Aminkhani A, Sharifi R, Dorosti R. Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Achillea tenuifolia Lam. Essential Oil at Different Phenological Stages from Khoy. Chem Biodivers 2019;16(12):e1900289.Abstract
Achillea species and in particular Achillea tenuifolia Lam. is generally used as a food flavor and traditional remedies, especially in the initial developmental stage for medical conditions in the Mediterranean part of Iran. In this report, we extracted the essential oil from the aerial parts of A. tenuifolia (collected from Khoy), at various developmental stages (i. e., vegetative, flowering and fruiting), characterized them and studied their antibacterial activities. Of 46, 51 and 38 components found in the vegetative, flowering, and fruiting stages, respectively, 35 were present in all three stages, including oxygenated terpenes such as carvacrol (30.85-34.11), germacrene C (16.21-17.87), spathulenol (7.26-8.96), β-sesquiphellandrene (4.11-4.25), τ-muurolol (2.27-3.25) and α-cadinol (2.01-3.29). We witnessed that the composition of the essential oils varies with phenological stages and geographic regions. The essential oil demonstrated substantial antibacterial properties against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, indicated by disk method, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) assays. Except Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the essential oils of various phenological stages showed higher antibacterial activity against tested bacteria, with Bacillus anthracis as the most sensitive strain. Moreover, although antibacterial characteristics of the essential oil from the vegetative and flowering stages were similar (p=0.91), they were significantly different from those of fruiting stage (p<0.005 in both MIC and MBC tests). This emphasizes the importance of the developmental stage of the plant in the biological properties of its essential oil and justifies the widespread application of this plant in the vegetative stage.
You C, Lasave AF, Kubaisi B, Syeda S, Ma L, Wai KCK, Diaz MH, Walsh M, Stephenson A, Montieth A, Foster SC. Long-term outcomes of systemic corticosteroid-sparing immunomodulatory therapy for Birdshot Retinochoroidopathy. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2019;:1-9.Abstract
: To report the visual prognosis, electroretinography (ERG) and perimetry outcomes of systemic corticosteroid-sparing immunomodulatory treatment (IMT) for birdshot retinochoroidopathy (BSRC). : Retrospective non-comparative case series of 132 patients (264 eyes) with BSRC treated with IMT from Massachusetts Eye Research and Surgery Institution. : The average follow-up time was 60.1 months. After one year on IMT, 39.4% showed no clinically active inflammation. After 5 years of IMT, 78.0% had no signs of clinical inflammation. No significant differences were observed on best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), ERG parameters, and perimetry parameters between baseline and subsequent visits on IMT. : Long-term systemic corticosteroid-sparing IMT was associated with a low rate of BSRC disease exacerbation. While differences were seen on testing parameters, they were not consistent trends and difference were attributed to variability of testing or fluctuation of inflammation that may be expected in the course of the disease.
Stanwyck LK, Place EM, Comander J, Huckfeldt RM, Sobrin L. Predictive value of genetic testing for inherited retinal diseases in patients with suspected atypical autoimmune retinopathy. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2019;15:100461.Abstract
Purpose: The clinical features of autoimmune retinopathy (AIR) can resemble and be difficult to differentiate from inherited retinal degenerations (IRDs). Misdiagnosis of an IRD as AIR causes unnecessary treatment with immunosuppressive agents. The purpose of this study is to calculate the predictive value of genetic testing for IRDs in patients with suspected AIR and provide clinical examples where genetic testing has been useful. Methods: We identified patients seen at MEEI between April 2013 and January 2017 for whom the differentiation of AIR vs. IRDs was difficult based on clinical assessment alone. All patients had some atypical features for AIR, but tested positive for anti-retinal antibodies. Within this group, we identified six patients who had genetic testing for IRDs with the Genetic Eye Disease panel for retinal genes (GEDi-R). We calculated the positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of genetic testing in a population with approximately equal numbers of IRD and AIR patients. Results: Six patients had clinical features that made distinguishing between IRDs and AIR on a clinical basis difficult and were sent for genetic testing: four women and two men with a mean age of 59.5 years. In two of these six patients, genetic diagnoses were made based upon the identification of known pathogenic variants in the common IRD genes and . Two patients had variants of unknown significance within genes associated with IRDs, and the other two had no relevant genetic findings. Given the 60% sensitivity and 3% false positive rate for GEDi-R testing and assuming a 50% pre-test probability of having an IRD, the PPV for GEDi-R for detecting IRD is 95.2% and the NPV is 70.8%. Conclusions and Importance: In patients for whom the differential diagnosis of AIR and IRDs is unclear based on clinical information, genetic testing can be a valuable tool when it identifies an IRD, sparing the patient unnecessary immunosuppressive treatment. However, the test has a low NPV so a negative genetic testing result does not confidently exclude IRD as the true diagnosis.
Sabeti S, Kheirkhah A, Yin J, Dana R. Management of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction: A Review. Surv Ophthalmol 2019;Abstract
Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is the leading cause of evaporative dry eye disease and is one of the most common conditions encountered by eye care providers. MGD is characterized by obstruction of the meibomian gland terminal ducts and/or changes in their glandular secretion, resulting in changes in tear film stability, inflammation, and symptoms of irritation. There is no gold standard treatment for MGD, but rather a diversity of options. Conservative measures include warm compresses and lid hygiene, but there is growing interest and need for medical treatments and procedures. Potential medical treatments include antibiotics, non-steroidal and steroidal anti-inflammatory agents, essential fatty acid supplementation, hormone therapy, and control of Demodex infestation. Procedures include intraductal meibomian gland probing, the use of electronic heating devices, intense pulsed light therapy, and intranasal neurostimulation. We provide an update on MGD treatments based on recent studies.
Simmons NL, Robb RM, Tybor DJ, Gilbert AL. Older age and larger cyst size in children with spontaneous rupture of periorbital dermoid cysts. J AAPOS 2019;Abstract
We analyzed clinical and histopathologic data of 97 pediatric patients who underwent excision of dermoid cysts. On review, 16.5% of the sample population demonstrated localized chronic inflammatory changes, including the presence of giant cells and epithelial disruption. These features were considered indicative of prior cyst rupture. Age at time of initial presentation was significantly older and cyst size was significantly larger in patients with histopathologic signs of previous rupture. Longer time to presentation and time to excision were associated with increased odds of spontaneous rupture.
Moustafa GA, Borkar DS, Borboli-Gerogiannis S, Greenstein SH, Lorch AC, Vasan RA, Kloek CE. Optimization of cataract surgery follow-up: A standard set of questions can predict unexpected management changes at postoperative week one. PLoS One 2019;14(9):e0221243.Abstract
PURPOSE: There is limited evidence to inform the optimal follow-up schedule after cataract surgery. This study aims to determine whether a standardized question set can predict unexpected management changes (UMCs) at the postoperative week one (POW1) timepoint. SETTING: Massachusetts Eye and Ear, Harvard Medical School. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: Two-hundred-and-fifty-four consecutive phacoemulsification cases having attended an examination between postoperative days 5-14. A set of 7 'Yes' or 'No' questions were administered to all participants by a technician at the POW1 visit. Patient answers along with perioperative patient information were recorded and analyzed. Outcomes were the incidence of UMCs at POW1. RESULTS: The incidence of UMCs was zero in uneventful cataract cases with unremarkable history and normal postoperative day one exam if no positive answers were given with the question set demonstrating 100% sensitivity (p<0.0001). A test version with 5 questions was equally sensitive in detecting UMCs at POW1 after cataract surgery. CONCLUSION: In routine cataract cases with no positive answers to the current set of clinical questions, a POW1 visit is unlikely to result in a management change. This result offers the opportunity for eye care providers to risk-stratify patients who have had cataract surgery and individualize follow-up.
Sun JK, Jampol LM. The Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network ( and Its Contributions to the Treatment of Diabetic Retinopathy. Ophthalmic Res 2019;:1-6.Abstract
Over the past two decades, the Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network (now known as the DRCR Retina Network) has contributed to multiple and substantial advances in the clinical care of diabetic eye disease. Network studies helped establish anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) agents as an effective alternative to panretinal photocoagulation for eyes with proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and as first-line therapy for eyes with visual impairment for diabetic macular edema (DME), defined treatment algorithms for the use of intravitreal medications in these conditions, and provided critical data to understand how to better evaluate the diabetic eye using optical coherence tomography and other imaging modalities. Ongoing studies will address whether anti-VEGF therapy is effective at preventing vision-threatening complications in eyes with severe non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy, if photobiomodulation has a beneficial effect in eyes with DME, and whether initiation of DME treatment with bevacizumab and rescue with aflibercept can provide visual outcomes as good as those achieved with aflibercept alone. Future plans for the Network also include the expansion into non-diabetic eye disease in areas such as age-related macular degeneration.
Fu Z, Chen CT, Cagnone G, Heckel E, Sun Y, Cakir B, Tomita Y, Huang S, Li Q, Britton W, Cho SS, Kern TS, Hellström A, Joyal J-S, Smith LEH. Dyslipidemia in retinal metabolic disorders. EMBO Mol Med 2019;11(10):e10473.Abstract
The light-sensitive photoreceptors in the retina are extremely metabolically demanding and have the highest density of mitochondria of any cell in the body. Both physiological and pathological retinal vascular growth and regression are controlled by photoreceptor energy demands. It is critical to understand the energy demands of photoreceptors and fuel sources supplying them to understand neurovascular diseases. Retinas are very rich in lipids, which are continuously recycled as lipid-rich photoreceptor outer segments are shed and reformed and dietary intake of lipids modulates retinal lipid composition. Lipids (as well as glucose) are fuel substrates for photoreceptor mitochondria. Dyslipidemia contributes to the development and progression of retinal dysfunction in many eye diseases. Here, we review photoreceptor energy demands with a focus on lipid metabolism in retinal neurovascular disorders.
Busch C, Fraser-Bell S, Iglicki M, Lupidi M, Couturier A, Chaikitmongkol V, Giancipoli E, Rodríguez-Valdés PJ, Gabrielle P-H, Laíns I, Santos AR, Cebeci Z, Amphornphruet A, Degenhardt V, Unterlauft J-D, Cagini C, Mané-Tauty V, Ricci GD'A, Hindi I, Agrawal K, Chhablani J, Loewenstein A, Zur D, Rehak M, Rehak M. Real-world outcomes of non-responding diabetic macular edema treated with continued anti-VEGF therapy versus early switch to dexamethasone implant: 2-year results. Acta Diabetol 2019;56(12):1341-1350.Abstract
AIMS: To provide 2-year follow-up data on eyes with diabetic macular edema (DME) that were non-responsive after three initial anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections, comparing functional and anatomical outcomes under continued anti-VEGF therapy versus dexamethasone (DEX) implant. METHODS: Multicenter, retrospective chart review comparing eyes with treatment-naïve DME and a suboptimal response to a loading phase of anti-VEGF therapy (3 injections given monthly) which were then treated with (a) further anti-VEGF (n = 72) or (b) initially switched to DEX implant (n = 38). Main outcome measures were change in visual acuity (VA) and central subfield thickness (CST) from the end of the loading phase to 24 months. RESULTS: In 79% of the 12-month study population (87/110 eyes), 24-month data were available. One quarter of eyes in each group switched treatments during the second year. Eyes that were switched early to DEX implant maintained the functional and anatomical improvements at 24 months which were seen in the first year (from month 3: + 8.9 letters, - 214 µm). Eyes that were switched from anti-VEGF therapy to steroids in the second year improved VA and reduced CST at 24 months (from month 12: + 6.8 letters, p = 0.023; - 226 µm, p = 0.004). In eyes continued on anti-VEGF therapy, VA and CST were stable at 24 months (from month 3: + 2.8 letters, p = 0.254; - 24 µm, p = 0.243). Eyes that were non-responsive to anti-VEGF therapy for 12 months had similar chances to experience a VA gain from further therapy as eyes that were non-responsive for 3 months only (23.8 vs. 31.0%, p = 0.344). CONCLUSIONS: The beneficial effect of an early switch to DEX implant in DME non-responders seen at month 12 was maintained during the second year. A later switch from anti-VEGF to steroids still provided significant improvement. Eyes continued on anti-VEGF over a period of 24 months maintained vision. A quarter of eyes, which had not improved vision at 12 months, exhibited a delayed response to treatment.
M Mallery R, Rehmani OF, Woo JH, Chen YJ, Reddi S, Salzman KL, Pinho MC, Ledbetter L, Tamhankar MA, Shindler KS, Digre KB, Friedman DI, Liu GT. Utility of Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features for Improving the Diagnosis of Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Without Papilledema. J Neuroophthalmol 2019;39(3):299-307.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Revised diagnostic criteria for idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) were proposed in part to reduce misdiagnosis of intracranial hypertension without papilledema (WOP) by using 3 or 4 MRI features of intracranial hypertension when a sixth nerve palsy is absent. This study was undertaken to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of the MRI criteria and to validate their utility for diagnosing IIH in patients with chronic headaches and elevated opening pressure (CH + EOP), but WOP. METHODS: Brain MRIs from 80 patients with IIH with papilledema (WP), 33 patients with CH + EOP, and 70 control patients with infrequent episodic migraine were assessed in a masked fashion for MRI features of intracranial hypertension. RESULTS: Reduced pituitary gland height was moderately sensitive for IIH WP (80%) but had low specificity (64%). Increased optic nerve sheath diameter was less sensitive (51%) and only moderately specific (83%). Flattening of the posterior globe was highly specific (97%) but had low sensitivity (57%). Transverse venous sinus stenosis was moderately sensitive for IIH WP (78%) but of undetermined specificity. A combination of any 3 of 4 MRI features was nearly 100% specific, while maintaining a sensitivity of 64%. Of patients with CH + EOP, 30% had 3 or more MRI features, suggesting IIH WOP in those patients. CONCLUSION: A combination of any 3 of 4 MRI features is highly specific for intracranial hypertension and suggests IIH WOP when present in patients with chronic headache and no papilledema.
Chitnis GD, Verma MKS, Lamazouade J, Gonzalez-Andrades M, Yang K, Dergham A, Jones PA, Mead BE, Cruzat A, Tong Z, Martyn K, Solanki A, Landon-Brace N, Karp JM. A resistance-sensing mechanical injector for the precise delivery of liquids to target tissue. Nat Biomed Eng 2019;3(8):621-631.Abstract
The precision of the delivery of therapeutics to the desired injection site by syringes and hollow needles typically depends on the operator. Here, we introduce a highly sensitive, completely mechanical and cost-effective injector for targeting tissue reliably and precisely. As the operator pushes the syringe plunger, the injector senses the loss-of-resistance on encountering a softer tissue or a cavity, stops advancing the needle and delivers the payload. We demonstrate that the injector can reliably deliver liquids to the suprachoroidal space-a challenging injection site that provides access to the back of the eye-for a wide range of eye sizes, scleral thicknesses and intraocular pressures, and target sites relevant for epidural injections, subcutaneous injections and intraperitoneal access. The design of this simple and effective injector can be adapted for a broad variety of clinical applications.
Enhancing medical student education in ophthalmology can lead to improved eye health care delivery and patient outcomes across all primary care and specialty disciplines., There has been a resurgence in interest in delivering high quality ophthalmic medical student education. This educational revival is both timely and topical. A general consensus has emerged that ,rather than focusing solely on increasing teaching time, strategies are needed to focus on how to optimize the limited time allotted to ophthalmology. All physicians should be prepared to provide competent and confident ophthalmic care based upon exciting innovations in ophthalmic curricula content, teaching methodologies, instructional design, learning objectives and assessment methods. We provide an update on new and innovative ophthalmic teaching and learning practices. We critically appraise and summarize novel educational strategies from around the world that can be universally applicable in enhancing ophthalmology teaching in medical school curricula. It is our hope that, while there is marginalization of ophthalmology training, these strategies can be used to further improve teaching and learning in the limited time available in medical curricula and provide an impetus for further research and innovations in teaching ophthalmology to medical students.