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Homer N, Glass LR, Lee GN, Lefebvre DR, Sutula FC, Freitag SK, Yoon MK. Assessment of Infraorbital Hypesthesia Following Orbital Floor and Zygomaticomaxillary Complex Fractures Using a Novel Sensory Grading System. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2019;35(1):53-55.Abstract
PURPOSE: Introduction of a novel sensory grading system to assess the incidence and long-term recovery of infraorbital hypesthesia following orbital floor and inferior orbital rim fractures. METHODS: Patients who presented for evaluation of orbital floor and/or zygomaticomaxillary complex (ZMC) fractures between January 2015 and April 2016 were analyzed. Two-point subjective infraorbital sensory grading in 5 discrete anatomic areas was performed. Fractures were repaired based on traditional criteria; hypesthesia was not an indication for surgery. The sensory grading system was repeated a mean 21.7 months (range 18-28) after initial fracture. RESULTS: Sixty-two patients (mean 41.8 years) participated in the initial symptom grading, and 42 patients (67.7%) completed the 2-year follow-up. Overall, 20 of 42 patients (47.6%) had some infraorbital hypesthesia. There were fewer with isolated orbital floor fractures versus ZMC fractures (31.8% vs. 68.4%; p = 0.019). Two years postinjury, 9.1% and 40.0% with isolated floor and ZMC fractures, respectively, had persistent sensory disturbance (p = 0.0188). Of patients with sensory disturbance on presentation, 71.4% with isolated floor fractures and 38.5% with ZMC fractures experienced complete sensory recovery (p = 0.1596). Patients with isolated floor fractures had improved recovery after surgery (100% vs. 33.3% recovery; p = 0.0410). Patients with ZMC fractures showed no difference in sensory prognosis between those repaired and observed. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, isolated orbital floor fractures carried a good infraorbital sensory prognosis, further improved by surgical repair. Zygomaticomaxillary complex fractures portended a worse long-term sensory outcome, unaffected by management strategy. This study validates the novel sensory grading system in post-fracture analysis.
Dabul ANG, Avaca-Crusca JS, Navais RB, Merlo TP, Van Tyne D, Gilmore MS, da Camargo ILBC. Molecular basis for the emergence of a new hospital endemic tigecycline-resistant Enterococcus faecalis ST103 lineage. Infect Genet Evol 2019;67:23-32.Abstract
Enterococcus faecalis are a major cause of nosocomial infection worldwide, and the spread of vancomycin resistant strains (VRE) limits treatment options. Tigecycline-resistant VRE began to be isolated from inpatients at a Brazilian hospital within months following the addition of tigecycline to the hospital formulary. This was found to be the result of a spread of an ST103 E. faecalis clone. Our objective was to identify the basis for tigecycline resistance in this lineage. The genomes of two closely related tigecycline-susceptible (MIC = 0.06 mg/L), and three representative tigecycline-resistant (MIC = 1 mg/L) ST103 isolates were sequenced and compared. Further, efforts were undertaken to recapitulate the emergence of resistant strains in vitro. The specific mutations identified in clinical isolates in several cases were within the same genes identified in laboratory-evolved strains. The contribution of various polymorphisms to the resistance phenotype was assessed by trans-complementation of the wild type or mutant alleles, by testing for differences in mRNA abundance, and/or by examining the phenotype of transposon insertion mutants. Among tigecycline-resistant clinical isolates, five genes contained non-synonymous mutations, including two genes known to be related to enterococcal tigecycline resistance (tetM and rpsJ). Finally, within the in vitro-selected resistant variants, mutation in the gene for a MarR-family response regulator was associated with tigecycline resistance. This study shows that E. faecalis mutates to attain tigecycline resistance through the complex interplay of multiple mechanisms, along multiple evolutionary trajectories.
Bressler SB, Odia I, Maguire MG, Dhoot DS, Glassman AR, Jampol LM, Marcus DM, Solomon SD, Sun JK, Sun JK. Factors Associated With Visual Acuity and Central Subfield Thickness Changes When Treating Diabetic Macular Edema With Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Therapy: An Exploratory Analysis of the Protocol T Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Ophthalmol 2019;Abstract
Importance: Identifying the factors that are associated with the magnitude of treatment benefits from anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) therapy for diabetic macular edema (DME) may help refine treatment expectations. Objective: To identify the baseline factors that are associated with vision and anatomic outcomes when managing DME with anti-VEGF and determine if there are interactions between factors and the agent administered. Design, Setting, and Participants: This post hoc analysis of data from the Diabetic Retinopathy Clinical Research Network multicenter randomized clinical trial , Protocol T, was conducted between December 2016 and December 2017. Between August 22, 2012, and August 28, 2013, 660 participants were enrolled with central-involved DME and vision impairment (approximate Snellen equivalent, 20/32-20/320). Interventions: Repeated 0.05-mL intravitreous injections of 2.0-mg aflibercept (201 eyes), 1.25-mg bevacizumab (185 eyes), or 0.3-mg ranibizumab (192 eyes) per protocol. Main Outcomes and Measures: Change in visual acuity (VA) and optical coherence tomography (OCT) central subfield thickness at 2 years and change in VA over 2 years (area under the curve [AUC]). Results: Among 578 participants, the median age (interquartile range) was 61 (54-67) years. Across anti-VEGF treatment groups, each baseline factor was associated with mean improvement in VA and a reduction in central DME compared with the baseline. For every decade of participant age, the mean VA improvement was reduced by 2.1 letters (95% CI, -3.0 to -1.2; P < .001) in the VA and 1.9 letters (95% CI, -2.4 to -1.3; P < .001) in the VA AUC analyses. For each 1% increase in hemoglobin A1c levels, VA improvement was reduced by 1 letter in the VA (95% CI, -1.5 to -0.5; P < .001) and 0.5 letters (95% CI, -0.9 to -0.2; P < .001) in the VA AUC analyses. Eyes with no prior panretinal photocoagulation (PRP) and less than severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy had an approximately 3-letter improvement in the VA (95% CI, 0.9-5.4; P = .007) and VA AUC (95% CI, 1.3-4.2; P < .001) analyses compared with eyes with prior PRP. On average, African American participants had greater reductions in central subfield thickness compared with eyes of white participants (-27.3 μm, P = .01), as did eyes with central subretinal fluid compared with eyes without this OCT feature (-22.9 μm, P = .01). There were no interactions between the predictive factors and the specific anti-VEGF agent that was administered for any VA or OCT outcome. Conclusions and Relevance: Lower hemoglobin A1c levels were associated with the magnitude of vision improvement following anti-VEGF therapy, providing further evidence to encourage glycemic control among persons with diabetes. Younger patients and those without prior PRP might expect greater improvement in VA than older patients or those with prior PRP.
Wolfe JM, Cain MS, Aizenman AM. Guidance and selection history in hybrid foraging visual search. Atten Percept Psychophys 2019;81(3):637-653.Abstract
In Hybrid Foraging tasks, observers search for multiple instances of several types of target. Collecting all the dirty laundry and kitchenware out of a child's room would be a real-world example. How are such foraging episodes structured? A series of four experiments shows that selection of one item from the display makes it more likely that the next item will be of the same type. This pattern holds if the targets are defined by basic features like color and shape but not if they are defined by their identity (e.g., the letters p & d). Additionally, switching between target types during search is expensive in time, with longer response times between successive selections if the target type changes than if they are the same. Finally, the decision to leave a screen/patch for the next screen in these foraging tasks is imperfectly consistent with the predictions of optimal foraging theory. The results of these hybrid foraging studies cast new light on the ways in which prior selection history guides subsequent visual search in general.
Paschalis EI, Taniguchi EV, Chodosh J, Pasquale LR, Colby K, Dohlman CH, Shen LQ. Blood Levels of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Its Type 2 Receptor Are Elevated in Patients with Boston Type I Keratoprosthesis. Curr Eye Res 2019;44(6):599-606.Abstract
: Boston keratoprosthesis (KPro) patients are prone to glaucoma even with well-controlled intraocular pressure (IOP). Recent experimental data have shown that soluble tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-) after ocular injury may contribute to progressive retinal damage and subsequent glaucoma. This study evaluates the blood plasma levels of soluble TNF-, TNF receptors 1 (TNFR1) and 2 (TNFR2), and leptin in patients with Boston type I KPro. : Venous blood samples were collected from KPro patients with glaucoma (KPro G, = 19), KPro patients without glaucoma (KPro NoG, = 12), primary angle closure glaucoma without KPro (PACG, = 13), and narrow angles without glaucoma or KPro (NA, = 21). TNF-, TNFR1, TNFR2, and leptin levels were quantified using the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was assessed using the Westergren test. Patients with underlying autoimmune conditions or diabetes were excluded from the study. : All groups had similar age, body mass index (BMI), IOP, and ESR ( ≥ 0.11). The mean time from KPro surgery to blood draw was 5.3 ± 3.7 years. Compared to NA patients (0.72 ± 0.3 pg/ml), KPro G and KPro NoG patients had higher blood plasma levels of TNF- (1.18 ± 0.58 pg/ml, = 0.006; 1.16 ± 0.50 pg/ml, = 0.04, respectively). Similarly, KPro G patients had higher blood plasma levels of TNFR2 (2768 ± 1368 pg/ml) than NA patients (2020 ± 435 pg/ml, = 0.048). In multivariate analysis, KPro status remained positively associated with TNF- levels ( = 0.36; 95% confidence intervals [CI]: 0.14-0.58; = 0.002) and TNFR2 levels ( = 458.3; 95% CI: 32.8-883.7; = 0.035) after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, glaucoma status, and ESR. TNFR1 and leptin levels were not significantly different in the study groups. : We detected elevated serum levels of TNF- and TNFR2 in KPro patients. Longitudinal studies are needed to establish TNF- and TNFR2 as serum biomarkers related to KPro surgery. : BCVA: best corrected visual acuity; BMI: body mass index; CDR: cup-to-disc ratio; EDTA: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid; ELISA: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; ESR: erythrocyte sedimentation rate; HVF: Humphrey visual field; IOP: intraocular pressure; KPro G: keratoprosthesis with glaucoma; KPro NoG: keratoprosthesis without glaucoma; KPro: keratoprosthesis; MD: mean deviation; NA: narrow angle; non-KPro: without keratoprosthesis; PACG: primary angle closure glaucoma; RNFL: retinal nerve fiber layer; TNF-α: tumor necrosis factor alpha; TNFR1: tumor necrosis factor receptor 1; TNFR2: tumor necrosis factor receptor 2.
Martínez-Carrasco R, Sánchez-Abarca LI, Nieto-Gómez C, García EM, Sánchez-Guijo F, Argüeso P, Aijón J, Hernández-Galilea E, Velasco A. Subconjunctival injection of mesenchymal stromal cells protects the cornea in an experimental model of GVHD. Ocul Surf 2019;Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the therapeutic effect of subconjunctival injection of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) in the cornea of mice with graft versus host disease (GVHD). METHODS: GVHD was induced in mice after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) between MHC-mismatched mouse strains. Subconjunctival injection of hMSCs was applied at day 10 post-HSCT. Infiltration of CD3 cells in the cornea and epithelial alterations were analyzed by immunofluorescence. Tear was assessed using the PRT test and TearLab Osmolarity System. qPCR was used to evaluate changes in cytokines, Pax6 and Sprr1b expression. To evaluate the effect of irradiation, we analyzed the expression of these genes in TBI mice. RESULTS: Immune cell invasion occurs in mice with GVHD, as shown by the presence of CD3 cells in the cornea. Interestingly, eyes treated with hMSC did not present CD3 cells. Tear osmolarity was increased in GVHD eyes, but not in treated eyes. TNFa expression was highly increased in all corneas except in Control and treated eyes. Pax6 in corneal epithelium showed a similar pattern in GVHD and Control mice, and its gene expression was enhanced in GVHD corneas. In contrast, Pax6 was reduced in GVHD + MSC corneas. We also found an increase in SPRR1B staining in GVHD eyes that was lower in GVHD + MSC mice, demonstrating that corneal keratinization is less frequent after treatment with hMSC. CONCLUSIONS: The treatment with hMSCs by subconjunctival injection is effective in reducing corneal inflammation and squamous metaplasia in ocular GVHD (oGVHD). Local treatment with hMSCs is a promising strategy for oGVHD.
Huang T, Wang T, Heianza Y, Zheng Y, Sun D, Kang JH, Pasquale LR, Rimm EB, Manson JAE, Hu FB, Qi L. Habitual consumption of long-chain n-3 PUFAs and fish attenuates genetically associated long-term weight gain. Am J Clin Nutr 2019;109(3):665-673.Abstract
BACKGROUND: A growing amount of data suggests that n-3 (ω-3) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) intake may modify the genetic association with weight change. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to prospectively test interactions of habitual consumption of n-3 PUFAs or fish, the major food source, with overall genetic susceptibility on long-term weight change. DESIGN: Gene-diet interactions were examined in 11,330 women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS), 6773 men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS), and 6254 women from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). RESULTS: In the NHS and HPFS cohorts, food-sourced long-chain n-3 PUFA intake showed directionally consistent interactions with genetic risk score on long-term changes in BMI (P-interaction = 0.01 in the HPFS, 0.15 in the NHS, and 0.01 in both cohorts combined). Such interactions were successfully replicated in the WHI, an independent cohort (P-interaction = 0.02 in the WHI and 0.01 in the combined 3 cohorts). The genetic associations with changes in BMI (in kg/m2) consistently decreased (0.15, 0.10, 0.07, and -0.14 per 10 BMI-increasing alleles) across the quartiles of long-chain n-3 PUFAs in the combined cohorts. In addition, high fish intake also attenuated the genetic associations with long-term changes in BMI in the HPFS (P-interaction = 0.01), NHS (P-interaction = 0.03), WHI (P-interaction = 0.10), and the combined cohorts (P-interaction = 0.01); and the differences in BMI changes per 10 BMI-increasing alleles were 0.16, 0.06, -0.08, and -0.18, respectively, across the categories (≤1, 1∼4, 4∼6, and ≥7 servings/wk) of total fish intake. Similar interactions on body weight were observed for fish intake (P-interaction = 0.003) and long-chain n-3 PUFA intake (P-interaction = 0.12). CONCLUSION: Our study provides replicable evidence to show that high intakes of fish and long-chain n-3 PUFAs are associated with an attenuation of the genetic association with long-term weight gain based on results from 3 prospective cohorts of Caucasians.
Elmasry K, Ibrahim AS, Abdulmoneim S, Al-Shabrawey M. Bioactive lipids and pathological retinal angiogenesis. Br J Pharmacol 2019;176(1):93-109.Abstract
Angiogenesis, disruption of the retinal barrier, leukocyte-adhesion and oedema are cardinal signs of proliferative retinopathies that are associated with vision loss. Therefore, identifying factors that regulate these vascular dysfunctions is critical to target pathological angiogenesis. Given the conflicting role of bioactive lipids reported in the current literature, the goal of this review is to provide the reader a clear road map of what has been accomplished so far in the field with specific focus on the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs)-derived metabolites in proliferative retinopathies. This necessarily entails a description of the different retina cells, blood retina barriers and the role of (PUFAs)-derived metabolites in diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity and age-related macular degeneration as the most common types of proliferative retinopathies.
Chen X, Lei F, Wang L, Xiong X, Song J. Generation of Tumor Antigen-Specific Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes from Pluripotent Stem Cells. Methods Mol Biol 2019;1884:43-55.Abstract
Immunotherapy is a developing but very promising arsenal to treat cancer. Acquiring a more potent and effective approach in cancer immunotherapy is always the ultimate pursuance. CTL-based therapies are highly acclaimed recently due to its direct killing property. However, difficulty in obtaining adequate number of CTLs is still a major obstacle. In previous studies, it is shown that pluripotent stem cell-derived cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL)-especially the genetically engineered tumor antigen-specific CTLs-may serve as a good candidate for this goal. Here we introduce a novel approach in generating tumor antigen-specific CTLs from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by using both in vitro and in vivo priming mechanisms for the tumor management in a murine melanoma model.
Wang JC, McKay KM, Sood AB, Laíns I, Sobrin L, Miller JB. Comparison of choroidal neovascularization secondary to white dot syndromes and age-related macular degeneration by using optical coherence tomography angiography. Clin Ophthalmol 2019;13:95-105.Abstract
Purpose: To characterize and compare choroidal neovascularization (CNV) secondary to white dot syndromes (WDS) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A). Methods: This is a cross-sectional study in which we imaged patients with CNV secondary to WDS and AMD with either the Zeiss Angioplex OCT-A or Optovue AngioVue OCT-A. Relevant demographic and clinical characteristics were collected and analyzed. CNV area and vessel density (VD) were measured by three independent graders, and linear regression analysis was subsequently performed. Results: Three patients with multifocal choroiditis and panuveitis, one patient each with birdshot chorioretinopathy, presumed ocular histoplasmosis syndrome, and persistent placoid maculopathy, and eleven patients with AMD with sufficient image quality were included. CNV associated with WDS was significantly smaller than that secondary to AMD (0.56±0.32 vs 2.79±1.80 mm, =-2.22, =0.01), while no difference in VD was detected (0.46±0.09 vs 0.44±0.09, =0.02, =0.71). Conclusion: CNV networks secondary to WDS appear to be smaller than those secondary to AMD but have similar VD. OCT-A is a powerful tool to investigate properties of CNV from various etiologies. Larger studies are needed for further characterization and understanding of CNV pathogenesis in inflammatory conditions.
Savage SW, Spano LP, Bowers AR. The effects of age and cognitive load on peripheral-detection performance. J Vis 2019;19(1):15.Abstract
Age-related declines in both peripheral vision and cognitive resources could contribute to the increased crash risk of older drivers. However, it is unclear whether increases in age and cognitive load result in equal detriments to detection rates across all peripheral target eccentricities (general interference effect) or whether these detriments become greater with increasing eccentricity (tunnel effect). In the current study we investigated the effects of age and cognitive load on the detection of peripheral motorcycle targets (at 5°-30° eccentricity) in static images of intersections. We used a dual-task paradigm in which cognitive load was manipulated without changing the complexity of the central (foveal) visual stimulus. Each image was displayed briefly (250 ms) to prevent eye movements. When no cognitive load was present, age resulted in a tunnel effect; however, when cognitive load was high, age resulted in a general interference effect. These findings suggest that tunnel and general interference effects can co-occur and that the predominant effect varies with the level of demand placed on participants' resources. High cognitive load had a general interference effect in both age groups, but the effect attenuated at large target eccentricities (opposite of a tunnel effect). Low cognitive load had a general interference effect in the older but not the younger group, impairing detection of motorcycle targets even at 5° eccentricity, which could present an imminent collision risk in real driving.
Mukai R, Park DH, Okunuki Y, Hasegawa E, Klokman G, Kim CB, Krishnan A, Gregory-Ksander M, Husain D, Miller JW, Connor KM. Mouse model of ocular hypertension with retinal ganglion cell degeneration. PLoS One 2019;14(1):e0208713.Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Ocular hypertension is a primary risk factor for glaucoma and results in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) degeneration. Current animal models of glaucoma lack severe RGC cell death as seen in glaucoma, making assessment of physiological mediators of cell death difficult. We developed a modified mouse model of ocular hypertension whereby long-lasting elevation of intraocular pressure (IOP) is achieved, resulting in significant reproducible damage to RGCs. RESULTS: In this model, microbeads are mixed with hyaluronic acid and injected into the anterior chamber of C57BL/6J mice. The hyaluronic acid allows for a gradual release of microbeads, resulting in sustained blockage of Schlemm's canal. IOP elevation was bimodal during the course of the model's progression. The first peak occurred 1 hours after beads injection, with an IOP value of 44.69 ± 6.00 mmHg, and the second peak occurred 6-12 days post-induction, with an IOP value of 34.91 ± 5.21 mmHg. RGC damage was most severe in the peripheral retina, with a loss of 64.1% compared to that of untreated eyes, while the midperiphery exhibited a 32.4% loss, 4 weeks following disease induction. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that sustained IOP elevation causes more RGC damage in the periphery than in the midperiphery of the retina. This model yields significant and reproducible RGC degeneration.
Jakobiec FA, Wolkow N, Zakka FR, Rubin PAD. Myeloid Sarcoma with Megakaryoblastic Differentiation Arising in the Conjunctiva. Ocul Oncol Pathol 2019;5(1):28-35.Abstract
An 87-year-old woman not known to have either a lymphoma or leukemia developed a left multinodular, fish-flesh superior epibulbar and forniceal mass. A biopsy disclosed a blastic tumor with scattered multinucleated immature megakaryoblasts. Immunophenotyping of bone marrow cells revealed strong positivity for CD7, CD31, CD43, CD45, CD61, and CD117; CD71, myeloperoxidase, and lysozyme were also positive in scattered cells. Forty percent of the neoplastic cells were Ki-67 positive. Cytogenetic studies indicated a trisomy 8 (associated with worse prognosis) and a t(12; 17) translocation. Desmin, smooth muscle actin, pancytokeratin, CAM 5.2, adipophilin, tryptase, S100, SOX10, MART1, and E-cadherin were negative, ruling out a nonhematopoietic tumor. The conjunctival lesion was diagnosed as a myeloid sarcoma with megakaryoblastic differentiation, a rare variant. It probably arose from a myelodysplastic syndrome. This is the first case of its type to develop in the conjunctiva.
Guo Z-Z, Chang K, Wei X. Intraocular pressure fluctuation and the risk of glaucomatous damage deterioration: a Meta-analysis. Int J Ophthalmol 2019;12(1):123-128.Abstract
AIM: To systematically review whether the increased fluctuation of intraocular pressure (IOP) is a risk factor for open angle glaucoma (OAG) progression. METHODS: Scientific studies relevant to IOP fluctuation and glaucoma progression were retrieved from MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL databases, and were listed as references in this paper. The hazard ratio (HR) was calculated by using fixed or random-effects models according to the heterogeneity of included studies. RESULTS: Individual data for 2211 eyes of 2637 OAG patients in fourteen prospective studies were included in this Meta-analysis. All studies were longitudinal clinical studies with follow-up period ranging from 3 to 8.5y. The combined HR was 1.23 (95%CI 1.04-1.46, =0.02) for the association between IOP fluctuation and glaucoma onset or progression with the evidence of heterogeneity (<0.1). Subgroup analyses with different types of IOP fluctuation were also evaluated. Results indicated that the summary HR was 0.98 (95%CI 0.78-1.24) in short-term IOP fluctuation group, which showed no statistical significance with heterogeneity, whereas, the combined HR was 1.43 (95%CI 1.13-1.82, =0.003) in long-term IOP fluctuation group without homogeneity. Sensitivity analysis further showed that the pooled HR was 1.10 (95%CI 1.03-1.18, =0.004) for long-term IOP fluctuation and visual function progression with homogeneity among studies (=0.3). CONCLUSION: Long-term IOP fluctuation can be a risk factor for glaucoma progression based on the presented evidence. Thus, controlling the swing of IOP is crucial for glaucoma or glaucoma suspecting patients.

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