Global Current Practice Patterns for the Management of Open Globe Injuries. Am J Ophthalmol 2021;.
Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome associated with chorioretinopathy and nyctalopia: a case report and review of the literature. Ophthalmic Genet 2021;:1-7.Abstract.
PURPOSE: To report a rare case of Birt-Hogg-Dubé Syndrome (BHD) with progressive chorioretinopathy. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 55-year-old woman presented with longstanding nyctalopia attributed to a congenital retinal dystrophy, but no prior genetic testing. Her posterior pole examination demonstrated retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) mottling with extensive macular drusen and paracentral chorioretinal atrophy, consistent with a fleck retinopathy. Her past medical history was remarkable for nephrectomy for unilateral renal malignancy, parotid tumors and thyroid nodules. Dark adaptation time was prolonged, and electroretinography (ERG) revealed abnormal waveforms with depressed amplitudes. Genetic testing confirmed a deletion mutation in the folliculin (FLCN) gene and was negative for other relevant mutations, including EFEMP1 responsible for autosomal dominant macular and peripapillary drusen in Doyne honeycomb retinal dystrophy and TIMP3 responsible for Sorsby Fundus Dystrophy. CONCLUSION: BHD is a rare autosomal-dominant disorder with multi-systemic clinical manifestations caused by a mutation in the FLCN gene. Affected individuals are prone to renal and pulmonary cysts, renal cancer, and fibrofolliculomas. Reports on ocular manifestations of BHD include eyelid fibrofolliculomas, flecked chorioretinopathy, choroidal melanoma, choroidal melanoma with sector melanocytosis, and retinal pigment epithelial micro-detachments. In this case of BHD, we note a fleck retinopathy with bilateral chorioretinal atrophy, displaying a phenotype of extensive chorioretinopathy associated with impaired dark adaptation and ERG abnormalities. ABBREVIATIONS: BHD: Birt-Hogg-Dubé syndrome; FLCN: Folliculin. RPE: retinal pigment epithelium; OD: Oculus dexter (right eye); OS: Oculus sinister (left eye). OU: Oculus uterque (both eyes); ERG: electroretinogram; mfERG: multifocal electroretinography. ffERG: full-field electroretinography; FAF: fundus autofluorescence; OCT: optical coherence tomography; FA: fluorescein angiography; DA: dark-adapted; LA: light-adapted; mTOR: mammalian target of rapamycin; EFEMP1: epithelial growth factor-containing fibulin-like extracellular matrix protein 1; VPS13B: Vacuolar Protein Sorting 13 Homolog B; AGBL5: AATP/GTP-Binding Protein Like 5; ALMS1: Alstrom Syndrome 1; COL1BA1: Collagen Type I Beta, Alpha Chain 1; PDE6A: Rod Phosphodiesterase 6-alpha; USH2A: Usherin 2a; VCAN: Versican; RP: Retinitis pigmentosa; AR: Autosomal recessive.
Development of Primary Open Angle Glaucoma-Like Features in a Rhesus Macaque Colony From Southern China. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2021;10(9):20.Abstract.
Purpose: To describe the ocular phenotype of spontaneous glaucoma in a non-human primate colony. Methods: In total, 722 Rhesus macaque monkeys aged 10 to 25 years underwent optical coherence tomography (OCT), fundus photography (FP), and intraocular pressure (IOP) measurements. Monkeys with baseline cup-to-disc ratio (CDR) <0.5 were used to establish baseline ocular features. A subset was followed longitudinally for three years and compared to glaucoma suspects on the basis of OCT/FP criteria. Results: The average IOP under ketamine sedation and average CDR for the entire colony was 13.0 ± 4.3 mm Hg and 0.38 ± 0.07, respectively. The mean baseline conscious IOP of glaucoma suspects (N = 18) versus controls (N = 108) was 16.2 ± 3.5 mm Hg and 13.9 ± 2.3 mm Hg, respectively (P = 0.001). All glaucoma suspects had unremarkable slit lamp examinations and open angles based on anterior segment OCT. Baseline global circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness was 91.5 ± 11.0 µM versus 102.7 ± 8.5 µM in suspects and controls, respectively (P < 0.0001). All sectors on the baseline circumpapillary OCT showed a significant reduction in RNFL thickness versus controls (P ≤ 0.0022) except for the temporal sector (P ≥ 0.07). In three-year longitudinal analysis, neither CDR nor OCT parameters changed in controls (N = 40; P ≥ 0.16), whereas significant increase in CDR (P = 0.018) and nominally significant decreases in two OCT sectors (nasal, P = 0.023 and nasal inferior, P = 0.046) were noted in suspects. Conclusions: Members of a nonhuman primate colony exhibit important ophthalmic features of human primary open-angle glaucoma. Translational Relevance: Identification of a spontaneous model of glaucoma in nonhuman primates represents an unprecedented opportunity to elucidate the natural history, pathogenesis and effective therapeutic strategies for the disease.
Fall risk in patients with pseudophakic monovision. Can J Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract.
OBJECTIVE: Vision changes can precipitate falls in the elderly resulting in significant morbidity and mortality. We hypothesized that pseudophakic monovision and ensuing anisometropia and aniseikonia impact elderly fall risk. This study assessed fall risk in patients with pseudophakic monovision, pseudophakic single vision distance (classic cataract surgery), and cataracts with no surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective single-institution cohort study PARTICIPANTS: Patients with bilateral cataracts diagnosed at 60 years of age or older who underwent bilateral cataract surgery (monovision or single vision distance) or did not undergo any cataract surgery (n = 13 385). Patients with unilateral surgery or a fall prior to cataract diagnosis were excluded. METHODS: Data were obtained from the Stanford Research Repository. Time-to-fall analysis was performed across all 3 groups. Primary outcome was hazard ratio (HR) for fall after second eye cataract surgery or after bilateral cataract diagnosis. RESULTS: Of 13 385 patients (241 pseudophakic monovision, 2809 pseudophakic single vision, 10 335 no surgery), 850 fell after cataract diagnosis. Pseudophakic monovision was not associated with fall risk after controlling for age, sex, and myopia. Pseudophakic single-vision patients had a decreased time to fall compared with no-surgery patients (log rank, p < 0.001). Older age at cataract diagnosis (HR =1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.06, p < 0.001) or at time of surgery (HR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07, p < 0.001) increased fall risk, as did female sex (HR = 1.29, 95% CI 1.10-1.51, p = 0.002) and preexisting myopia (HR = 1.31, 95% CI 1.01-1.71, p = 0.046) among nonsurgical patients. CONCLUSIONS: Pseudophakic monovision did not impact fall risk, but pseudophakic single vision may increase falls compared with patients without cataract surgery.
The Prevalence of Autoimmune Diseases in Primary Open Angle Glaucoma Patients Undergoing Ophthalmic Surgeries. Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2021;Abstract.
PURPOSE: To assess the prevalence of autoimmune diseases (AiD) in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) undergoing ophthalmic surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. PARTICIPANTS: POAG patients undergoing any ophthalmic surgery and control subjects undergoing cataract surgery at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear from March 2019 to April 2020. METHODS: All available medical records with patient demographics, ocular and medical conditions were reviewed. Differences in AiD prevalence were assessed and adjusted for covariates using multiple logistic regression. Additionally, a subgroup analysis comparing the POAG patients with and without AiD was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To assess prevalence of AiD based on the American Autoimmune Related Diseases Association list. RESULTS: 172 POAG patients and 179 controls were included. The overall prevalence of AiD was 17.4% in the POAG group and 10.1% in the controls (p=0.044). 6.4% of POAG patients and 3.4% of controls had more than one AiD (p = 0.18). The most prevalent AiDs in POAG group were rheumatoid arthritis (4.6%) and psoriasis (4.1%), which were also the most common in controls (2.8% each). In a fully adjusted multiple logistic regression analysis accounting for steroid use, having an AiD was associated with 2.62-fold increased odds of POAG relative to controls (95% confidence interval: 1.27-5.36, p = 0.009); other risk factors for POAG derived from the analysis included age (odds ratio [OR] = 1.04, p = 0.006), diabetes mellitus (OR = 2.31, p = 0.008) and non-White ethnicity (OR = 4.75, p < 0.001). In a case-only analysis involving the eye with worse glaucoma, there were no statistical difference in visual field mean deviation or retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) in POAG patients with (n = 30) and without AiD (n = 142, p > 0.13, for both). CONCLUSIONS: A higher prevalence of AiD was found in POAG patients compared to control patients undergoing ophthalmic surgery. The presence of AiD was associated with increased risk for POAG after adjusting for covariates. Additional factors may have prevented a difference in RNFLT in POAG patients with and without AiD. Autoimmunity should be explored further in the pathogenesis of POAG.
Corneal and Facial Sensory Neurotization in Trigeminal Anesthesia. Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am 2021;29(3):459-470.Abstract.
Trigeminal anesthesia may yield blindness and facial disfigurement, secondary to neurotrophic keratopathy and trigeminal trophic syndrome. This article summarizes contemporary medical and emerging surgical approaches for the therapeutic management of this rare and devastating disease state.
MacuFix® versus Amsler grid for metamorphopsia categorization for macular diseases. Int Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract.
PURPOSE: Macular diseases often lead to metamorphopsia, which is traditionally tested using the Amsler grid. This study evaluates a novel method for assessing metamorphopsia, based on the software AMD-A Metamorphopsia Detector, application MacuFix®. METHODS: In this observational study, the usability of a new smartphone-based testing method to assess metamorphopsia was evaluated in 45 patients experiencing metamorphopsia in at least one eye using the questionnaire "System Usability Score (SUS)." Additionally, the diagnostic adherence of self-monitoring with the Amsler grid was compared to self-monitoring with the novel software MacuFix®. RESULTS: The average score of the SUS questionnaire in this study was 76.7 ± 15.5, corresponding to the "good" score on the grading scale. The average interval between two home administered tests was significantly shorter (6 days) when the application was used as compared to using the Amsler grid (19 days). The odds ratio of the frequency of patients using the application to the patients using the home test was 4. CONCLUSION: MacuFix® application can help in effective home monitoring of macular function as high user satisfaction and increased testing frequency was observed in its use in patients with macular diseases.
Chalcomoracin prevents vitreous-induced activation of AKT and migration of retinal pigment epithelial cells. J Cell Mol Med 2021;25(19):9102-9111.Abstract.
Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are the major cell type in the epi- or sub-retinal membranes in the pathogenesis of proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR), which is a blinding fibrotic eye disease and still short of effective medicine. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate whether Chalocomoracin (CMR), a novel purified compound from fungus-infected mulberry leaves, is able to inhibit vitreous-induced signalling events and cellular responses intrinsic to PVR. Our studies have revealed that the CMR IC50 for ARPE-19 cells is 35.5 μmol/L at 72 hours, and that 5 μmol/L CMR inhibits vitreous-induced Akt activation and p53 suppression; in addition, we have discovered that this chemical effectively blocks vitreous-stimulated proliferation, migration and contraction of ARPE-19 cells, suggesting that CMR is a promising PVR prophylactic.
An AAV-based, room-temperature-stable, single-dose COVID-19 vaccine provides durable immunogenicity and protection in non-human primates. Cell Host Microbe 2021;29(9):1437-1453.e8.Abstract.
The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has affected more than 185 million people worldwide resulting in over 4 million deaths. To contain the pandemic, there is a continued need for safe vaccines that provide durable protection at low and scalable doses and can be deployed easily. Here, AAVCOVID-1, an adeno-associated viral (AAV), spike-gene-based vaccine candidate demonstrates potent immunogenicity in mouse and non-human primates following a single injection and confers complete protection from SARS-CoV-2 challenge in macaques. Peak neutralizing antibody titers are sustained at 1 year and complemented by functional memory T cell responses. The AAVCOVID vector has no relevant pre-existing immunity in humans and does not elicit cross-reactivity to common AAVs used in gene therapy. Vector genome persistence and expression wanes following injection. The single low-dose requirement, high-yield manufacturability, and 1-month stability for storage at room temperature may make this technology well suited to support effective immunization campaigns for emerging pathogens on a global scale.
Structure-guided T cell vaccine design for SARS-CoV-2 variants and sarbecoviruses. Cell 2021;184(17):4401-4413.e10.Abstract.
The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants that escape convalescent and vaccine-induced antibody responses has renewed focus on the development of broadly protective T-cell-based vaccines. Here, we apply structure-based network analysis and assessments of HLA class I peptide stability to define mutationally constrained CD8+ T cell epitopes across the SARS-CoV-2 proteome. Highly networked residues are conserved temporally among circulating variants and sarbecoviruses and disproportionately impair spike pseudotyped lentivirus infectivity when mutated. Evaluation of HLA class I stabilizing activity for 18 globally prevalent alleles identifies CD8+ T cell epitopes within highly networked regions with limited mutational frequencies in circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants and deep-sequenced primary isolates. Moreover, these epitopes elicit demonstrable CD8+ T cell reactivity in convalescent individuals but reduced recognition in recipients of mRNA-based vaccines. These data thereby elucidate key mutationally constrained regions and immunogenic epitopes in the SARS-CoV-2 proteome for a global T-cell-based vaccine against emerging variants and SARS-like coronaviruses.
Seeing through the evidence for corneal neurotization. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 2021;29(4):252-258.Abstract.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Trigeminal anesthesia causes neurotrophic keratopathy, which may yield facial disfigurement and corneal blindness. RECENT FINDINGS: We summarize approaches and evidence for corneal neurotization. SUMMARY: Regional sensory nerve transfer appears safe and effective for therapeutic management of neurotrophic keratopathy. Prospective randomized clinical trials are necessary to confirm the utility of corneal neurotization.
Granular Cell Tumor of the Orbit: Review of the Literature and a Proposed Treatment Modality. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2021;Abstract.
PURPOSE: To document a unique case of granular cell tumor of the orbit, located lateral to and abutting the optic nerve, that benefited from treatment with proton beam irradiation, with a comprehensive review of the literature on granular cell tumor of the orbit. METHODS: Clinicopathologic case report with detailed imaging features and histopathologic and immunohistochemical evaluation for cytoplasmic tumor biomarkers differentiating granular cell tumor (GCT) from it mimicking lesions with relevant literature citations. The authors reviewed 20 cases of orbital GCT from 2011 to 2020 in addition to 40 cases from 1948 to 2011 and included a summary of imaging and clinical features, outcomes, and recommended treatment modalities. RESULTS: A 32-year-old man with 1-year history of left retrobulbar pain and diplopia on lateral gaze, intermittent left eyelid swelling, and a tonic left pupil was found to have a fusiform intraconal mass extending toward the orbital apex and abutting the optic nerve. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical investigations collectively supplied data diagnostic of a GCT with an initial low proliferation rate. GCT is a soft tissue neoplasm that originates in the nervous system and can occur anywhere in the body. This enhancing tumor is isointense to gray matter on T1-weighted MRI, hypointense on T2. After an incisional biopsy, the patient's symptoms persisted, and follow-up imaging several months later revealed further growth of the mass. The impossibility of complete surgical removal prompted the decision to treat with proton beam radiation therapy, which resulted in substantial regression in the size of the residual tumor. Most frequently involving the inferior rectus muscle (42%), orbital GCT is usually benign with only 4 reported cases of malignant orbital GCT (7%). Wide surgical resection with complete removal is usually curative for benign orbital GCT, and proton beam radiation therapy can aid in tumor shrinkage. CONCLUSIONS: GCT should be considered in the differential diagnosis when encountering patients with mass lesions involving the extraocular muscles, peripheral nerves, or less frequently, the optic nerve or orbital apex. Immunohistochemical analysis of biopsied tissue is required for the definitive diagnosis of GCT. Consideration of adjuvant therapies such as proton beam radiation therapy may be appropriate in cases of incomplete surgical resection of benign GCT. Proton beam radiation therapy can be an excellent therapeutic option for symptomatic relief and residual tumor size reduction with an acceptable toxicity profile.
Case 292: Lyme Neuroborreliosis. Radiology 2021;300(2):484-488.Abstract.
History A 24-year-old right-handed woman presented to a neuro-ophthalmology clinic in Massachusetts in the summer with acute binocular diplopia when looking down and to the left, which started about 1 month earlier. Her medical history was notable for Raynaud syndrome, recurrent streptococcal pharyngitis, and an allergy to amoxicillin. Three days prior to developing diplopia, she presented to an outside emergency department due to fever, chills, and back pain. She received ciprofloxacin for presumed urinary tract infection based on urinalysis, which demonstrated few bacteria and was negative for leukocyte esterase, nitrites, and white blood cells. She then presented again to an outside emergency department for diplopia evaluation. Initial MRI and MR angiography of the brain at that time did not demonstrate any relevant findings, and the patient was referred to our department for neuro-ophthalmic evaluation, where she was seen 4 weeks later. Neuro-ophthalmic examination revealed 20/20 visual acuity in both eyes, and a right hypertropia in left gaze, downgaze and right head tilt, with right eye excyclotorsion. There were no ocular signs of myasthenia gravis or thyroid eye disease, nor did the patient report ocular or systemic symptoms. She denied recent travel. High-spatial-resolution MRI of the brain and orbit were performed.
Relationship between screen time and dry eye symptoms in pediatric population during the COVID-19 pandemic. Ocul Surf 2021;22:117-119..