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Amamoto R, Garcia MD, West ER, Choi J, Lapan SW, Lane EA, Perrimon N, Cepko CL. Probe-Seq enables transcriptional profiling of specific cell types from heterogeneous tissue by RNA-based isolation. Elife 2019;8Abstract
Recent transcriptional profiling technologies are uncovering previously-undefined cell populations and molecular markers at an unprecedented pace. While single cell RNA (scRNA) sequencing is an attractive approach for unbiased transcriptional profiling of all cell types, a complementary method to isolate and sequence specific cell populations from heterogeneous tissue remains challenging. Here, we developed Probe-Seq, which allows deep transcriptional profiling of specific cell types isolated using RNA as the defining feature. Dissociated cells are labeled using fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) for RNA, and then isolated by fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACS). We used Probe-Seq to purify and profile specific cell types from mouse, human, and chick retinas, as well as from midguts. Probe-Seq is compatible with frozen nuclei, making cell types within archival tissue immediately accessible. As it can be multiplexed, combinations of markers can be used to create specificity. Multiplexing also allows for the isolation of multiple cell types from one cell preparation. Probe-Seq should enable RNA profiling of specific cell types from any organism.
Reshef ER, Habib LA, Rao R, Modjtahedi BS, Eliott D, Freitag SK, Reinshagen KL, Lee NG. Clinical and radiographic features of hydrolyzed MIRAgel scleral buckles: A comparative analysis. Clin Imaging 2019;60(1):10-15.Abstract
The MIRAgel (hydrogel) scleral buckle, introduced in the 1980s, was a novel material to repair retinal detachments. It was later discontinued due to the frequency of long-term complications related to buckle hydrolysis and expansion. These complications included pain, limited extraocular motility, and more serious complications such as infection or scleral perforation, which ultimately necessitated surgical extraction as late as 20-30 years after placement. Prompt and proper diagnosis and treatment is often delayed as these buckle-associated complications frequently mimic other orbital pathologies such as tumors or infections. The hydrolyzed MIRAgel buckle exhibits distinct radiographic features that are helpful in arriving at the correct diagnosis, particularly in cases of ambiguous clinical presentation or history. Here, we expand on the previously described radiographic features of hydrolyzed MIRAgel and compare them to features of common, mimicking orbital pathology.
Jonas RA, Ung L, Rajaiya J, Chodosh J. Mystery Eye: Human Adenovirus and the Enigma of Epidemic Keratoconjunctivitis. Prog Retin Eye Res 2019;:100826.Abstract
Known to occur in widespread outbreaks, epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (EKC) is a severe ocular surface infection with a strong historical association with human adenovirus (HAdV). While the conjunctival manifestations can vary from mild follicular conjunctivitis to hyper-acute, exudative conjunctivitis with formation of conjunctival membranes, EKC is distinct as the only form of adenovirus conjunctivitis in which the cornea is also involved, likely due to specific corneal epithelial tropism of its causative viral agents. The initial development of a punctate or geographic epithelial keratitis may herald the later formation of stromal keratitis, and manifest as subepithelial infiltrates which often persist or recur for months to years after the acute infection has resolved. The chronic keratitis in EKC is associated with foreign body sensation, photophobia, glare, and reduced vision. However, over a century since the first clinical descriptions of EKC, and over 60 years since the first causative agent, human adenovirus type 8, was identified, our understanding of this disorder remains limited. This is underscored by a current lack of effective diagnostic tools and treatments. In part, stasis in our knowledge base has been encouraged by the continued acceptance, and indeed propagation of, inaccurate paradigms pertaining to disease etiology and pathogenesis, particularly with regard to mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity within the cornea. Owing to its often persistent and medically refractory visual sequelae, reconsideration of key aspects of EKC disease biology is warranted to identify new treatment targets to curb its worldwide socioeconomic burden.
Pistilli M, Joffe MM, Gangaputra SS, Pujari SS, Jabs DA, Levy-Clarke GA, Nussenblatt RB, Rosenbaum JT, Sen NH, Suhler EB, Thorne JE, Bhatt NP, Foster SC, Begum H, Fitzgerald TD, Dreger KA, Altaweel MM, Holbrook JT, Kempen JH, for Group SITED (SITE) R. Visual Acuity Outcome over Time in Non-Infectious Uveitis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2019;:1-8.Abstract
: We evaluated visual acuity (VA) over 5 years in a subspecialty noninfectious uveitis population.: Retrospective data from 5,530 noninfectious uveitis patients with anterior, intermediate, posterior or panuveitis were abstracted by expert reviewers. Mean VA was calculated using inverse probability of censoring weighting to account for losses to follow-up.: Patients were a median of 41 years old, 65% female, and 73% white. Initial mean VA was worse among panuveitis (20/84) than posterior (20/64), intermediate (20/47), and anterior (20/37) uveitides. On average, mean VA improved by 0.62, 0.51, 0.37, and 0.26 logMAR-equivalent lines over 2 years, respectively (each < .001), then remained stable, except posterior uveitis mean VA worsened to initial levels.: Mean VA of uveitic eyes improved and, typically, improvement was sustained under uveitis subspecialty care. Because VA tends to improve under tertiary care, mean VA change appears a better outcome for clinical studies than time-to-loss of VA.
Elhusseiny AM, Huynh EM, Dagi LR. Evaluation and Management of V pattern Strabismus in Craniosynostosis. J Binocul Vis Ocul Motil 2019;:1-6.Abstract
V pattern strabismus is the most common ocular motor disorder reported in patients with craniosynostosis. Strabismus management may prove challenging, and few studies provide perspective on surgical approach. The purpose of this review is to discuss evaluation and surgical options for treating V pattern strabismus in patients with craniosynostosis. We provide a step-by-step approach to facilitate surgical planning.
Tahvildari M, Dana R. Low-Dose IL-2 Therapy in Transplantation, Autoimmunity, and Inflammatory Diseases. J Immunol 2019;203(11):2749-2755.Abstract
Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a central role in the induction and maintenance of immune homeostasis and self-tolerance. Tregs constantly express the high-affinity receptor to IL-2. IL-2 is a pleiotropic cytokine and a key survival factor for Tregs. It maintains Tregs' suppressive function by promoting Foxp3 expression and subsequent production of immunoregulatory cytokines. Administration of low-dose IL-2 is shown to be a promising approach to prevent allograft rejection and to treat autoimmune and inflammatory conditions in experimental models. The combination of IL-2 with its mAb (JES6-1) has also been shown to increase the of IL-2 and further enhance Treg frequencies and function. Low-dose IL-2 therapy has been used in several clinical trials to treat conditions such as hepatitis C vasculitis, graft-versus-host disease, type 1 diabetes, and systemic lupus erythematosus. In this paper, we summarize our findings on low-dose IL-2 treatment in corneal allografting and review recent studies focusing on the use of low-dose IL-2 in transplantation, autoimmunity, and other inflammatory conditions. We also discuss potential areas of further investigation with the aim to optimize current low-dose IL-2 regimens.
McKay TB, Karamichos D, Hutcheon AEK, Guo X, Zieske JD. Corneal Epithelial-Stromal Fibroblast Constructs to Study Cell-Cell Communication in Vitro. Bioengineering (Basel) 2019;6(4)Abstract
Cell-cell communication plays a fundamental role in mediating corneal wound healing following injury or infection. Depending on the severity of the wound, regeneration of the cornea and the propensity for scar development are influenced by the acute resolution of the pro-fibrotic response mediated by closure of the wound via cellular and tissue contraction. Damage of the corneal epithelium, basement membrane, and anterior stroma following a superficial keratectomy is known to lead to significant provisional matrix deposition, including secretion of fibronectin and thrombospondin-1, as well as development of a corneal scar. In addition, corneal wounding has previously been shown to promote release of extracellular vesicles from the corneal epithelium, which, in addition to soluble factors, may play a role in promoting tissue regeneration. In this study, we report the development and characterization of a co-culture system of human corneal epithelial cells and corneal stromal fibroblasts cultured for 4 weeks to allow extracellular matrix deposition and tissue maturation. The secretion of provisional matrix components, as well as small and large extracellular vesicles, was apparent within the constructs, suggesting cell-cell communication between epithelial and stromal cell populations. Laminin-1β was highly expressed by the corneal epithelial layer with the presence of notable patches of basement membrane identified by transmission electron microscopy. Interestingly, we identified expression of collagen type III, fibronectin, and thrombospondin-1 along the epithelial-stromal interface similar to observations seen in vivo following a keratectomy, as well as expression of the myofibroblast marker, α-smooth muscle actin, within the stroma. Our results suggest that this corneal epithelial-stromal model may be useful in the study of the biochemical phenomena that occur during corneal wound healing.
Bakaeva T, Mallery R, Prasad S. Emerging Treatments for Leber's Hereditary Optic Neuropathy and Other Genetic Causes of Visual Loss. Semin Neurol 2019;39(6):732-738.Abstract
Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) and other genetic causes of visual loss are important clinical entities that can cause profound visual loss. To date, therapeutic options have been quite limited, but insights into the genetic basis of these diseases and advances in the ability to deliver effective and safe gene therapy have opened the door for new therapeutics that may revolutionize the approach to treating these conditions. This article reviews emerging gene therapies of LHON and other inherited ophthalmological diseases, addressing the technical, clinical, and ethical challenges that researchers and clinicians will encounter as new treatments become available for these conditions.
Gaier ED, Heidary G. Pediatric Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension. Semin Neurol 2019;39(6):704-710.Abstract
The presentation of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) in pediatric populations has several important distinctions from that in adults, especially among prepubertal patients, in which there is no apparent association with gender or obesity. Pediatric patients are more likely to be asymptomatic or present with atypical symptoms than their adult counterparts, posing a diagnostic challenge in some cases. It is important to be aware of the ways in which diagnostic criteria for IIH are modified from that of adults. Ideal treatment practices and the natural history of pediatric IIH remain unclear. Acetazolamide is the mainstay of medical treatment, but some patients with significant visual loss may require surgical intervention. Multicenter studies to accrue a large number of cases and future prospective studies will help to better define pediatric IIH and to formulate consensus guidelines for treatment and management of these patients.
Ung L, Bispo PJM, Bryan NC, Andre C, Chodosh J, Gilmore MS. The Best of All Worlds: Conjunctivitis through the Lens of Community Ecology and Microbial Biogeography. Microorganisms 2019;8(1)Abstract
The study of the forces which govern the geographical distributions of life is known as biogeography, a subject which has fascinated zoologists, botanists and ecologists for centuries. Advances in our understanding of community ecology and biogeography-supported by rapid improvements in next generation sequencing technology-have now made it possible to identify and explain where and why life exists as it does, including within the microbial world. In this review, we highlight how a unified model of microbial biogeography, one which incorporates the classic ecological principles of selection, diversification, dispersion and ecological drift, can be used to explain community dynamics in the settings of both health and disease. These concepts operate on a multiplicity of temporal and spatial scales, and together form a powerful lens through which to study microbial population structures even at the finest anatomical resolutions. When applied specifically to curious strains of conjunctivitis-causing, nonencapsulated , we show how this conceptual framework can be used to explain the possible evolutionary and disease-causing mechanisms which allowed these lineages to colonize and invade a separate biogeography. An intimate knowledge of this radical bifurcation in phylogeny, still the only known niche subspecialization for to date, is critical to understanding the pathogenesis of ocular surface infections, nature of host-pathogen interactions, and developing strategies to curb disease transmission.
Rosenbaum JT, Bodaghi B, Couto C, Zierhut M, Acharya N, Pavesio C, Tay-Kearney M-L, Neri P, Douglas K, Pathai S, Song AP, Kron M, Foster SC. New observations and emerging ideas in diagnosis and management of non-infectious uveitis: A review. Semin Arthritis Rheum 2019;49(3):438-445.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Non-infectious uveitis (NIU) is an immune-mediated disease with clinical symptoms such as eye pain, redness, floaters, and light sensitivity. NIU is one of the leading causes of preventable blindness. OBJECTIVE: This review describes current and emerging therapies for NIU. METHODS: PubMed searches were conducted using the terms uveitis, therapy, corticosteroids, immunomodulators, biologics, intravitreal injections, intraocular implants, and adverse events deemed relevant if they presented data relating to prevalence, diagnosis, and treatment of uveitis. RESULTS: Diagnosis and management of NIU may require collaboration among different healthcare providers, including ophthalmologists and rheumatologists. Although many patients with NIU respond to corticosteroid (CS) therapy, long-term CS use can be associated with potentially severe adverse events. Localized CS therapies have been developed to reduce adverse events; however, some intravitreal injections and intraocular implants were linked to elevated intraocular pressure and cataracts. CS-sparing therapies such as biologics have demonstrated efficacy and safety while reducing CS burden. Biologics targeting tumor necrosis factor provide CS-sparing options for patients with NIU. Additional studies are needed to address long-term efficacy and safety of biologics targeting IL-6 and inhibitors of JAK/STAT. CONCLUSION: Biologics, JAK/STAT inhibitors, and improved localized therapies may provide additional options for patients with NIU.

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