Lack of Correlation between Number of Antiretinal Antibodies and Clinical Outcome Measures in Autoimmune Retinopathy Patients. Ophthalmol Retina 2019;3(11):1007-1009..
Resistance to autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease in an APOE3 Christchurch homozygote: a case report. Nat Med 2019;25(11):1680-1683.Abstract.
We identified a PSEN1 (presenilin 1) mutation carrier from the world's largest autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease kindred, who did not develop mild cognitive impairment until her seventies, three decades after the expected age of clinical onset. The individual had two copies of the APOE3 Christchurch (R136S) mutation, unusually high brain amyloid levels and limited tau and neurodegenerative measurements. Our findings have implications for the role of APOE in the pathogenesis, treatment and prevention of Alzheimer's disease.
Anomalous superior oblique muscles and tendons in congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles. J AAPOS 2019;23(6):325.e1-325.e6.Abstract.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the finding of anomalous superior oblique muscles in congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles (CFEOM), a feature not previously emphasized in this condition. METHODS: The medical records of all patients clinically or genetically diagnosed with CFEOM at Boston Children's Hospital between 2010 and 2018 were reviewed retrospectively. Those who underwent strabismus surgery during the study period were included in the analysis. Baseline patient characteristics, type of CFEOM, results of genetic testing, and intraoperative features of the superior oblique muscle or tendon were recorded. RESULTS: Of 24 patients identified (age range, 1 month to 62 years), 10 (42%) had genetically confirmed CFEOM, and 22 underwent strabismus surgery, 14 (64%) involving the superior oblique muscle. Of these, 7 (50%) had anomalously inserted tendons (most commonly attached nasal to the superior rectus muscle), whereas 7 (50%) had increased superior oblique muscle tension. CONCLUSIONS: Half of CFEOM patients who underwent superior oblique surgery had abnormally inserted superior oblique tendons, and 50% had tight muscles or abnormally thin tendons, findings that have not been well-characterized in this condition. The findings suggest that abnormal insertion of the superior oblique muscles and tendons are additional features of the disease process in CFEOM that have not been described previously. These features may contribute to the severe upgaze limitation in CFEOM and highlight the importance of superior oblique tenotomy in surgical management.
The Story: Characterization and Cloning of the First Tumor Suppressor Gene. Genes (Basel) 2019;10(11)Abstract.
The gene is the first described human tumor suppressor gene and plays an integral role in the development of retinoblastoma, a pediatric malignancy of the eye. Since its discovery, the stepwise characterization and cloning of have laid the foundation for numerous advances in the understanding of tumor suppressor genes, retinoblastoma tumorigenesis, and inheritance. Knowledge of led to a paradigm shift in the field of cancer genetics, including widespread acceptance of the concept of tumor suppressor genes, and has provided crucial diagnostic and prognostic information through genetic testing for patients affected by retinoblastoma. This article reviews the long history of gene research, characterization, and cloning, and also discusses recent advances in retinoblastoma genetics that have grown out of this foundational work.
Authors' Response. Optom Vis Sci 2019;96(11):892..
Spatiotemporal changes in the human lens proteome: Critical insights into long-lived proteins. Prog Retin Eye Res 2019;:100802.Abstract.
The ocular lens is a unique tissue that contains an age gradient of cells and proteins ranging from newly differentiated cells containing newly synthesized proteins to cells and proteins that are as old as the organism. Thus, the ocular lens is an excellent model for studying long-lived proteins (LLPs) and the effects of aging and post-translational modifications on protein structure and function. Given the architecture of the lens, with young fiber cells in the outer cortex and the oldest cells in the lens nucleus, spatially-resolved studies provide information on age-specific protein changes. In this review, experimental strategies and proteomic methods that have been used to examine age-related and cataract-specific changes to the human lens proteome are described. Measured spatio-temporal changes in the human lens proteome are summarized and reveal a highly consistent, time-dependent set of modifications observed in transparent human lenses. Such measurements have led to the discovery of cataract-specific modifications and the realization that many animal systems are unsuitable to study many of these modifications. Mechanisms of protein modifications such as deamidation, racemization, truncation, and protein-protein crosslinking are presented and the implications of such mechanisms for other long-lived proteins in other tissues are discussed in the context of age-related neurological diseases. A comprehensive understanding of LLP modifications will enhance our ability to develop new therapies for the delay, prevention or reversal of age-related diseases.
An Alternative Psychophysical Diagnostic Indicator of the Aging Eye. J Ophthalmol 2019;2019:2036192.Abstract.
Purpose: Impaired adaptation to changes in lighting levels as well as mesopic visual function is a common complaint in those over the age of 65. The use of photostress is a well-established method to test the adaption rate and the response of the visual cycle. In this study, we test visual function recovery to mesopic luminance stimuli following a long duration photostress in young and elderly subjects. If successful in strongly differentiating aging macular function, these methods may also be useful in the study of pathologies such as age-related macular degeneration. Methods: A group of 12 older normal subjects (mean age 75.1 ± 4.79) and a control group of 5 younger normal subjects (mean age 26.2 ± 4.19) were subjected to macular photostress using the OraLux photostress system. The OraLux system provides a diffuse light source bleaching 84% of cone photopigment while maintaining an exposure safety factor of 200 times less than the maximum safe exposure. After each photostressing session, macular recovery was tracked using a foveal, variable contrast, flickering stimulus of mean luminance in the high mesopic range. Recovery was tracked for 300 seconds. The endpoint was time to recovery to each individual's baseline sensitivity as determined by two static sensitivity trials prior to photostress. Results: Proportional hazards analysis of recovery time yielded a statistically significant difference between the older group and the young group (HR = 0.181; =0.0289). The estimated hazard ratio of 0.181 indicates that older subjects return to baseline at less than one-fifth the rate of younger subjects. The hazards ratio remained statistically significant after adjusting for visual acuity (HR = 0.093; =0.0424). Conclusion: Photostress recovery of flicker sensitivity under mesopic conditions is a strong differentiator of aging macular function. This agrees with subject-reported complaints in reduced luminance conditions after exposure to bright lights such as night driving. The qualitative similarity between the aging retina and changes in early AMD suggests that flicker recovery following photostress may be useful as a surrogate endpoint in AMD clinical trials.
Diagnostic Test Efficacy of Meibomian Gland Morphology and Function. Sci Rep 2019;9(1):17345.Abstract.
Meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) is the leading cause of dry eye and proposed treatments are based on disease severity. Our purpose was to establish reliable morphologic measurements of meibomian glands for evaluating MGD severity. This retrospective, cross-sectional study included 100 MGD patients and 20 controls. The patients were classified into dry eye severity level (DESL) 1-4 based on symptoms and clinical parameters including tear-film breakup time, ocular staining and Schirmer I. The gland loss, length, thickness, density and distortion were analyzed. We compared the morphology between patients and controls; examined their correlations to meibum expressibility, quality, and DESL. Relative to controls, the gland thickness, density and distortion were elevated in patients (p < 0.001 for all tests). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.98 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.96-1.0) for gland loss, and 0.96 (CI 0.91-1.0) for gland distortion, with a cutoff value of six distorted glands yielding a sensitivity of 93% and specificity of 97% for MGD diagnosis. The gland distortion was negatively correlated to the meibum expressibility (r = -0.53; p < 0.001) and DESL (r = -0.22, p = 0.018). In conclusion, evaluation of meibomian gland loss and distortion are valuable complementary clinical parameters to assess MGD status.
Characteristics and Risk Factors Associated With Diagnosed and Undiagnosed Symptomatic Dry Eye Using a Smartphone Application. JAMA Ophthalmol 2019;Abstract.
Importance: The incidence of dry eye disease has increased; the potential for crowdsource data to help identify undiagnosed dry eye in symptomatic individuals remains unknown. Objective: To assess the characteristics and risk factors associated with diagnosed and undiagnosed symptomatic dry eye using the smartphone app DryEyeRhythm. Design, Setting, and Participants: A cross-sectional study using crowdsourced data was conducted including individuals in Japan who downloaded DryEyeRhythm and completed the entire questionnaire; duplicate users were excluded. DryEyeRhythm was released on November 2, 2016; the study was conducted from November 2, 2016, to January 12, 2018. Exposures: DryEyeRhythm data were collected on demographics, medical history, lifestyle, subjective symptoms, and disease-specific symptoms, using the Ocular Surface Disease Index (100-point scale; scores 0-12 indicate normal, healthy eyes; 13-22, mild dry eye; 23-32, moderate dry eye; 33-100, severe dry eye symptoms), and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale (total of 20 items, total score ranging from 20-80, with ≥40 highly suggestive of depression). Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariate-adjusted logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors for symptomatic dry eye and to identify risk factors for undiagnosed symptomatic dry eye. Results: A total of 21 394 records were identified in our database; 4454 users, included 899 participants (27.3%) with diagnosed and 2395 participants (72.7%) with undiagnosed symptomatic dry eye, completed all questionnaires and their data were analyzed. A total of 2972 participants (66.7%) were women; mean (SD) age was 27.9 (12.6) years. The identified risk factors for symptomatic vs no symptomatic dry eye included younger age (odds ratio [OR], 0.99; 95% CI, 0.987-0.999, P = .02), female sex (OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.61-2.46; P < .001), pollinosis (termed hay fever on the questionnaire) (OR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.18-1.55; P < .001), depression (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.18-2.69; P = .006), mental illnesses other than depression or schizophrenia (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.24-2.82; P = .003), current contact lens use (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.09-1.48; P = .002), extended screen exposure (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.25-1.91; P < .001), and smoking (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.37-1.98; P < .001). The risk factors for undiagnosed vs diagnosed symptomatic dry eye included younger age (OR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.95-0.97; P < .001), male sex (OR, 0.55; 95% CI, 0.42-0.72; P < .001), as well as absence of collagen disease (OR, 95% CI, 0.23; 0.09-0.60; P = .003), mental illnesses other than depression or schizophrenia (OR, 0.50; 95% CI, 0.36-0.69; P < .001), ophthalmic surgery other than cataract surgery and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.27-0.64; P < .001), and current (OR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.54-0.77; P < .001) or past (OR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.34-0.58; P < .001) contact lens use. Conclusions and Relevance: This study's findings suggest that crowdsourced research identified individuals with diagnosed and undiagnosed symptomatic dry eye and the associated risk factors. These findings could play a role in earlier prevention or more effective interventions for dry eye disease.
Vision Parameters Most Important to Functionality in Glaucoma. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2019;60(14):4556-4563.Abstract.
Purpose: To determine the importance of various vision parameters to functionality in glaucoma. Methods: Vision was measured using seven parameters: visual acuity (VA), contrast sensitivity (CS), integrated visual field (IVF), area under the log CS function (AULCSF), color vision, stereoacuity, and VA with noise (ViN). Likelihood ratio testing (LRT) determined if the full set of visual parameters significantly explained variability in 10 functional outcomes. For outcomes where the visual contribution was significant, dominance analysis determined the relative importance of the various visual parameters. Results: The analysis included 151 glaucoma patients. Mean age was 70 ± 6.8 years, and 47% were men. Significant visual contributions (LRT P < 0.05) were noted for glaucoma quality of life (GQL-15), reading speed, driving cessation, daily steps, and base of support while walking, but not for fear of falling, balance, gait velocity, stride velocity, and stride length while walking (LRT P > 0.05). The most important parameter (and percent contribution) to vision-explained variability were AULCSF for daily steps (45%), IVF for base of support (35%), VA for reading speed (34%), CS for GQL-15 (30%), and VA for driving cessation (26%). Conclusions: Measures of visual ability are important for several aspects of quality of life and functionality. The most important vision parameter for functionality differs depending on the domain studied. Reading and driving were explained by VA and IVF sensitivity. On the other hand, GQL-15 and daily steps were more heavily influenced by CS and AULCSF, which are rarely performed clinically.
Defocus curves of 4 presbyopia-correcting IOL designs: Diffractive panfocal, diffractive trifocal, segmental refractive, and extended-depth-of-focus. J Cataract Refract Surg 2019;45(11):1625-1636.Abstract.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the defocus curves of 4 presbyopia-correcting intraocular lenses (IOLs). SETTING: Department of Ophthalmology, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: Patients included in the study had bilateral surgery with implantation of diffractive panfocal, diffractive trifocal, segmental refractive (SegRef), or extended-depth-of-focus (EDOF) presbyopia-correcting IOLs. The uncorrected (UDVA) and corrected (CDVA) distance visual acuities, uncorrected intermediate and near visual acuities, distance-corrected intermediate (DCIVA) and near (DCNVA) visual acuities, defocus curve, and spectacle independence were measured. RESULTS: The UDVA and CDVA were not significantly different between groups (P > .05); however, the EDOF group had worse near CDVA (P < .001). The trifocal and EDOF groups showed better DCIVA than the panfocal and SegRef group at 80 cm (P < .001); the EDOF and panfocal groups had comparable DCIVA at 60 cm (P > .05). Defocus curves showed no significant between-group differences from 4 m to 2 m (P > .05). The EDOF group had better visual acuity from 1 m to 67 cm than the trifocal and SegRef groups and better visual acuity than the panfocal group at 1 m (P > .05). Compared with the other IOLs, the panfocal IOL yielded significantly better visual acuity at 50 cm (P < .001) and the EDOF IOL worse visual acuity at 40 cm (P < .01). There was a significant difference in spectacle independence between the panfocal group and EDOF group (P < .05) but no difference between the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: The 4 IOLs provided equally good CDVA. The EDOF IOL yielded slightly better DCIVA but worse DCNVA than the other IOLs. Only the panfocal IOL gave better DCIVA at 50 cm.
Individual Risk Prediction for Sight-Threatening Retinopathy of Prematurity Using Birth Characteristics. JAMA Ophthalmol 2019;:1-9.Abstract.
Importance: To prevent blindness, repeated infant eye examinations are performed to detect severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), yet only a small fraction of those screened need treatment. Early individual risk stratification would improve screening timing and efficiency and potentially reduce the risk of blindness. Objectives: To create and validate an easy-to-use prediction model using only birth characteristics and to describe a continuous hazard function for ROP treatment. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this retrospective cohort study, Swedish National Patient Registry data from infants screened for ROP (born between January 1, 2007, and August 7, 2018) were analyzed with Poisson regression for time-varying data (postnatal age, gestational age [GA], sex, birth weight, and important interactions) to develop an individualized predictive model for ROP treatment (called DIGIROP-Birth [Digital ROP]). The model was validated internally and externally (in US and European cohorts) and compared with 4 published prediction models. Main Outcomes and Measures: The study outcome was ROP treatment. The measures were estimated momentary and cumulative risks, hazard ratios with 95% CIs, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (hereinafter referred to as AUC), sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Results: Among 7609 infants (54.6% boys; mean [SD] GA, 28.1 [2.1] weeks; mean [SD] birth weight, 1119  g), 442 (5.8%) were treated for ROP, including 142 (40.1%) treated of 354 born at less than 24 gestational weeks. Irrespective of GA, the risk for receiving ROP treatment increased during postnatal weeks 8 through 12 and decreased thereafter. Validations of DIGIROP-Birth for 24 to 30 weeks' GA showed high predictive ability for the model overall (AUC, 0.90 [95% CI, 0.89-0.92] for internal validation, 0.94 [95% CI, 0.90-0.98] for temporal validation, 0.87 [95% CI, 0.84-0.89] for US external validation, and 0.90 [95% CI, 0.85-0.95] for European external validation) by calendar periods and by race/ethnicity. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were numerically at least as high as those obtained from CHOP-ROP (Children's Hospital of Philadelphia-ROP), OMA-ROP (Omaha-ROP), WINROP (weight, insulinlike growth factor 1, neonatal, ROP), and CO-ROP (Colorado-ROP), models requiring more complex postnatal data. Conclusions and Relevance: This study validated an individualized prediction model for infants born at 24 to 30 weeks' GA, enabling early risk prediction of ROP treatment based on birth characteristics data. Postnatal age rather than postmenstrual age was a better predictive variable for the temporal risk of ROP treatment. The model is an accessible online application that appears to be generalizable and to have at least as good test statistics as other models requiring longitudinal neonatal data not always readily available to ophthalmologists.
C-Fiber Assays in the Cornea vs. Skin. Brain Sci 2019;9(11)Abstract.
C-fibers are unmyelinated nerve fibers that transmit high threshold mechanical, thermal, and chemical signals that are associated with pain sensations. This review examines current literature on measuring altered peripheral nerve morphology and discusses the most relevant aspects of corneal microscopy, especially whether corneal imaging presents significant method advantages over skin biopsy. Given its relative merits, corneal confocal microscopy would seem to be a more practical and patient-centric approach than utilizing skin biopsies.
Iontophoretic Dexamethasone Phosphate Compared to Topical Prednisolone Acetate 1% for Noninfectious Anterior Segment Uveitis. Am J Ophthalmol 2019;Abstract.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the safety and efficacy of dexamethasone phosphate ophthalmic solution (EGP-437) delivered by transscleral iontophoresis using the EyeGate® II Drug Delivery System, compared to topical prednisolone acetate 1% (PA 1%), in subjects with noninfectious anterior uveitis. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double-masked, parallel-group, non-inferiority clinical trial METHODS: A total of 193 subjects with active noninfectious anterior uveitis (anterior chamber [AC] cell count ≥11 cells) were randomized to EGP-437 delivered via iontophoresis (Days 0 and 7) or self-administered PA 1% daily (tapered schedule, Days 0-28). Masking was maintained with placebo iontophoresis/eyedrops. The primary efficacy endpoint was the proportion of subjects with an AC cell count of zero on Day 14; noninferiority of EGP-437 was defined if the lower limit of the confidence interval for the difference (EGP-437 minus PA 1%) was less than -10%. RESULTS: At Day 14, 32/96 (33.3%) EGP-437 subjects and 32/97 (33.0%) PA 1% subjects had an AC cell count of zero (difference [95% confidence interval], 0.34 [-12.94, 13.63]; P=0.064). Efficacy trended better with EGP-437 among patients with more severe baseline uveitis (AC cell count >25). Safety and tolerability were good with both treatments. EGP-437 subjects experienced fewer IOP elevations ≥6 mm Hg versus PA 1% subjects (13 vs 24 incidents through Day 28). CONCLUSIONS: Despite clinically similar response rates, statistical noninferiority of EGP-437 versus a tapered regimen of PA 1% was not achieved. Numerical trends suggesting fewer IOP elevations with EGP-437, similar efficacy overall, and possibly better efficacy in more severe disease warrant further study.
PD-1 melanocortin receptor dependent-Treg cells prevent autoimmune disease. Sci Rep 2019;9(1):16941.Abstract.
Experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU) is a mouse model of human autoimmune uveitis marked by ocular autoantigen-specific regulatory immunity in the spleen. The melanocortin 5 receptor (MC5r) and adenosine 2 A receptor (A2Ar) are required for induction of post-EAU regulatory T cells (Tregs) which provide resistance to EAU. We show that blocking the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway prevented suppression of EAU by post-EAU Tregs. A2Ar induction of PD-1FoxP3 Tregs in uveitis patients was similar compared to healthy controls, but was significantly reduced with melanocortin stimulation. Further, lower body mass index correlated with responsiveness to stimulation of this pathway. These observations indicate an importance of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway to provide resistance to relapsing uveitis and shows a reduced capacity of uveitis patients to induce Tregs when stimulated through melanocortin receptors, but that it is possible to bypass this part of the pathway through direct stimulation of A2Ar.