All

Ou J, Lan W, Wu X, Zhao T, Duan B, Yang P, Ren Y, Quan L, Zhao W, Seto D, Chodosh J, Luo Z, Wu J, Zhang Q. Tracking SARS-CoV-2 Omicron diverse spike gene mutations identifies multiple inter-variant recombination events. Signal Transduct Target Ther 2022;7(1):138.Abstract
The current pandemic of COVID-19 is fueled by more infectious emergent Omicron variants. Ongoing concerns of emergent variants include possible recombinants, as genome recombination is an important evolutionary mechanism for the emergence and re-emergence of human viral pathogens. In this study, we identified diverse recombination events between two Omicron major subvariants (BA.1 and BA.2) and other variants of concern (VOCs) and variants of interest (VOIs), suggesting that co-infection and subsequent genome recombination play important roles in the ongoing evolution of SARS-CoV-2. Through scanning high-quality completed Omicron spike gene sequences, 18 core mutations of BA.1 (frequency >99%) and 27 core mutations of BA.2 (nine more than BA.1) were identified, of which 15 are specific to Omicron. BA.1 subvariants share nine common amino acid mutations (three more than BA.2) in the spike protein with most VOCs, suggesting a possible recombination origin of Omicron from these VOCs. There are three more Alpha-related mutations in BA.1 than BA.2, and BA.1 is phylogenetically closer to Alpha than other variants. Revertant mutations are found in some dominant mutations (frequency >95%) in the BA.1. Most notably, multiple characteristic amino acid mutations in the Delta spike protein have been also identified in the "Deltacron"-like Omicron Variants isolated since November 11, 2021 in South Africa, which implies the recombination events occurring between the Omicron and Delta variants. Monitoring the evolving SARS-CoV-2 genomes especially for recombination is critically important for recognition of abrupt changes to viral attributes including its epitopes which may call for vaccine modifications.
Elhusseiny AM, Traish AS, Saeed HN, Mantagos IS. Topical cenegermin 0.002% for pediatric neurotrophic keratopathy. Eur J Ophthalmol 2022;:11206721221094783.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of cenegermin 0.002% ophthalmic drops in the management of pediatric neurotrophic keratopathy (NK). METHODS: Retrospective chart review of children under the age of 18 years diagnosed with NK at Boston Children's Hospital/Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and treated with topical cenegermin 0.002% ophthalmic solution between June 2018 and June 2021 was performed. Data collection included etiology of NK, age at time of initiation of topical cenegermin, laterality, ethnicity, gender, history of previous ocular therapy, pre- and post-therapy best corrected visual acuity, pre- and post-therapy cornea examination, any adverse events from topical cenegermin, associated ocular conditions, and history of ocular surgeries. RESULTS: The current study includes four eyes of four pediatric patients with a mean age of 4.5 ± 2.0 years at the time of initiation of topical cenegermin therapy. The mean time from NK diagnosis until start of topical cenegermin drops was 5.2 ± 4.3 months and mean follow-up time was 15 ± 9.6 months. In all four patients, marked improvement in epitheliopathy was demonstrated after completion of therapy. Best corrected visual acuity was measurable in 3 eyes of 3 patients, and it improved from a mean of 0.07 ± 0.01 to a mean of 0.29 ± 0.26 (P = 0.3). No adverse events related to cenegermin therapy were noted. CONCLUSION: Topical cenegermin was effective in improving corneal healing for pediatric NK.
Huang YY, Hrycaj SM, Chan MP, Stagner AM, Patel RM, Bresler SC. PRAME Expression in Junctional Melanocytic Proliferations of the Conjunctiva: A Potential Biomarker for Primary Acquired Melanosis/Conjunctival Melanocytic Intraepithelial Lesions. Am J Dermatopathol 2022;Abstract
ABSTRACT: Conjunctival melanocytic proliferations are diagnostically challenging, often complicated by small specimen size, and are separated into 3 broad categories. The first group includes benign nevi and primary acquired melanosis (PAM) without atypia. The second group includes junctional melanocytic proliferations with a risk of progression to invasive melanoma (PAM with atypia). The last category is conjunctival melanoma, of which 65% of tumors arise in the setting of PAM with atypia. Preferentially expressed antigen in melanoma (PRAME) immunohistochemistry has been widely adopted to differentiate cutaneous nevi and melanoma. However, there are limited studies on its utility in the evaluation of conjunctival melanocytic proliferations with little data regarding its potential utility in stratifying PAM. Twenty-eight clinically annotated cases (14 PAM without atypia and 14 PAM with atypia) were retrospectively evaluated with PRAME/MART-1 duplex immunohistochemistry and were assigned the commonly used PRAME immunoreactivity score: 0 for no staining, 1+ for 1%-25% of cells positive, 2+ for 26%-50%, 3+ for 51%-75%, and 4+ for >75%. PAM without atypia showed low (0-3+) PRAME expression in 14 of 14 cases (100%). PAM with atypia showed strong and diffuse (4+) PRAME expression in 12 of 14 cases (86.7%). Seven of eight (87.5%) PAM with severe atypia, 4 of 4 PAM (100%) with moderate atypia, and 1 of 2 PAM (50%) with mild atypia showed 4+ PRAME expression. In addition, all 5 cases that recurred or progressed (all classified as PAM with atypia) showed 4+ PRAME expression. Although additional larger studies are needed, PRAME seems to be a useful adjunct in evaluating junctional melanocytic proliferations of the conjunctiva.
Kwan J, Ahmed H, Ponsetto MK, Succar T, Chodosh J, Saeed HN. Relationship between Atopic Disease and Acute Ocular and Systemic Outcomes in Patients with Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2022;:1-5.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe the relationship between history of atopic disease on systemic and ocular manifestations of Stevens-Johnson Syndrome/Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (SJS/TEN). METHODS: Retrospective chart review of patients with SJS/TEN patients. Those with and without prior atopic diagnosis were compared. RESULTS: In total, 200 patients with SJS/TEN were identified. A total of 23 patients also had an atopic diagnosis. Four, 10, and 18 had atopic dermatitis, allergic rhinitis, and asthma respectively. Acute ocular severity was significantly worse in the atopic cohort. No significant differences in overall systemic severity of SJS or mortality were found between the atopic and non-atopic cohorts. Compared to our hospital system's general population, prevalence of an atopic diagnosis was significantly higher in those with SJS/TEN. CONCLUSION: Patients with a history of an atopic diagnosis appear to have more significant acute ocular involvement during their SJS/TEN hospitalization. Atopic conditions appear to occur more frequently in the SJS/TEN population compared to the general population.
Doshi H, Solli E, Elze T, Pasquale LR, Wall M, Kupersmith MJ. Unsupervised Machine Learning Shows Change in Visual Field Loss in the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial. Ophthalmology 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: We previously reported that archetypal analysis (AA), a type of unsupervised machine learning, identified and quantified patterns of visual field (VF) loss in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), referred to as archetypes (ATs). We assessed whether AT weight changes over time are consistent with changes in conventional global indices. We explored whether visual outcome or treatment effects are associated with select ATs and whether AA reveals residual VF defects in eyes deemed "normal" after treatment. DESIGN: Analysis of data collected from a randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: 2,862 VFs taken from 165 participants during the Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension Treatment Trial (IIHTT). METHODS: We applied a 14-AT model derived from IIHTT VFs. We examined changes in individual AT weights over time within all study eye VFs and evaluated differences between treatment groups. We created an AT Change score to assess overall VF change from baseline. We tested threshold baseline AT weights for association with VF outcome and treatment effect at six months. We determined the abnormal ATs with meaningful weight at outcome for VFs considered "normal" based on a mean deviation (MD) cutoff ≥-2.00 dB. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Individual AT weighting coefficients, MD. RESULTS: AT1 (a normal VF pattern) showed the greatest weight change for all study eyes, increasing from 11.9% (interquartile range [IQR]: 0.44-24.1%) at baseline to 31.2% (IQR: 16.0-45.5%) at outcome (p<0.001). AT1 weight change (r=0.795, p<0.001) and a global score of AT change (r=0.988, p<0.001) correlated strongly with MD change. Study eyes with baseline AT2 (a mild diffuse VF loss pattern) weight ≥ 44% (≥1 standard deviation above the mean) showed higher AT2 weights at outcome than those with AT2 < 44% at baseline (p<0.001). Only the latter group showed a significant acetazolamide treatment effect. AA revealed residual VF loss patterns, most frequently representing mild diffuse loss and enlarged blind spot in 64 of 66 study eyes with MD ≥-2.00 dB at outcome. CONCLUSION: AA provides a quantitative approach to monitoring VF changes in IIH. Baseline AT features may be associated with treatment response and VF outcome. AA uncovers residual VF defects not otherwise revealed by MD.
Douglas VP, Douglas KA, Vavvas DG, Miller JW, Miller JB. Short- and Long-Term Visual Outcomes in Patients Receiving Intravitreal Injections: The Impact of the Coronavirus 2019 Disease (COVID-19)-Related Lockdown. J Clin Med 2022;11(8)Abstract
Purpose: To investigate the short- and long-term impact of COVID-19-related lockdown on the vision of patients requiring intravitreal injections (IVI) for neovascular Age-related Macular degeneration (nvAMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO), or branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). Methods: This is a retrospective study from the Retina department of three Mass Eye and Ear centers. Charts of patients age of ≥ 18 years with any of the abovementioned diagnoses who had a scheduled appointment anytime between 17 March 2020 until 18 May 2020 (lockdown period in Boston, Massachusetts) were reviewed at baseline (up to 12 weeks before the lockdown), at first available follow-up (=actual f/u) during or after the lockdown period, at 3 months, 6 months, and at last available completed appointment of 2020. Results: A total of 1001 patients met the inclusion criteria. Of those patients, 479 (47.9%) completed their intended f/u appointment, while 522 missed it (canceled and "no show"). The delay in care of those who missed it was 59.15 days [standard deviation (SD) ± 49.6]. In these patients, significant loss of vision was noted at actual f/u [Best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in LogMAR (Logarithm of the Minimum Angle of Resolution)-mean (±SD)-completed: 0.45 (±0.46), missed: 0.53 (±0.55); p = 0.01], which was more prominent in the DR group [Visual acuity (VA) change in LogMAR-mean (±SD); completed: 0.04 (±0.28), missed: 0.18 (±0.44); p = 0.02] and CRVO [completed: -0.06 (±0.27), missed: 0.11 (±0.35); p = &lt;0.001] groups followed by nvAMD [completed: 0.006 (±0.16), missed: 0.06 (±0.27); p = 0.004] and BRVO [completed: -0.02 (±0.1), missed: 0.03 (±0.14); p = 0.02] ones. Overall, a higher percent of people who missed their intended f/u experienced vision loss of more than 15 letters at last f/u compared to those who completed it [missed vs. completed; 13.4% vs. 7.4% in nvAMD (p = 0.72), 7.8% vs. 6.3% in DR (0.84), 15.5% vs. 9.9% in CRVO (p &lt; 0.001) and 9.6% vs. 2% in BRVO (p = 0.48)]. Conclusions: Delay in care of about 8.45 weeks can lead to loss of vision in patients who receive IVI with DR and CRVO patients being more vulnerable in the short-term, whereas in the long-term, CRVO patients followed by the nvAMD patients demonstrating the least vision recovery. BRVO patients were less likely to be affected by the delay in care. Adherence to treatment is key for maintaining and improving visual outcomes in patients who require IVI.
Hall NE, Chang EK, Samuel S, Gupta S, Klug E, Elze T, Lorch AC, Miller JW, Solá-Del Valle D. Risk factors for glaucoma drainage device revision or removal using the IRIS Registry. Am J Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To elucidate risk factors for revision or removal of glaucoma drainage devices (GDD) in glaucoma patients in the United States. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. METHODS: IRIS® Registry (Intelligent Research in Sight) patients who underwent GDD insertion between 01/01/2013 and 12/31/2018 were included. Various demographic and clinical factors were collected. Kaplan-Meier (KM) survival plots, Cox proportional-hazard models utilizing Firth's Penalized Likelihood (CRFPL), and multivariate linear regression models were used. The main outcome measures were hazard ratios (HRs) and beta coefficient (β) estimates. RESULTS: 44,330 distinct patients underwent at least one GDD implantation, and 3,354 of these underwent subsequent GDD revision or removal surgery. With failure defined as GDD revision/removal, factors significantly associated with decreased failure included unknown race (HR=0.83; p=0.004) and unknown ethnicity (HR=0.68; p<0.001). Factors associated with increased risk of GDD revision/removal surgery included presence of chronic angle closure glaucoma (HR=1.32; p<0.001) and dry eye disease (HR=1.30; p=0.007). Additionally, factors associated with a decreased average time (in days) to GDD revision/removal included male sex (β=-25.96; p=0.044), unknown race (β=-55.28; p=0.013), and right-eye laterality (β=-38.67; p=0.026). Factors associated with an increased average time to GDD revision/removal included having a history of a past eye procedure (β=104.83; p<0.001) and being an active smoker (β=38.15; p=0.024). CONCLUSIONS: The size and scope of the IRIS Registry allows for detection of subtle associations between risk factors and GDD revision or removal surgery. Aforementioned demographic and clinical factors may all have an impact on GDD longevity and can inform the treatment options available for glaucoma patients.
for the Group WCPEDI, Hartnett EM, Wallace DK, Dean TW, Li Z, Boente CS, Dosunmu EO, Freedman SF, Golden RP, Kong L, Prakalapakorn GS, Repka MX, Smith LE, Wang H, Kraker RT, Cotter SA, Holmes JM. Plasma Levels of Bevacizumab and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor After Low-Dose Bevacizumab Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants. JAMA Ophthalmol 2022;140(4):337-344.Abstract
Importance: Intravitreal bevacizumab effectively treats severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), but it enters the bloodstream and may reduce serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), potentially causing detrimental effects on developing organs in the premature infant. Objective: To evaluate the association of intravitreal bevacizumab with plasma bevacizumab and VEGF concentrations at 2 and 4 weeks after predefined, de-escalating doses of intravitreal bevacizumab were administered to infants with severe ROP. Design, Setting, and Participants: This phase 1 dose de-escalation case series study was conducted at 10 US hospitals of ophthalmology institutions from May 21, 2015, to May 7, 2019. Blood samples were collected 2 and 4 weeks after intravitreal bevacizumab injection. Participants included 83 premature infants with type 1 ROP in 1 or both eyes and no previous ROP treatment. Data were analyzed from April 2017 to August 2021. Interventions: Study eyes received a single bevacizumab injection of 0.250 mg, 0.125 mg, 0.063 mg, 0.031 mg, 0.016 mg, 0.008 mg, 0.004 mg, or 0.002 mg. When the fellow eye required treatment, one dose higher was administered. Total dose administered at baseline was defined as the sum of doses given to each eye within 3 days of initial study-eye injection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Plasma bevacizumab concentration at 2 and 4 weeks after injection and the percentage change in plasma VEGF concentrations from pretreatment levels. Results: A total of 83 infants (mean [SD] age, 25 [2] weeks; 48 boys [58%]) were included in this study. Higher doses of bevacizumab administered at baseline were associated with higher plasma bevacizumab concentrations at 2 weeks (ρ, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.31-0.70) and 4 weeks (ρ, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.18-0.64). Plasma VEGF concentrations decreased by 50% or more from pretreatment levels in 40 of 66 infants (61%) at 2 weeks and 31 of 61 infants (51%) at 4 weeks, but no association was observed between the total dose of bevacizumab administered at baseline and percentage change in plasma VEGF concentrations 2 weeks (ρ, -0.04; 95% CI, -0.28 to 0.20) or 4 weeks (ρ, -0.17; 95% CI, -0.41 to 0.08) after injection. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this phase 1 dose de-escalation case series study revealed that bevacizumab doses as low as 0.002 mg were associated with reduced plasma VEGF levels for most infants at 2 and 4 weeks after intravitreal administration; however, no association was observed between total bevacizumab dose administered and reductions in plasma VEGF levels from preinjection to 2 weeks or 4 weeks. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of low-dose bevacizumab on neurodevelopment and retinal structure.
Naninck T, Kahlaoui N, Lemaitre J, Maisonnasse P, De Mori A, Pascal Q, Contreras V, Marlin R, Relouzat F, Delache B, Hérate C, Aldon Y, van Gils M, Zabaleta N, Tsong Fang RH, Bosquet N, Sanders RW, Vandenberghe LH, Chapon C, Le Grand R. Computed tomography and [18F]-FDG PET imaging provide additional readouts for COVID-19 pathogenesis and therapies evaluation in non-human primates. iScience 2022;25(4):104101.Abstract
Non-human primates (NHPs) are particularly relevant as preclinical models for SARS-CoV-2 infection and nuclear imaging may represent a valuable tool for monitoring infection in this species. We investigated the benefit of computed X-ray tomography (CT) and [18F]-FDG positron emission tomography (PET) to monitor the early phase of the disease in a large cohort (n = 76) of SARS-CoV-2 infected macaques. Following infection, animals showed mild COVID-19 symptoms including typical lung lesions. CT scores at the acute phase reflect the heterogeneity of lung burden following infection. Moreover, [18F]-FDG PET revealed that FDG uptake was significantly higher in the lungs, nasal cavities, lung-draining lymph nodes, and spleen of NHPs by 5 days postinfection compared to pre-infection levels, indicating early local inflammation. The comparison of CT and PET data from previous COVID-19 treatments or vaccines we tested in NHP, to this large cohort of untreated animals demonstrated the value of in vivo imaging in preclinical trials.
Deiner MS, Seitzman GD, Kaur G, McLeod SD, Chodosh J, Lietman TM, Porco TC. Sustained Reductions in Online Search Interest for Communicable Eye and Other Conditions During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Infodemiology Study. JMIR Infodemiology 2022;2(1):e31732.Abstract
Background: In a prior study at the start of the pandemic, we reported reduced numbers of Google searches for the term "conjunctivitis" in the United States in March and April 2020 compared with prior years. As one explanation, we conjectured that reduced information-seeking may have resulted from social distancing reducing contagious conjunctivitis cases. Here, after 1 year of continued implementation of social distancing, we asked if there have been persistent reductions in searches for "conjunctivitis," and similarly for other communicable disease terms, compared to control terms. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if reduction in searches in the United States for terms related to conjunctivitis and other common communicable diseases occurred in the spring-winter season of the COVID-19 pandemic, and to compare this outcome to searches for terms representing noncommunicable conditions, COVID-19, and to seasonality. Methods: Weekly relative search frequency volume data from Google Trends for 68 search terms in English for the United States were obtained for the weeks of March 2011 through February 2021. Terms were classified a priori as 16 terms related to COVID-19, 29 terms representing communicable conditions, and 23 terms representing control noncommunicable conditions. To reduce bias, all analyses were performed while masked to term names, classifications, and locations. To test for the significance of changes during the pandemic, we detrended and compared postpandemic values to those expected based on prepandemic trends, per season, computing one- and two-sided P values. We then compared these P values between term groups using Wilcoxon rank-sum and Fisher exact tests to assess if non-COVID-19 terms representing communicable diseases were more likely to show significant reductions in searches in 2020-2021 than terms not representing such diseases. We also assessed any relationship between a term's seasonality and a reduced search trend for the term in 2020-2021 seasons. P values were subjected to false discovery rate correction prior to reporting. Data were then unmasked. Results: Terms representing conjunctivitis and other communicable conditions showed a sustained reduced search trend in the first 4 seasons of the 2020-2021 COVID-19 pandemic compared to prior years. In comparison, the search for noncommunicable condition terms was significantly less reduced (Wilcoxon and Fisher exact tests, P<.001; summer, autumn, winter). A significant correlation was also found between reduced search for a term in 2020-2021 and seasonality of that term (Theil-Sen, P<.001; summer, autumn, winter). Searches for COVID-19-related conditions were significantly elevated compared to those in prior years, and searches for influenza-related terms were significantly lower than those for prior years in winter 2020-2021 (P<.001). Conclusions: We demonstrate the low-cost and unbiased use of online search data to study how a wide range of conditions may be affected by large-scale interventions or events such as social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our findings support emerging clinical evidence implicating social distancing and the COVID-19 pandemic in the reduction of communicable disease and on ocular conditions.
Parekh M, Pedrotti E, Viola P, Leon P, Neri E, Bosio L, Bonacci E, Ruzza A, Kaye SB, Ponzin D, Ferrari S, Roman V. Factors affecting the success rate of pre-loaded DMEK with endothelium-inwards technique: a multi-centre clinical study. Am J Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate factors affecting the outcomes of pre-loaded DMEK (pl-DMEK) with endothelium-inwards. DESIGN: Retrospective clinical case series and a comparative tissue preparation study PARTICIPANTS: Fifty-five donor tissues for ex vivo study and 147 eyes of 147 patients indicated with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy or pseudophakic bullous keratopathy with or without cataract. INTERVENTION: Standardized DMEK peeling was performed with 9.5 mm diameter followed by second trephination for loading the graft (8.0-9.5 mm diameter). The tissues were manually pre-loaded with endothelium inwards and preserved for 4 days or shipped for transplantation. Live/dead assay and immunostaining was performed on ex vivo tissues. For the clinical study, the tissues were delivered using bi-manual pull-through technique followed by air tamponade at all the centres. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Tissue characteristics, donor and recipient factors, re-bubbling rate, endothelial cell loss (ECL) and CDVA at 3, 6 and 12 months. RESULT: At day 4, significant cell loss (p=0.04) was observed in pl-DMEK with loss of biomarker expression seen in pre-stripped and pl-DMEK tissues. Re-bubbling was observed in 40.24% cases. Average ECL at 3, 6 and 12 months was 45.87%, 40.98% and 47.54% respectively. CDVA improved significantly at 3 months post-op (0.23 ± 0.37 logMAR) (p<0.01) compared to the baseline (0.79 ± 0.61 logMAR). A significant association (p<0.05) between graft diameter, preservation time, recipient gender, gender mismatch and recipient age to re-bubbling rate was observed. CONCLUSION: Graft loading to delivery time of pl-DMEK tissues in endothelium-inwards fashion must be limited to 4 days after processing. Re-bubbling rate and overall surgical outcomes following pre-loaded DMEK can be multi-factorial and centre specific.
VanderVeen DK, Oke I, Nihalani BR. Deviations From Age-Adjusted Normative Biometry Measures in Children Undergoing Cataract Surgery: Implications for Postoperative Target Refraction and IOL Power Selection. Am J Ophthalmol 2022;239:190-201.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether pediatric eyes that deviate from age-adjusted normative biometry parameters predict variation in myopic shift after cataract surgery. METHODS: This is a single institution longitudinal cohort study combining prospectively collected biometry data from normal eyes of children <10 years old with biometry data from eyes undergoing cataract surgery. Refractive data from patients with a minimum of 5 visits over ≥5 years of follow-up were used to calculate myopic shift and rate of refractive growth. Cataractous eyes that deviated from the middle quartiles of the age-adjusted normative values for axial length and keratometry were studied for variation in myopic shift and rate of refractive growth to 5 years and last follow-up visit. Multivariable analysis was performed to determine the association between myopic shift and rate of refractive growth and factors of age, sex, laterality, keratometry, axial length, intraocular lens power, and follow-up length. RESULTS: Normative values were derived from 100 eyes; there were 162 eyes in the cataract group with a median follow-up of 9.6 years (interquartile range: 7.3-12.2 years). The mean myopic shift ranged from 5.5 D (interquartile range: 6.3-3.5 D) for 0- to 2-year-olds to 1.0 D (interquartile range: 1.5-0.6 D) for 8- to 10-year-olds. Multivariable analysis showed that more myopic shift was associated with younger age (P < .001), lower keratometry (P = .01), and male gender (P = .027); greater rate of refractive growth was only associated with lower keratometry measures (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Age-based tables for intraocular lens power selection are useful, and modest adjustments can be considered for eyes with lower keratometry values than expected for age.

Pages