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Nolan JG, Vestal M, Stone S, Dagi LR. "Plugged In". Orbit 2020;39(1):73-74.
Choung H, Reshef ER, Tanking T, Freitag SK. A conjunctival-sparing surgical technique for lower eyelid cicatricial entropion repair in ocular cicatricial pemphigoid. Orbit 2020;39(1):23-30.Abstract
: To present five cases of lower eyelid cicatricial entropion secondary to ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP) successfully repaired with a conjunctival-sparing surgical technique.: The records of one surgeon (SKF) were reviewed to identify patients with lower eyelid cicatricial entropion secondary to OCP who underwent repair with a conjunctival-sparing technique between September 1, 2016 and October 18, 2017. The medical records were reviewed and extracted data included: age, gender, past medical history, current medical and OCP status, clinical examination, details of entropion repair surgery, and outcome.: Five patients (three female, two male) were included with ages ranging from 44 to 93 years. All had biopsy proven OCP, which was in remission at the time of surgery, and all were currently receiving immunomodulatory medications. All patients were symptomatic from cicatricial entropion secondary to OCP and underwent successful lower eyelid entropion repair with a conjunctival-sparing technique described herein, involving infraciliary rotation with suture fixation of the orbicularis muscle to the tarsus. Other contributing mechanisms of eyelid malposition including horizontal eyelid laxity and orbicularis oculi override were addressed simultaneously with lateral tarsal plication or orbicularis muscle debulking, resulting in 100% anatomic success and relief of symptoms with no cases of OCP reactivation, and with good durability with an average 13.9 months follow up (range 6.5-22 months).: Successful repair of lower eyelid cicatricial entropion in immunomodulated patients with OCP can be achieved without disease reactivation using a surgical technique that spares the conjunctiva and lower eyelid retractors.
Silpa-Archa S, Preble JM, Foster SC. VITREOUS TREPONEMAL ANTIBODY AS A SUPPLEMENTARY TEST TO SEROLOGY FOR THE CONFIRMATION OF SYPHILITIC CHORIORETINITIS. Retin Cases Brief Rep 2020;14(2):166-169.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report the novel application of nontreponemal and treponemal antibody to confirm diagnosis of ocular syphilis from vitreous samples. METHODS: Two distinct case reports emphasizing the importance of confirmatory vitreous treponemal antibody. Multimodal imaging of patients was also applied. RESULTS: We report two distinct cases with positive serum treponemal antibody but opposing vitreous treponemal antibody results. One case with a positive vitreous test responded well to antisyphilitic treatment. By contrast, a case with a negative vitreous result was changed to serpiginous choroiditis, eventually cured by immunomodulatory treatment. CONCLUSION: Intraocular fluid analysis of nontreponemal and treponemal antibody may play an important role in ruling out suspected ocular syphilis in settings without a polymerase chain reaction facility, especially immunocompromised patients who are at risk of multiple infections. Further studies are needed to establish the sensitivity and specificity of nontreponemal and treponemal antibody test on vitreous samples.
Bagheri S, Pantrangi M, Sodhi SK, Bagheri S, Oellers P, Scholl HPN. A NOVEL LARGE HOMOZYGOUS DELETION IN THE CELLULAR RETINALDEHYDE-BINDING PROTEIN GENE (RLBP1) IN A PATIENT WITH RETINITIS PUNCTATA ALBESCENS. Retin Cases Brief Rep 2020;14(1):85-89.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report the phenotypic and genotypic data of a patient with retinitis punctata albescens carrying a novel deletion in the RLBP1 gene. RESULTS: A woman of Iranian descent in her forties with a history of progressive visual deterioration since early childhood exhibited phenotypic features of retinitis punctata albescens with multiple white dots in the posterior pole and macular atrophy in both eyes. The microarray analysis identified a ∼2.160 kb homozygous deletion corresponding to a minimum deletion boundary of chr15q26.1:89,756,882-89,759,041/GRCh37 (hg19), which encompasses exon 6 of the RLBP1 gene. CONCLUSION: We describe a novel large homozygous deletion in the RLBP1 gene encoding the cellular retinaldehyde-binding protein in a patient of Iranian descent with retinitis punctata albescens. Genotype-phenotype studies may provide more information about the functions of the RLBP1 encoding proteins and the disease course, because RLBP1 mutations are associated with high phenotypic variability and are therefore a necessity for future tailored individual therapies.
Gaier ED, Sahai I, Wiggs JL, McGeeney B, Hoffman J, Peeler CE. Novel homozygous mutation in an Afghani family with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type III and optic atrophy. Ophthalmic Genet 2019;40(6):570-573.Abstract
: To describe and distinguish clinical phenotypes with the overlapping feature of optic atrophy caused by distinct mutations in the same gene, OPA3. We report 3 affected siblings in a consanguineous family harboring a novel OPA3 mutation causing 3-methylglutaconic aciduria type III with optic atrophy.: Retrospective case series.: Three siblings (2 male, 1 female) among 6 children in a consanguineous Afghani family developed decreased vision from early childhood. Both parents and all extended family members were unaffected. All 3 affected siblings suffered from severe visual impairment ranging from visual acuities of 20/150 to counting fingers. All had spastic lower extremity weakness and ataxia. Two of the three affected siblings also had a history of seizures, and the female sibling had limited cognition with diffuse atrophic changes on brain MRI. Two of the three individuals also had migraine-like headaches. Urine organic acid analysis revealed mildly elevated 3-methylglutaconic acid for the male siblings. Whole exome sequencing and subsequent PCR confirmation revealed a novel variant in OPA3 (intron1, c.142 + 2_142 + 3dupTG), affecting the consensus sequence of the splice site, for which all 3 clinically affected siblings were homozygous.: Mutations in OPA3 can cause optic atrophy in a dominant pattern of inheritance associated with cataract or in a recessive pattern associated with spastic paresis and ataxia. The novel recessive mutation and clinical presentations described herein further support how different mutation types affecting OPA3 can produce distinct clinical phenotypes and underscore the critical and susceptible role of mitochondrial health in optic nerve function.
Brydon EM, Bronstein R, Buskin A, Lako M, Pierce EA, Fernandez-Godino R. AAV-Mediated Gene Augmentation Therapy Restores Critical Functions in Mutant PRPF31 iPSC-Derived RPE Cells. Mol Ther Methods Clin Dev 2019;15:392-402.Abstract
Retinitis pigmentosa (RP) is the most common form of inherited vision loss and is characterized by degeneration of retinal photoreceptor cells and the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE). Mutations in pre-mRNA processing factor 31 () cause dominant RP via haploinsufficiency with incomplete penetrance. There is good evidence that the diverse severity of this disease is a result of differing levels of expression of the wild-type allele among patients. Thus, we hypothesize that -related RP will be amenable to treatment by adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene augmentation therapy. To test this hypothesis, we used induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) with mutations in and differentiated them into RPE cells. The mutant iPSC-RPE cells recapitulate the cellular phenotype associated with the PRPF31 pathology, including defective cell structure, diminished phagocytic function, defects in ciliogenesis, and compromised barrier function. Treatment of the mutant iPSC-RPE cells with AAV- restored normal phagocytosis and cilia formation, and it partially restored structure and barrier function. These results suggest that AAV-based gene therapy targeting RPE cells holds therapeutic promise for patients with -related RP.
Agrawal R, Agarwal A, Jabs DA, Kee A, Testi I, Mahajan S, McCluskey PJ, Gupta A, Palestine A, Denniston A, Banker A, Invernizzi A, Fonollosa A, Sharma A, Kumar A, Curi A, Okada A, Schlaen A, Heiligenhaus A, Kumar A, Gurbaxani A, Bodaghi B, Islam Shah B, Lowder C, Tappeiner C, Muccioli C, Vasconcelos-Santos DV, Goldstein D, Behra D, Das D, Makhoul D, Baglivo E, Denisova E, Miserocchi E, Carreno E, Asyari F, Pichi F, Sen NH, Uy H, Nascimento H, Tugal-Tutkun I, Arevalo FJ, Davis J, Thorne J, Hisae Yamamoto J, Smith J, Garweg JG, Biswas J, Babu K, Aggarwal K, Cimino L, Kuffova L, Agarwal M, Zierhut M, Agarwal M, DeSmet M, Tognon MS, Errera M-H, Munk M, Westcott M, Soheilian M, Accorinti M, Khairallah M, Nguyen M, Kon OM, Mahendradas P, Yang P, Neri P, Ozdal P, Amer R, Lee R, Distia Nora RL, Chhabra R, Belfort R, Mehta S, Shoughy S, Luthra S, Mohamed SO, Chee S-P, Basu S, Teoh S, Ganesh S, Barisani-Asenbauer T, Guex-Crosier Y, Ozyazgan Y, Akova Y, Habot-Wilner Z, Kempen J, Nguyen QD, Pavesio C, Gupta V, Gupta V. Standardization of Nomenclature for Ocular Tuberculosis - Results of Collaborative Ocular Tuberculosis Study (COTS) Workshop. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2019;:1-11.Abstract
: To standardize a nomenclature system for defining clinical phenotypes, and outcome measures for reporting clinical and research data in patients with ocular tuberculosis (OTB).: Uveitis experts initially administered and further deliberated the survey in an open meeting to determine and propose the preferred nomenclature for terms related to the OTB, terms describing the clinical phenotypes and treatment and reporting outcomes.: The group of experts reached a consensus on terming uveitis attributable to tuberculosis (TB) as tubercular uveitis. The working group introduced a SUN-compatible nomenclature that also defines disease "remission" and "cure", both of which are relevant for reporting treatment outcomes.: A consensus nomenclature system has been adopted by a large group of international uveitis experts for OTB. The working group recommends the use of standardized nomenclature to prevent ambiguity in communication and to achieve the goal of spreading awareness of this blinding uveitis entity.
Rizzo JF. Unraveling the Enigma of Nonarteritic Anterior Ischemic Optic Neuropathy. J Neuroophthalmol 2019;39(4):529-544.Abstract
Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAON) is the second most common optic neuropathy in adults. Despite extensive study, the etiology of NAION is not definitively known. The best evidence suggests that NAION is caused by an infarction in the region of the optic nerve head (ONH), which is perfused by paraoptic short posterior ciliary arteries (sPCAs) and their branches. To examine the gaps in knowledge that defies our understanding of NAION, a historical review was performed both of anatomical investigations of the ONH and its relevant blood vessels and the evolution of clinical understanding of NAION. Notably, almost all of the in vitro vascular research was performed prior our current understanding of NAION, which has largely precluded a hypothesis-based laboratory approach to study the etiological conundrum of NAION. More recent investigative techniques, like fluorescein angiography, have provided valuable insight into vascular physiology, but such light-based techniques have not been able to image blood vessels located within or behind the dense connective tissue of the sclera and laminar cribrosa, sites that are likely culpable in NAION. The lingering gaps in knowledge clarify investigative paths that might be taken to uncover the pathogenesis of NAION and possibly glaucoma, the most common optic neuropathy for which evidence of a vascular pathology also exists.
Ung L, Acharya NR, Agarwal T, Alfonso EC, Bagga B, Bispo PJM, Burton MJ, Dart JK, Doan T, Fleiszig SM, Garg P, Gilmore MS, Gritz DC, Hazlett LD, Iovieno A, Jhanji V, Kempen JH, Lee CS, Lietman TM, Margolis TP, McLeod SD, Mehta JS, Miller D, Pearlman E, Prajna L, Prajna VN, Seitzman GD, Shanbhag SS, Sharma N, Sharma S, Srinivasan M, Stapleton F, Tan DT, Tandon R, Taylor HR, Tu EY, Tuli SS, Vajpayee RB, Van Gelder RN, Watson SL, Zegans ME, Chodosh J. Infectious corneal ulceration: a proposal for neglected tropical disease status. Bull World Health Organ 2019;97(12):854-856.
Amamoto R, Garcia MD, West ER, Choi J, Lapan SW, Lane EA, Perrimon N, Cepko CL. Probe-Seq enables transcriptional profiling of specific cell types from heterogeneous tissue by RNA-based isolation. Elife 2019;8Abstract
Recent transcriptional profiling technologies are uncovering previously-undefined cell populations and molecular markers at an unprecedented pace. While single cell RNA (scRNA) sequencing is an attractive approach for unbiased transcriptional profiling of all cell types, a complementary method to isolate and sequence specific cell populations from heterogeneous tissue remains challenging. Here, we developed Probe-Seq, which allows deep transcriptional profiling of specific cell types isolated using RNA as the defining feature. Dissociated cells are labeled using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for RNA, and then isolated by fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS). We used Probe-Seq to purify and profile specific cell types from mouse, human, and chick retinas, as well as from midguts. Probe-Seq is compatible with frozen nuclei, making cell types within archival tissue immediately accessible. As it can be multiplexed, combinations of markers can be used to create specificity. Multiplexing also allows for the isolation of multiple cell types from one cell preparation. Probe-Seq should enable RNA profiling of specific cell types from any organism.
Reshef ER, Habib LA, Rao R, Modjtahedi BS, Eliott D, Freitag SK, Reinshagen KL, Lee NG. Clinical and radiographic features of hydrolyzed MIRAgel scleral buckles: A comparative analysis. Clin Imaging 2019;60(1):10-15.Abstract
The MIRAgel (hydrogel) scleral buckle, introduced in the 1980s, was a novel material to repair retinal detachments. It was later discontinued due to the frequency of long-term complications related to buckle hydrolysis and expansion. These complications included pain, limited extraocular motility, and more serious complications such as infection or scleral perforation, which ultimately necessitated surgical extraction as late as 20-30 years after placement. Prompt and proper diagnosis and treatment is often delayed as these buckle-associated complications frequently mimic other orbital pathologies such as tumors or infections. The hydrolyzed MIRAgel buckle exhibits distinct radiographic features that are helpful in arriving at the correct diagnosis, particularly in cases of ambiguous clinical presentation or history. Here, we expand on the previously described radiographic features of hydrolyzed MIRAgel and compare them to features of common, mimicking orbital pathology.
Jonas RA, Ung L, Rajaiya J, Chodosh J. Mystery Eye: Human Adenovirus and the Enigma of Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis. Prog Retin Eye Res 2019;:100826.Abstract
Known to occur in widespread outbreaks, epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) is a severe ocular surface infection with a strong historical association with human adenovirus (HAdV). While the conjunctival manifestations can vary from mild follicular conjunctivitis to hyper-acute, exudative conjunctivitis with formation of conjunctival membranes, EKC is distinct as the only form of adenovirus conjunctivitis in which the cornea is also involved, likely due to specific corneal epithelial tropism of its causative viral agents. The initial development of a punctate or geographic epithelial keratitis may herald the later formation of stromal keratitis, and manifest as subepithelial infiltrates which often persist or recur for months to years after the acute infection has resolved. The chronic keratitis in EKC is associated with foreign body sensation, photophobia, glare, and reduced vision. However, over a century since the first clinical descriptions of EKC, and over 60 years since the first causative agent, human adenovirus type 8, was identified, our understanding of this disorder remains limited. This is underscored by a current lack of effective diagnostic tools and treatments. In part, stasis in our knowledge base has been encouraged by the continued acceptance, and indeed propagation of, inaccurate paradigms pertaining to disease etiology and pathogenesis, particularly with regard to mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity within the cornea. Owing to its often persistent and medically refractory visual sequelae, reconsideration of key aspects of EKC disease biology is warranted to identify new treatment targets to curb its worldwide socioeconomic burden.

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