Perspectives on Cerebral Visual Impairment. Semin Pediatr Neurol 2019;31:1-2..
Use of the Delphi process for defining successful outcomes for strabismus surgery. J AAPOS 2019;23(6):309-312.Abstract.
The purpose of this review was to identify areas of consensus and disagreement among experts for the definition of success following strabismus surgery using the Delphi process. Three rounds of electronic questionnaires were sent to a panel of 28 strabismus experts. Throughout the process, members of the panel were masked to one another's identities to minimize the possibility of influence among members. Prior to data collection, we defined consensus as an 85% agreement on the answer to each question. Questions for which there was no consensus were reworded, and the resultant new questions were used in each subsequent round of questioning. We arrived at consensus for 23 of the 36 questions (64%). Consensus was obtained for recommending unique criteria for the definition of success for certain specific strabismus conditions. In addition, it was considered important that stereopsis and the range of single binocular vision be included in the definition of success for certain types of strabismus.
Extracting the ON and OFF contributions to the full-field photopic flash electroretinogram using summed growth curves. Exp Eye Res 2019;189:107827.Abstract.
Under cone-mediated (photopic) conditions, an "instantaneous" flash of light, including both stimulus onset and offset, will simultaneously activate both "ON" and "OFF" bipolar cells, which either depolarize (ON) or hyperpolarize (OFF) in response and, respectively, produce positive-going and negative-going deflections in the electroretinogram (ERG). The stimulus-response (SR) relationship of the photopic ON response demonstrates logistic growth, like that manifested in the rod-mediated (scotopic) b-wave, which is driven by a single class of depolarizing bipolar cell. However, the photopic b-wave SR function is importantly shaped by OFF responses, leading to a "photopic hill." Furthermore, both on and off stimuli elicit activity in both ON and OFF bipolar cells. This has made it difficult to produce meaningful parameters for ready interpretation of the photopic b-wave SR relationship. Therefore, we evaluated whether the sum of sigmoidal SR functions, as descriptors of the depolarizing and hyperpolarizing components of the photopic flash ERG, could be used to elucidate and quantitate the mechanisms that produce the photopic hill. We used a novel fitting routine to optimize a sum of simple sigmoidal curves to SR data in five groups of subjects: Healthy adult, 10-week-old infant, congenital stationary night blindness (CSNB), X-linked juvenile retinoschisis (XJR), and preterm-born, both without and with a history of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Differences in ON and OFF amplitude, sensitivity, and implicit time among the groups were then compared using parameters extracted from these fits. We found that our modeling procedure enabled plausible derivations of ON and OFF pathway contributions to the ERG, and that the parameters produced appeared to have physiological relevance. In adult subjects, the ON and OFF amplitudes were similar in magnitude with respectively longer and shorter implicit times. Infant, CSNB, and XJR subjects showed significant ON pathway deficits. History of preterm-birth, without or with a diagnosis of ROP, did not much affect cone responses.
Visual Contrast Sensitivity Correlates to the Retinal Degeneration in Rhodopsin Knockout Mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019;60(13):4196-4204.Abstract.
Purpose: Clinical manifestations of photoreceptor degeneration include gradual thinning of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) and progressive reduction of electroretinogram (ERG) amplitudes and vision loss. Although preclinical evaluations of treatment strategies greatly depend on rodent models, the courses of these changes in mice remain unclear. We thus sought to investigate the temporal correlations in changes of spatial vision, ERG response, and ONL thickness in mice with progressive photoreceptor degeneration. Methods: Adult wild-type (WT) mice and mice carrying rhodopsin deficiency (Rho-/-), a frequently used mouse model of human retinitis pigmentosa, were selected for investigation. Mouse spatial vision, including visual acuity (VA) and contrast sensitivity (CS), was determined using optomotor response (OMR) assays; ONL thickness was quantified by spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), and ERG was performed to evaluate retinal functions. The mice were killed when they were 14 weeks old, and the cone photoreceptors in retinal sections were counted. Results: Spatial vision, ONL thickness, and ERG amplitudes remained stable in WT mice at all examined time points. While 6-week-old Rho-/- mice had VA, CS, as well as ERG responses similar to those of WT mice, progressive reductions in the spatial vision and retinal functions were recorded thereafter. Most tested 12-week-old Rho-/- mice had no visual-evoked OMR and ERG responses. Moreover, CS, but not VA, displayed a linear decline that was closely associated with ONL thinning, reduction of ERG amplitudes, and loss of cones. Conclusions: We presented a comprehensive study of the relation between the changes of spatial vision, retinal function, and ONL thickness in postnatal week (PW)6 to PW12 Rho-/- mice. CS is a more sensitive indicator of spatial vision compared to VA, although both are required as separate parameters for monitoring the visual changes in retina undergoing photoreceptor degeneration.
Five-Year Cost-effectiveness of Intravitreous Ranibizumab Therapy vs Panretinal Photocoagulation for Treating Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Ophthalmol 2019;:1-9.Abstract.
Importance: The DRCR Retina Network Protocol S randomized clinical trial suggested that the mean visual acuity of eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) treated with ranibizumab is not worse at 5 years than that of eyes treated with panretinal photocoagulation (PRP). Moreover, the ranibizumab group had fewer new cases of diabetic macular edema (DME) with vision loss or vitrectomy but had 4 times the number of injections and 3 times the number of visits. Although 2-year cost-effectiveness results of Protocol S were previously identified, incorporating 5-year data from Protocol S could alter the longer-term cost-effectiveness of the treatment strategies from the perspective of the health care system. Objective: To evaluate 5- and 10-year cost-effectiveness of therapy with ranibizumab, 0.5 mg, compared with PRP for treating PDR. Design, Setting, and Participants: A preplanned secondary analysis of the Protocol S randomized clinical trial using efficacy, safety, and resource utilization data through 5 years of follow-up for 213 adults diagnosed with PDR and simulating results through 10 years. Interventions: Intravitreous ranibizumab, 0.5 mg, at baseline and as frequently as every 4 weeks based on a structured retreatment protocol vs PRP at baseline for PDR; eyes in both groups could receive ranibizumab for concomitant DME with vision loss. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) of ranibizumab therapy compared with PRP were evaluated for those with and without center-involved DME (CI-DME) and vision loss (Snellen equivalent, 20/32 or worse) at baseline. Results: The study included 213 adults with a mean (SD) age of 53 (12) years, of whom 92 (43%) were women and 155 (73%) were white. The ICER of the ranibizumab group compared with PRP for patients without CI-DME at baseline was $582 268 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) at 5 years and $742 202/QALY at 10 years. For patients with baseline CI-DME, ICERs were $65 576/QALY at 5 years and $63 930/QALY at 10 years. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that during 5 to 10 years of treatment, ranibizumab, 0.5 mg, as given in the studied trial compared with PRP may be within the frequently cited range considered cost-effective in the United States for eyes presenting with PDR and vision-impairing CI-DME, but not for those with PDR but without vision-impairing CI-DME. Substantial reductions in anti-vascular endothelial growth factor cost may make the ranibizumab therapy cost-effective within this range even for patients without baseline CI-DME. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT01489189.
Phosphoinositide 3-kinase δ inactivation prevents vitreous-induced activation of AKT/MDM2/p53 and migration of retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Biol Chem 2019;294(42):15408-15417.Abstract.
Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3Ks) are a family of lipid kinases that play a critical role in transmitting signals from cell-surface molecules to intracellular protein effectors. Key PI3Ks include PI3Kα, PI3Kβ, and PI3Kδ, which are regulated by receptors. The signaling pathway comprising the PI3Ks, along with a Ser/Thr kinase (AKT), a proto-oncogene product (mouse double minute (MDM)2), and a tumor suppressor protein (p53), plays an essential role in experimental proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), which is a fibrotic blinding eye disorder. However, which PI3K isoforms are involved in PVR is unknown. A major characteristic of PVR is the formation of epi (or sub)-retinal membranes that consist of extracellular matrix and cells, including retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) cells, glial cells, and macrophages. RPE cells are considered key players in PVR pathogenesis. Using immunoblotting and immunofluorescence analyses, we herein provide the evidence that PI3Kδ is highly expressed in human RPEs when it is primarily expressed in leukocytes. We also found that PI3Kδ inactivation through two approaches, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated depletion and a PI3Kδ-specific inhibitor (idelalisib), not only blocks vitreous-induced activation of AKT and MDM2 but also abrogates a vitreous-stimulated decrease in p53. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PI3Kδ inactivation prevents vitreous-induced proliferation, migration, and contraction of human RPEs. These results suggest that PI3Kδ may represent a potential therapeutic target for RPE-related eye diseases, including PVR.
A Questionnaire Assessing What Teachers of the Visually Impaired Know About Cortical/Cerebral Vision Impairment. Semin Pediatr Neurol 2019;31:41-47.Abstract.
Cortical/cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is now the main cause of visual impairment in developed countries, yet it remains poorly understood. Four hundred and ninteen teachers of the visually impaired (TVIs) from across the United States responded to a questionnaire targeted at evaluating the preparedness of TVIs to serve their students with CVI. The TVIs were asked about their background knowledge, their abilities to assess a student with CVI, and their abilities to apply what they know to best help their students. The primary finding was that there is a perceived unmet need for TVIs to receive formal training in CVI during their certification. The results of this survey provide a foundation for future research on CVI knowledge and education among TVIs.
Alterations in the Structural and Functional Connectivity of the Visuomotor Network of Children With Periventricular Leukomalacia. Semin Pediatr Neurol 2019;31:48-56.Abstract.
Children born preterm with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL) demonstrate increased difficulties with tasks requiring visuomotor integration. The visuomotor integration network encompasses brain regions within frontal, parietal, and occipital cortices. Because of their proximity to the lateral ventricle the underlying white matter pathways are at a high risk of damage following PVL-related hypoxic-ischemic white matter injury. This study provides an exploratory analysis of the structural and functional connections within the visuomotor integration network, along with an a priori evaluation of the superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and frontal aslant tract. For each pathway, tracts within both hemispheres revealed decreased volume and number of reconstructed fibers and an increase in quantitative anisotropy and generalized fractional anisotropy. The connectivity results also indicate that there may be changes to both the structural integrity and functional integration of neural networks involved with visuomotor integration functions in children with PVL.
Etv1 Controls the Establishment of Non-overlapping Motor Innervation of Neighboring Facial Muscles during Development. Cell Rep 2019;29(2):437-452.e4.Abstract.
The somatotopic motor-neuron projections onto their cognate target muscles are essential for coordinated movement, but how that occurs for facial motor circuits, which have critical roles in respiratory and interactive behaviors, is poorly understood. We report extensive molecular heterogeneity in developing facial motor neurons in the mouse and identify markers of subnuclei and the motor pools innervating specific facial muscles. Facial subnuclei differentiate during migration to the ventral hindbrain, where neurons with progressively later birth dates-and evolutionarily more recent functions-settle in more-lateral positions. One subpopulation marker, ETV1, determines both positional and target muscle identity for neurons of the dorsolateral (DL) subnucleus. In Etv1 mutants, many markers of DL differentiation are lost, and individual motor pools project indifferently to their own and neighboring muscle targets. The resulting aberrant activation patterns are reminiscent of the facial synkinesis observed in humans after facial nerve injury.
Patterns of Pediatric Firearm-Related Ocular Trauma in the United States. JAMA Ophthalmol 2019;Abstract.
Importance: Gun violence represents a substantial public health issue, and firearm-related injuries rank second among the causes of injury-related deaths in children aged 0 to 17 years in the United States. Ocular trauma from firearm-related injuries can lead to devastating vision loss, but little is known to date about the specific demographics and characteristics of such injuries in children. Objective: To evaluate the epidemiologic pattern of pediatric firearm-related ocular injuries. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective analysis used deidentified data from the National Trauma Data Bank, the largest national registry of hospitalized trauma cases in the United States. The firearm-related ocular injuries (n = 1972) of pediatric patients (defined as those younger than 21 years) hospitalized between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2014, were analyzed. Statistical analyses were conducted from July 15, 2017, to June 15, 2019. Exposure: Firearm-related ocular trauma. Main Outcomes and Measures: Pediatric patients with firearm-related ocular injuries were identified using International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes and external causes of injury codes. Patient demographics (age, sex, and race/ethnicity), type of ocular injury, injury intent, geographic location, length of hospital admission, health insurance status, disposition at discharge, Injury Severity Score (ISS), and Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score were collected. Results: A total of 8715 firearm-related ocular injuries were identified. Of these injuries, 1972 (22.6%) occurred in pediatric patients, most of whom were male (1678 [85.1%]) and adolescents (1037 [52.6%]), with a mean (SD) age of 15.2 (5) years. Common locations of injury were home (761 [38.6%]) and street (490 [24.8%]). Mean (SD) hospital length of stay was 7.6 (12) days, ISS was 16 (13.1), and GCS score was 11 (5.1). The most common types of firearm-related ocular injuries were open wound of the eyeball (820 [41.6%]) and ocular adnexa (502 [25.5%]), orbital injuries or fractures (591 [30.0%]), and contusion of the eye or adnexa (417 [21.1%]). Patients aged 0 to 3 years had greater odds of unintentional injuries (odds ratio [OR], 4.41; 95% CI, 2.51-7.75; P < .001) and injuries occurring at home (OR, 5.39; 95% CI, 2.81-10.38; P < .001), and those aged 19 to 21 years had greater odds of assault injuries (OR, 2.17; 95% CI, 1.77-2.66; P < .001) and injuries occurring on the street (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.3-1.98; P < .001). Black patients had the greatest odds of having injuries with assault intention (OR, 4.53; 95% CI, 3.68-5.59; P < .001), and white patients had the greatest likelihood for self-inflicted injury (OR, 7.1; 95% CI, 5.92-9.51; P < .001). Traumatic brain injury resulted mostly from self-inflicted trauma (OR, 5.99; 95% CI, 4.16-8.63; P < .001), as did visual pathway injuries (OR, 2.86; 95% CI, 1.95-4.20; P < .001). The inpatient mortality rate was 12.2%. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that pediatric firearm-related ocular injuries from 2008 through 2014 were predominantly sight-threatening and associated with traumatic brain injury. If the possible risk factors, including sex, age, race/ethnicity, and injury intention, can be confirmed for 2015 through 2019, these findings may be useful in developing strategies to prevent pediatric firearm-related ocular injuries.
Topical sustained drug delivery to the retina with a drug-eluting contact lens. Biomaterials 2019;217:119285.Abstract.
Intravitreal injections and implants are used to deliver drugs to the retina because therapeutic levels of these medications cannot be provided by topical administration (i.e. eye drops). In order to reach the retina, a topically applied drug encounters tear dilution, reflex blinking, and rapid fluid drainage that collectively reduce the drug's residence time on the ocular surface. Residing under the tears, the cornea is the primary gateway into the eye for many topical ophthalmic drugs. We hypothesized that a drug-eluting contact lens that rests on the cornea would therefore be well-suited for delivering drugs to the eye including the retina. We developed a contact lens based dexamethasone delivery system (Dex-DS) that achieved sustained drug delivery to the retina at therapeutic levels. Dex-DS consists of a dexamethasone-polymer film encapsulated inside a contact lens. Rabbits wearing Dex-DS achieved retinal drug concentrations that were 200 times greater than those from intensive (hourly) dexamethasone drops. Conversely, Dex-DS demonstrated lower systemic (blood serum) dexamethasone concentrations. In an efficacy study in rabbits, Dex-DS successfully inhibited retinal vascular leakage induced by intravitreal injection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Dex-DS was found to be safe in a four-week repeated dose biocompatibility study in healthy rabbits.
Cerebral/Cortical Visual Impairment: A Need to Reassess Current Definitions of Visual Impairment and Blindness. Semin Pediatr Neurol 2019;31:25-29.Abstract.
Cerebral/cortical visual impairment (CVI) is characterized by higher order visual dysfunction caused by injury to the retrogeniculate visual pathways and brain structures which subserve visual processing. CVI has become the leading cause of significant vision loss in children in developed countries, but continues to be an under-recognized cause of visual disability with respect to services aimed at maximizing visual development. Current criteria which are used to define visual disability rely on measures of visual acuity and visual field. Many children who require specialized vision services do not qualify, because these standard definitions of vision impairment do not account for CVI. In order to appropriately identify patients with CVI and offer the resources which may positively impact functional use of vision, the definition of visual impairment and blindness needs to be modified. This commentary calls for a change in the definition of visual impairment and blindness to acknowledge those persons with brain-based vision impairment.
Multimodal imaging features of intraocular foreign bodies. Semin Ophthalmol 2019;:1-15.Abstract.
: To determine the imaging approach for evaluating intraocular foreign bodies (IOFBs) by comparing the ability of different modalities [plain film x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonsance imaging (MRI), convetional ultrasound, and ultrasound biomicroscopy] to detect and characterize IOFBs. : Systematic review of the literature. : CT is the most practical first step for evaluating patients with suspected IOFBs because it can detect a wide range of IOFB types at small limitis of detection. MRI and ultrasound are best reserved as adjunctive tests in most cases although these tests may provide important insights especially with wood, plastic, and glass IOFBs. Imaging characteristics of metal, wood, glass, plastic, stone, concrete, and graphite IOFBs are reviewed. : Understanding the limits of detection for each IOFB type and imaging modality as well as the characteristic features of different IOFBs is of paramount importance to optimizing the management of ocular trauma patients.
Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor intravitreal therapy for retinopathy of prematurity. Semin Perinatol 2019;43(6):375-380.Abstract.
Retinopathy of prematurity treatment modalities have expanded over the years, from cryotherapy to laser therapy and now, anti-vascular endothelial factor (VEGF) therapy by intravitreal injection. Use of anti-VEGF treatment varies regionally and depends on multiple factors including severity and progression of ROP, availability of alternative treatments, experience of the local ophthalmologists, medical status of the infant, and expectations for long-term follow-up. While the advantages and disadvantages of anti-VEGF intravitreal treatment on the eye are relatively well-described, few studies provide information about potential long-term systemic effects of this treatment, which is known to transiently reduce systemic VEGF concentrations.
Reply. Ophthalmology 2019;126(10):e78-e79..