Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Achillea tenuifolia Lam. Essential Oil at Different Phenological Stages from Khoy. Chem Biodivers 2019;16(12):e1900289.Abstract.
Achillea species and in particular Achillea tenuifolia Lam. is generally used as a food flavor and traditional remedies, especially in the initial developmental stage for medical conditions in the Mediterranean part of Iran. In this report, we extracted the essential oil from the aerial parts of A. tenuifolia (collected from Khoy), at various developmental stages (i. e., vegetative, flowering and fruiting), characterized them and studied their antibacterial activities. Of 46, 51 and 38 components found in the vegetative, flowering, and fruiting stages, respectively, 35 were present in all three stages, including oxygenated terpenes such as carvacrol (30.85-34.11), germacrene C (16.21-17.87), spathulenol (7.26-8.96), β-sesquiphellandrene (4.11-4.25), τ-muurolol (2.27-3.25) and α-cadinol (2.01-3.29). We witnessed that the composition of the essential oils varies with phenological stages and geographic regions. The essential oil demonstrated substantial antibacterial properties against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, indicated by disk method, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) assays. Except Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the essential oils of various phenological stages showed higher antibacterial activity against tested bacteria, with Bacillus anthracis as the most sensitive strain. Moreover, although antibacterial characteristics of the essential oil from the vegetative and flowering stages were similar (p=0.91), they were significantly different from those of fruiting stage (p<0.005 in both MIC and MBC tests). This emphasizes the importance of the developmental stage of the plant in the biological properties of its essential oil and justifies the widespread application of this plant in the vegetative stage.