaling during the contraction phase of primary response inhibits the generation of memory Th17 cells from their effector precursors. Together, our data demonstrate a new dichotomy between IL-23 and IL-2 in driving effector Th17 cells into the memory pool in autoimmune-mediated ocular surface inflammation.
Marmamula S, Barrenakala NR, Challa R, Kumbham TR, Modepalli SB, Yellapragada R, Bhakki M, Khanna RC, Friedman DS. Prevalence and risk factors for visual impairment among elderly residents in 'homes for the aged' in India: the Hyderabad Ocular Morbidity in Elderly Study (HOMES). Br J Ophthalmol 2021;105(1):32-36.Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIM: To investigate the prevalence, causes and risk factors of visual impairment (VI) among the elderly in 'home for the aged' in Hyderabad, India. METHODS: Individuals aged ≥60 years were recruited from 41 'homes for the aged'. All participants had complete eye examinations including presenting visual acuity, refraction, slit-lamp examination, intraocular pressure measurement and fundus imaging by trained clinicians. VI was defined as presenting visual acuity worse than 6/18 in the better eye. Multivariate logistic regression was used to determine the risk factors associated with VI. RESULTS: 1512 elderly residents from 41 homes for the aged were enumerated, of whom 1182 (78.1%) were examined. The mean age of examined participants was 75.0 years (SD 8.8 years; range: 60-108 years); 35.4% of those examined were men. The prevalence of VI was 30.1% (95% CI 27.5 to 32.8). The leading cause of VI was cataract (46.3%, n=165), followed by uncorrected refractive error (27.0%, n=96), posterior capsular opacification (14.9%, n=53) and posterior segment disease (6.5%, n=23). Overall, 88.2% of the VI was either treatable or correctable. In multiple logistic regression, those aged 80 years and older (OR: 1.7, p<0.01), living in 'free' homes (OR: 1.5, p<0.01) and who were immobile/bedridden (OR: 3.02, p<0.01) had significantly higher odds of VI. Gender was not associated with VI. CONCLUSIONS: VI was common and largely avoidable in residents of 'homes for the aged' in Hyderabad, India. Screening for vision loss in 'homes for aged' and the provision of appropriate services should become routine practice to achieve the goal of healthy ageing in India.
Li S, Datta S, Brabbit E, Love Z, Woytowicz V, Flattery K, Capri J, Yao K, Wu S, Imboden M, Upadhyay A, Arumugham R, Thoreson WB, Deangelis MM, Haider NB. Nr2e3 is a genetic modifier that rescues retinal degeneration and promotes homeostasis in multiple models of retinitis pigmentosa. Gene Ther 2021;28(5):223-241.Abstract
Recent advances in viral vector engineering, as well as an increased understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanism of retinal diseases, have led to the development of novel gene therapy approaches. Furthermore, ease of accessibility and ocular immune privilege makes the retina an ideal target for gene therapies. In this study, the nuclear hormone receptor gene Nr2e3 was evaluated for efficacy as broad-spectrum therapy to attenuate early to intermediate stages of retinal degeneration in five unique mouse models of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). RP is a group of heterogenic inherited retinal diseases associated with over 150 gene mutations, affecting over 1.5 million individuals worldwide. RP varies in age of onset, severity, and rate of progression. In addition, ~40% of RP patients cannot be genetically diagnosed, confounding the ability to develop personalized RP therapies. Remarkably, Nr2e3 administered therapy resulted in reduced retinal degeneration as observed by increase in photoreceptor cells, improved electroretinogram, and a dramatic molecular reset of key transcription factors and associated gene networks. These therapeutic effects improved retinal homeostasis in diseased tissue. Results of this study provide evidence that Nr2e3 can serve as a broad-spectrum therapy to treat multiple forms of RP.

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