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, Holmes JM, Manny RE, Lazar EL, Birch EE, Kelly KR, Summers AI, Martinson SR, Raghuram A, Colburn JD, Law C, Marsh JD, Bitner DP, Kraker RT, Wallace DK. A Randomized Trial of Binocular Dig Rush Game Treatment for Amblyopia in Children Aged 7 to 12 Years. Ophthalmology 2019;126(3):456-466.Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare visual acuity (VA) improvement in children aged 7 to 12 years with amblyopia treated with a binocular iPad game plus continued spectacle correction vs. continued spectacle correction alone. DESIGN: Multicenter randomized clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred thirty-eight participants aged 7 to 12 years with amblyopia (33-72 letters, i.e., approximately 20/200 to 20/40) resulting from strabismus, anisometropia, or both. Participants were required to have at least 16 weeks of optical treatment in spectacles if needed or demonstrate no improvement in amblyopic-eye visual acuity (VA) for at least 8 weeks prior to enrollment. METHODS: Eligible participants (mean age 9.6 years, mean baseline VA of 59.6 letters, history of prior amblyopia treatment other than spectacles in 96%) were randomly assigned to treatment for 8 weeks with the dichoptic binocular Dig Rush iPad game (prescribed for 1 hour per day 5 days per week) plus spectacle wear if needed (n = 69) or continued spectacle correction alone if needed (n = 69). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change in amblyopic-eye VA from baseline to 4 weeks, assessed by a masked examiner. RESULTS: At 4 weeks, mean amblyopic-eye VA letter score improved from baseline by 1.3 (2-sided 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.1-2.6; 0.026 logMAR) with binocular treatment and by 1.7 (2-sided 95% CI: 0.4-3.0; 0.034 logMAR) with continued spectacle correction alone. After adjusment for baseline VA, the letter score difference between groups (binocular minus control) was -0.3 (95% CI: -2.2 to 1.5, P = 0.71, difference of -0.006 logMAR). No difference in letter scores was observed between groups when the analysis was repeated after 8 weeks of treatment (adjusted mean: -0.1, 98.3% CI: -2.4 to 2.1). For the binocular group, adherence data from the iPad indicated that slightly more than half of the participants (58% and 56%) completed >75% of prescribed treatment by the 4- and 8-week visits, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In children aged 7 to 12 years who have received previous treatment for amblyopia other than spectacles, there was no benefit to VA or stereoacuity from 4 or 8 weeks of treatment with the dichoptic binocular Dig Rush iPad game.
Borkar DS, Laíns I, Eton EA, Koulisis N, Moustafa GA, van Zyl T, Kloek CE, for Group PCIOLS. Incidence of Management Changes at the Postoperative Week 1 Visit after Cataract Surgery: Results from the Perioperative Care for IntraOcular Lens Study. Am J Ophthalmol 2019;199:94-100.Abstract
PURPOSE: To ascertain the incidence of unexpected management changes at the postoperative week 1 visit in asymptomatic patients who have had an uncomplicated cataract surgery and a routine postoperative day 1 examination. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted of all cases of cataract extraction by phacoemulsification with intraocular lens insertion performed by the Comprehensive Ophthalmology Service at Massachusetts Eye and Ear between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2014. The preoperative consultation, operative report, and postoperative day 1 and week 1 (postoperative days 5-14) visits were reviewed. Cases with intraoperative complications, as well as clinical findings at postoperative day 1 requiring close follow-up, were excluded. The main outcome measure was incidence of unexpected management changes at the postoperative week 1 visit after cataract surgery, defined as an unanticipated change in postoperative drops, additional procedures, or urgent referral to a specialty service. RESULTS: Overall, 1938 surgical cases of 1471 patients were reviewed, and 1510 cases (77.9%) underwent uncomplicated phacoemulsification with intraocular lens implantation with a routine postoperative day 1 examination. Of these 1510 cases, 238 (15.8%) reported symptoms at the postoperative week 1 visit, including flashes, floaters, redness, pain, or decreased vision, which warranted an examination. In total, 1272 cases were asymptomatic, and only 11 of these cases (0.9%) had an unexpected management change at postoperative week 1. Eight of 11 patients were asymptomatic steroid responders requiring alteration of their postoperative drops. Two of these patients had an intraocular pressure >30 mm Hg. CONCLUSIONS: Unexpected management changes at the postoperative week 1 timepoint after cataract surgery are rare in asymptomatic patients who have had uncomplicated cataract surgery and a routine postoperative day 1 examination. Limited data are available to outline an optimal postoperative regimen after cataract surgery. The results of this study suggest that postoperative week 1 examinations could potentially be performed on an as-needed basis in the appropriate subgroup of patients after cataract surgery.
Gregory-Ksander M, Perez VL, Marshak-Rothstein A, Ksander BR. Soluble Fas ligand blocks destructive corneal inflammation in mouse models of corneal epithelial debridement and LPS induced keratitis. Exp Eye Res 2019;179:47-54.Abstract
Neutrophil-mediated inflammation plays a critical role in corneal damage following injury or infection. Previous studies demonstrated that membrane-bound FasL (mFasL) induces neutrophil chemokine production. However, the extracellular domain of mFasL is normally cleaved by matrix metalloproteinases to release a soluble form of FasL (sFasL) and sFasL antagonizes mFasL-mediated chemokine production. Therefore, we hypothesized that sFasL could be used to prevent neutrophil-mediated corneal inflammation associated with injury and bacterial keratitis. To test this hypothesis, GFP-only, sFasL-GFP, or mFasL-GFP were expressed in the corneal stroma of C57BL/6 mice, using intra-stromal injections of plasmid DNA or adenoviral vectors (AV) and the role of mFasL and sFasL in corneal inflammation was examined in models of corneal injury and LPS-induced keratitis. Our work addresses an important area of disagreement in the field of FasL, with regard to the mechanism by which sFasL regulates ocular inflammation. Herein, we demonstrate that an intrastromal injection of GFP-only, sFasL-GFP, or mFasL-GFP plasmid DNA resulted in GFP expression throughout the corneal stroma for up to two weeks with little to no evidence of inflammation in the GFP-only and sFasL-GFP groups and mild corneal inflammation in the mFasL-GFP group. Similarly, following epithelial debridement, corneas expressing GFP-only or sFasL-GFP showed no significant signs of corneal inflammation, with clear corneas at 15 days post debridement. By contrast, epithelial debridement of corneas expressing mFasL-GFP triggered persistent corneal inflammation and the development of central corneal opacities that was blocked by sFasL. Similar to the mFasL-GFP plasmid DNA, intrastromal injection of mFasL-GFP AV triggered mild corneal inflammation, but it was transient and resolved by day 10 with corneas remaining clear out to 30 days post injection. Nevertheless, intrastromal expression of mFasL-GFP AV exacerbated LPS-induced keratitis, corneal opacity, and neovascularization, while sFasL-GFP AV expression prevented LPS-induced keratitis, resulting in a clear cornea. Histological analysis of corneas with LPS-induced keratitis revealed a robust infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils and sFasL expression specifically blocked the neutrophil influx. Overall, our data demonstrate that stromal expression of mFasL is inflammatory, while sFasL is non-inflammatory, and opposes the effects of mFasL in mouse models of epithelial debridement and LPS-induced keratitis. These data demonstrate that a delicate balance between sFasL and mFasL regulates ocular inflammation. This study further identifies sFasL as a potent inhibitor of neutrophil-mediated corneal damage, and supports the potential use of sFasL in the treatment of neutrophil-mediated keratitis. These results strongly support the hypothesis that, in the immune privileged environment of the eye, the isoform of FasL regulates immune privilege and determines the extent of inflammation: mFasL promotes inflammation and sFasL blocks inflammation.
Chew EY, Clemons TE, Jaffe GJ, Johnson CA, Farsiu S, Lad EM, Guymer R, Rosenfeld P, Hubschman J-P, Constable I, Wiley H, Singerman LJ, Gillies M, Comer G, Blodi B, Eliott D, Yan J, Bird A, Friedlander M, Group MTT 2-PCNTFR2. Effect of Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor on Retinal Neurodegeneration in Patients with Macular Telangiectasia Type 2: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Ophthalmology 2019;126(4):540-549.Abstract
PURPOSE: To test the effects of an encapsulated cell-based delivery of a neuroprotective agent, ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF), on progression of macular telangiectasia type 2, a neurodegenerative disease with no proven effective therapy. DESIGN: Randomized sham-controlled clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Ninety-nine study eyes of 67 eligible participants were enrolled. METHODS: Single-masked randomized clinical trial of 24 months' duration conducted from May 2014 through April 2017 in 11 clinical centers of retinal specialists in the United States and Australia. Participants were randomized 1:1 to surgical implantation of intravitreal sustained delivery of human CNTF versus a sham procedure. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was the difference in the area of neurodegeneration as measured in the area of the ellipsoid zone disruption (or photoreceptor loss) measured on spectral-domain (SD) OCT images at 24 months from baseline between the treated and untreated groups. Secondary outcomes included comparison of visual function changes between treatment groups. RESULTS: Among the 67 participants who were randomized (mean age, 62±8.9 years; 41 women [61%]; 58 white persons [86%]), 65 (97%) completed the study. Two participants (3 study eyes) died and 3 participants (4 eyes) were found ineligible. The eyes receiving sham treatment had 31% greater progression of neurodegeneration than the CNTF-treated eyes. The difference in mean area of photoreceptor loss was 0.05±0.03 mm (P = 0.04) at 24 months. Retinal sensitivity changes, measured using microperimetry, were correlated highly with the changes in the area of photoreceptor loss (r = 0.86; P < 0.0001). The mean retinal sensitivity loss of the sham group was 45% greater than that of the treated group (decrease, 15.81±8.93 dB; P = 0.07). Reading speed deteriorated in the sham group (-13.9 words per minute) with no loss in the treated group (P = 0.02). Serious adverse ocular effects were found in 2 of 51 persons (4%) in the sham group and 2 of 48 persons (4%) in the treated group. CONCLUSIONS: In participants with macular telangiectasia type 2, a surgical implant that released CNTF into the vitreous cavity, compared with a sham procedure, slowed the progression of retinal degeneration. Further research is needed to assess longer-term clinical outcomes and safety.
Saban DR, Hodges RR, Mathew R, Reyes NJ, Yu C, Kaye R, Swift W, Botten N, Serhan CN, Dartt DA. Resolvin D1 treatment on goblet cell mucin and immune responses in the chronic allergic eye disease (AED) model. Mucosal Immunol 2019;12(1):145-153.Abstract
Severe, chronic eye allergy is an understudied, vision-threatening condition. Treatments remain limited. We used a mouse model of severe allergic eye disease (AED) to determine whether topical application of the pro-resolution mediator Resolvin D1 (RvD1) terminates the response. AED was induced by injection of ovalbumin (OVA) followed by topical challenge of OVA daily. RvD1 was applied topically prior to OVA. Clinical symptoms were scored. Eye washes were assayed for MUC5AC. After 7 days, eyes were removed and the number of goblet cells, T helper cell responses and presence of immune cells in draining lymph nodes and conjunctiva determined. Topical RvD1 treatment significantly reduced symptoms of AED. RvD1 did not alter the systemic type 2 immune response in the lymph nodes. AED increased the total amount of goblet cell mucin secretion, but not the number of goblet cells. RvD1 prevented this increase, but did not alter goblet cell number. Absolute numbers of CD4 + T cells, total CD11b + myeloid cells, eosinophils, neutrophils, and monocytes, but not macrophages increased in AED versus RvD1-treated mice. We conclude that topical application of RvD1 reduced the ocular allergic response by local actions in conjunctival immune response and a decrease in goblet cell mucin secretion.
Seyed-Razavi Y, Lopez MJ, Mantopoulos D, Zheng L, Massberg S, Sendra VG, Harris DL, Hamrah P. Kinetics of corneal leukocytes by intravital multiphoton microscopy. FASEB J 2019;33(2):2199-2211.Abstract
Corneal immune privilege is integral in maintaining the clear avascular window to the foreign world. The presence of distinct populations of corneal leukocytes (CLs) in the normal cornea has been firmly established. However, their precise function and kinetics remain, as of yet, unclear. Through intravital multiphoton microscopy (IV-MPM), allowing the means to accumulate critical spatial and temporal cellular information, we provide details for long-term investigation of CL morphology and kinetics under steady state and following inflammation. Significant alterations in size and morphology of corneal CD11c dendritic cells (DCs) were noted following acute sterile inflammation, including cell volume (4364.4 ± 489.6 vs. 1787.6 ± 111.0 μm, P < 0.001) and sphericity (0.82 ± 0.01 vs. 0.42 ± 0.02, P < 0.001) compared with steady state. Furthermore, IV-MPM analyses revealed alterations in both the CD11c DC and major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC)-II mature antigen-presenting cell population kinetics during inflammation, including track displacement length (CD11c: 16.57 ± 1.41 vs. 4.64 ± 0.56 μm, P < 0.001; MHC-II: 9.03 ± 0.37 vs. 4.09 ± 0.39, P < 0.001) and velocity (CD11c: 1.91 ± 0.07 μm/min vs. 1.73 ± 0.1302 μm/min; MHC-II: 2.97 ± 0.07 vs. 1.62 ± 0.08, P < 0.001) compared with steady state. Our results reveal in vivo evidence of sessile CL populations exhibiting dendritic morphology under steady state and increased velocity of spherical leukocytes following inflammation. IV-MPM represents a powerful tool to study leukocytes in corneal diseases in context.-Seyed-Razavi, Y., Lopez, M. J., Mantopoulos, D., Zheng, L., Massberg, S., Sendra, V. G., Harris, D. L., Hamrah, P. Kinetics of corneal leukocytes by intravital multiphoton microscopy.
Wareham LK, Dordea AC, Schleifer G, Yao V, Batten A, Fei F, Mertz J, Gregory-Ksander M, Pasquale LR, Buys ES, Sappington RM. Increased bioavailability of cyclic guanylate monophosphate prevents retinal ganglion cell degeneration. Neurobiol Dis 2019;121:65-75.Abstract
The nitric oxide - guanylyl cyclase-1 - cyclic guanylate monophosphate (NO-GC-1-cGMP) pathway has emerged as a potential pathogenic mechanism for glaucoma, a common intraocular pressure (IOP)-related optic neuropathy characterized by the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and their axons in the optic nerve. NO activates GC-1 to increase cGMP levels, which are lowered by cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) activity. This pathway appears to play a role in both the regulation of IOP, where reduced cGMP levels in mice leads to elevated IOP and subsequent RGC degeneration. Here, we investigated whether potentiation of cGMP signaling could protect RGCs from glaucomatous degeneration. We administered the PDE5 inhibitor tadalafil orally (10 mg/kg/day) in murine models of two forms of glaucoma - primary open angle glaucoma (POAG; GC-1 mice) and primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG; Microbead Occlusion Model) - and measured RGC viability at both the soma and axon level. To determine the direct effect of increased cGMP on RGCs in vitro, we treated axotomized whole retina and primary RGC cultures with the cGMP analogue 8-Br-cGMP. Tadalafil treatment increased plasma cGMP levels in both models, but did not alter IOP or mean arterial pressure. Nonetheless, tadalafil treatment prevented degeneration of RGC soma and axons in both disease models. Treatment of whole, axotomized retina and primary RGC cultures with 8-Br-cGMP markedly attenuated both necrotic and apoptotic cell death pathways in RGCs. Our findings suggest that enhancement of the NO-GC-1-cGMP pathway protects the RGC body and axon in murine models of POAG and PACG, and that enhanced signaling through this pathway may serve as a novel glaucoma treatment, acting independently of IOP.
Shao C, Chen Y, Nakao T, Amouzegar A, Yin J, Tahvildari M, Lužnik Z, Chauhan SK, Dana R. Local Delivery of Regulatory T Cells Promotes Corneal Allograft Survival. Transplantation 2019;103(1):182-190.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Regulatory T (Treg) cell-based immunotherapies have been studied as potential cell-based modalities for promoting transplant survival. However, the efficacy of local delivery of Treg cells in corneal transplantation has not been fully elucidated. Herein, we investigated the kinetics of migration of subconjunctivally injected Treg cells and their role in promoting corneal allograft survival. METHODS: GFPCD4CD25Foxp3 Treg cells were isolated from draining lymph nodes (DLNs) of GFP transgenic mice and were subconjunctivally injected to corneal allograft recipients. Next, Treg cells, conventional T cells (Tconv) or a combination of both was locally injected to graft recipients, and graft survival was determined by evaluating opacity scores for 10 weeks. Transplanted mice without treatment served as controls. The frequencies of major histocompatibility complex-IICD11b antigen-presenting cells, IFNγCD4 Th1 cells, and CD45 cells in the DLNs and cornea were evaluated at week 2 posttransplantation using flow cytometry. Expressions of IFNγ, IL-10 and TGF-β in the grafts were assessed using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. RESULTS: GFP Treg cells were detected in the ipsilateral cornea and DLNs of recipients 6 hours after injection. Subconjunctival injection of Treg cells significantly decreased the frequencies of mature antigen-presenting cells in the graft and DLNs, suppressed Th1 frequencies in DLNs, and inhibited CD45 cell infiltration to the graft. Finally, locally delivered Treg cells significantly reduced the expression of IFN-γ, enhanced the levels of IL-10 and TGF-β in the graft, and promoted long-term allograft survival. CONCLUSIONS: Our study elucidates the kinetics of migration of locally delivered Treg cells and shows their role in suppressing host immune response against the allograft.
Kempen JH, Tekle-Haimanot R, Hunduma L, Alemayehu M, Pistilli M, Abashawl A, Lawrence SD, Alemayehu W. Fluorometholone 0.1% as Ancillary Therapy for Trachomatous Trichiasis Surgery: Randomized Clinical Trial. Am J Ophthalmol 2019;197:145-155.Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess the hypothesis that fluorometholone 0.1% eye drops are safe and effective as adjunctive therapy for trachomatous trichiasis (TT) surgery; determining the most promising dose. DESIGN: Randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked parallel dose-ranging clinical trial. METHODS: Patients undergoing upper lid TT surgery at a rural Ethiopian hospital were randomized to fluorometholone 0.1% twice daily for 4 weeks, 4 times daily for 4 weeks, 4 times daily for 8 weeks, or matching frequency placebo in a 3:1:3:1:3:1 ratio for 1 eye. Randomization was stratified by TT severity (1-4 vs ≥5 lashes touching the globe). Safety outcomes (intraocular pressure [IOP] elevation, cataract, and other dose-limiting toxicities) and postoperative TT incidence were assessed over 1 year. RESULTS: Subjects randomized were 39:13:39:13:38:13 in the respective groups, and 1 subject in the 8-weeks fluorometholone group was withdrawn. Of 154 subjects, 148 (96.1%) completed 1 year's follow-up. Among 76 eyes receiving fluorometholone 4 times daily, 1 developed IOP elevation ≥ 30 mm Hg (to 37 mm Hg) and 1 had an allergic reaction attributed to the study drug; each resolved upon drug cessation without sequelae. No cataract or other dose-limiting toxicity events occurred. Postoperative TT within 1 year occurred in 29.3% of placebo eyes vs 17.7%, 19.6%, and 23.2% among the respective fluorometholone groups (P = .29 comparing placebo vs all active treatments combined). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest fluorometholone 0.1% is likely to be safe and efficacious to reduce postoperative TT following TT surgery, and 1 drop twice daily for 4 weeks is the most promising dose. Confirmation in a full-scale clinical trial is needed before programmatic implementation.
Keeffe JE, Casson RJ, Pesudovs K, Taylor HR, Cicinelli MV, Das A, Flaxman SR, Jonas JB, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Silvester AJ, Stevens GA, Tahhan N, Wong TY, Resnikoff S, Bourne RRA, of the of Study VLEGGBD. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in South-east Asia and Oceania in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections. Br J Ophthalmol 2019;103(7):878-884.Abstract
BACKGROUND: To assess prevalence and causes of vision impairment in South-east Asia and Oceania regions from 1990 to 2015 and to forecast the figures for 2020. METHODS: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (PVA) <3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; PVA <6/18 but ≥3/60), mild vision impairment (PVA <6/12 but ≥6/18) and near vision impairment (>N5 or N8 in the presence of normal vision) were estimated for 1990, 2010, 2015 and 2020. RESULTS: The age-standardised prevalence of blindness for all ages and both genders was higher in the Oceania region but lower for MSVI when comparing the subregions. The prevalence of near vision impairment in people≥50 years was 41% (uncertainty interval (UI) 18.8 to 65.9). Comparison of the data for 2015 with 2020 predicts a small increase in the numbers of people affected by blindness, MSVI and mild VI in both subregions. The numbers predicted for near VI in South-east Asia are from 90.68 million in 2015 to 102.88 million in 2020. The main causes of blindness and MSVI in both subregions in 2015 were cataract, uncorrected refractive error, glaucoma, corneal disease and age-related macular degeneration. There was no trachoma in Oceania from 1990 and decreasing prevalence in South-east Asia with elimination predicted by 2020. CONCLUSIONS: In both regions, the main challenges for eye care come from cataract which remains the main cause of blindness with uncorrected refractive error the main cause of MSVI. The trend between 1990 and 2015 is for a lower prevalence of blindness and MSVI in both regions.
Kahloun R, Khairallah M, Resnikoff S, Cicinelli MV, Flaxman SR, Das A, Jonas JB, Keeffe JE, Kempen JH, Leasher J, Limburg H, Naidoo K, Pesudovs K, Silvester AJ, Tahhan N, Taylor HR, Wong TY, Bourne RRA, of the of Study VLEGGBD. Prevalence and causes of vision loss in North Africa and Middle East in 2015: magnitude, temporal trends and projections. Br J Ophthalmol 2019;103(7):863-870.Abstract
BACKGROUND: To assess the prevalence and causes of vision impairment in North Africa and the Middle East (NAME) from 1990 to 2015 and to forecast projections for 2020. METHODS: Based on a systematic review of medical literature, the prevalence of blindness (presenting visual acuity (PVA) <3/60 in the better eye), moderate and severe vision impairment (MSVI; PVA <6/18 but ≥3/60) and mild vision impairment (PVA <6/12 but ≥6/18) was estimated for 2015 and 2020. RESULTS: The age-standardised prevalence of blindness and MSVI for all ages and genders decreased from 1990 to 2015, from 1.72 (0.53-3.13) to 0.95% (0.32%-1.71%), and from 6.66 (3.09-10.69) to 4.62% (2.21%-7.33%), respectively, with slightly higher figures for women than men. Cataract was the most common cause of blindness in 1990 and 2015, followed by uncorrected refractive error. Uncorrected refractive error was the leading cause of MSVI in the NAME region in 1990 and 2015, followed by cataract. A reduction in the proportions of blindness and MSVI due to cataract, corneal opacity and trachoma is predicted by 2020. Conversely, an increase in the proportion of blindness attributable to uncorrected refractive error, glaucoma, age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy is expected. CONCLUSIONS: In 2015 cataract and uncorrected refractive error were the major causes of vision loss in the NAME region. Proportions of vision impairment from cataract, corneal opacity and trachoma are expected to decrease by 2020, and those from uncorrected refractive error, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration are predicted to increase by 2020.
Grob SR, Wolkow N, Jakobiec FA, Lefebvre DR. Osseous cavernous hemangioma of the superior orbital rim. Orbit 2019;38(3):259.Abstract
A 53-year-old male presented with a bony lesion over the superior orbital rim increasing in size over several months. CT imaging showed a circumscribed, osseous lesion involving the outer table of the right frontal bone and superior orbital rim with a honeycomb appearance. Anterior orbitotomy revealed an osseous lesion along the superior orbital rim with purple cavernous spaces. Histopathological examination demonstrated cavernous vascular channels with variably-sized lumens and variably-thickened vascular walls interspersed among bony trabeculae consistent with an osseous cavernous hemangioma.
Li M, Mittal SK, Foulsham W, Amouzegar A, Sahu SK, Chauhan SK. Mast cells contribute to the induction of ocular mucosal alloimmunity. Am J Transplant 2019;19(3):662-673.Abstract
Beyond their historical role as the effector cells in allergic disorders, mast cells have been implicated in regulating both innate and adaptive immune responses. Possessing considerable functional plasticity, mast cells are abundant at mucosal surfaces, where the host and external environments interface. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the contribution of mast cells to allograft rejection at the ocular surface. Using a well-characterized murine model of corneal transplantation, we report that mast cells promote allosensitization. Our data show mast cell frequencies and activation are increased following transplantation. We demonstrate that mast cell inhibition (a) limits the infiltration of inflammatory cells and APC maturation at the graft site; (b) reduces allosensitization and the generation of Th1 cells in draining lymphoid tissues; (c) decreases graft infiltration of alloimmune-inflammatory cells; and (d) prolongs allograft survival. Our data demonstrate a novel function of mast cells in promoting allosensitization at the ocular surface.
Roelofs KA, Starks V, Yoon MK. Orbital Emphysema: A Case Report and Comprehensive Review of the Literature. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2019;35(1):1-6.Abstract
PURPOSE: The objective of this study was to report a case of persistent and likely self-induced orbital emphysema (OE) following functional endoscopic sinus surgery with dislodgement of a previously placed orbital floor implant and to review the literature surrounding etiologies, pathophysiology, and management of OE. METHODS: Case report and review of the literature. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: While blunt trauma resulting in disruption of the medial orbital wall is the most common cause of OE, there are an additional 25 underlying etiologies reported in the current literature. Pathophysiology of OE is somewhat dependent on underlying etiology but often involves a 1-way ball valve mechanism such that air may enter the orbit but not exit. When sufficient air enters the orbit, complications secondary to increased intraorbital pressure, including central retinal artery occlusion and compressive optic neuropathy, can occur. Mild cases of OE are typically observed, with most resolving within 7 to 10 days. Moderate cases are often managed by lateral canthotomy and cantholysis with possible needle decompression. Severe cases may require urgent surgical decompression. While the majority of cases of OE are benign and self-limited, there have been 4 reports in the literature documenting significant vision loss. CONCLUSIONS: Although there is often a history of trauma in patients presenting with OE, many other underlying etiologies have been reported with several cases occurring spontaneously. As such, OE should be included on the differential for a patient presenting with a sudden onset of orbital signs.
Totsuka K, Ueta T, Uchida T, Roggia MF, Nakagawa S, Vavvas DG, Honjo M, Aihara M. Oxidative stress induces ferroptotic cell death in retinal pigment epithelial cells. Exp Eye Res 2019;181:316-324.Abstract
The dysfunction and cell death of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are hallmarks of late-stage dry (atrophic) age-related macular degeneration (AMD), for which no effective therapy has yet been developed. Previous studies have indicated that iron accumulation is a source of excess free radical production in RPE, and age-dependent iron accumulation in RPE is accelerated in patients with dry AMD. Although the pathogenic role of oxidative stress in RPE in the development of dry AMD is widely accepted, the mechanisms of oxidative stress-induced RPE cell death remain elusive. Here, we show that ferroptotic cell death, a mode of regulated necrosis mediated by iron and lipid peroxidation, is implicated in oxidative stress-induced RPE cell death in vitro. In ARPE-19 cells we observed that the ferroptosis inhibitors ferrostatin-1 and deferoxamine (DFO) rescued tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBH)-induced RPE cell death more effectively than inhibitors of apoptosis or necroptosis. tBH-induced RPE cell death was accompanied by the three characteristics of ferroptotic cell death: lipid peroxidation, glutathione depletion, and ferrous iron accumulation, which were all significantly attenuated by ferrostatin-1 and DFO. Exogenous iron overload enhanced tBH-induced RPE cell death, but this effect was also attenuated by ferrostatin-1 and DFO. Furthermore, mRNA levels of numerous genes known to regulate iron metabolism were observed to be influenced by oxidative stress. Taken together, our observations suggest that multiple modes of cell death are involved in oxidative stress-induced RPE cell death, with ferroptosis playing a particularly important role.

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