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Ross AE, Bengani LC, Tulsan R, Maidana DE, Salvador-Culla B, Kobashi H, Kolovou PE, Zhai H, Taghizadeh K, Kuang L, Mehta M, Vavvas DG, Kohane DS, Ciolino JB. Topical sustained drug delivery to the retina with a drug-eluting contact lens. Biomaterials 2019;217:119285.Abstract
Intravitreal injections and implants are used to deliver drugs to the retina because therapeutic levels of these medications cannot be provided by topical administration (i.e. eye drops). In order to reach the retina, a topically applied drug encounters tear dilution, reflex blinking, and rapid fluid drainage that collectively reduce the drug's residence time on the ocular surface. Residing under the tears, the cornea is the primary gateway into the eye for many topical ophthalmic drugs. We hypothesized that a drug-eluting contact lens that rests on the cornea would therefore be well-suited for delivering drugs to the eye including the retina. We developed a contact lens based dexamethasone delivery system (Dex-DS) that achieved sustained drug delivery to the retina at therapeutic levels. Dex-DS consists of a dexamethasone-polymer film encapsulated inside a contact lens. Rabbits wearing Dex-DS achieved retinal drug concentrations that were 200 times greater than those from intensive (hourly) dexamethasone drops. Conversely, Dex-DS demonstrated lower systemic (blood serum) dexamethasone concentrations. In an efficacy study in rabbits, Dex-DS successfully inhibited retinal vascular leakage induced by intravitreal injection of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Dex-DS was found to be safe in a four-week repeated dose biocompatibility study in healthy rabbits.
Kran BS, Lawrence L, Mayer LD, Heidary G. Cerebral/Cortical Visual Impairment: A Need to Reassess Current Definitions of Visual Impairment and Blindness. Semin Pediatr Neurol 2019;31:25-29.Abstract
Cerebral/cortical visual impairment (CVI) is characterized by higher order visual dysfunction caused by injury to the retrogeniculate visual pathways and brain structures which subserve visual processing. CVI has become the leading cause of significant vision loss in children in developed countries, but continues to be an under-recognized cause of visual disability with respect to services aimed at maximizing visual development. Current criteria which are used to define visual disability rely on measures of visual acuity and visual field. Many children who require specialized vision services do not qualify, because these standard definitions of vision impairment do not account for CVI. In order to appropriately identify patients with CVI and offer the resources which may positively impact functional use of vision, the definition of visual impairment and blindness needs to be modified. This commentary calls for a change in the definition of visual impairment and blindness to acknowledge those persons with brain-based vision impairment.
Rong AJ, Fan KC, Golshani B, Bobinski M, McGahan JP, Eliott D, Morse LS, Modjtahedi BS. Multimodal imaging features of intraocular foreign bodies. Semin Ophthalmol 2019;:1-15.Abstract
: To determine the imaging approach for evaluating intraocular foreign bodies (IOFBs) by comparing the ability of different modalities [plain film x-ray, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonsance imaging (MRI), convetional ultrasound, and ultrasound biomicroscopy] to detect and characterize IOFBs. : Systematic review of the literature. : CT is the most practical first step for evaluating patients with suspected IOFBs because it can detect a wide range of IOFB types at small limitis of detection. MRI and ultrasound are best reserved as adjunctive tests in most cases although these tests may provide important insights especially with wood, plastic, and glass IOFBs. Imaging characteristics of metal, wood, glass, plastic, stone, concrete, and graphite IOFBs are reviewed. : Understanding the limits of detection for each IOFB type and imaging modality as well as the characteristic features of different IOFBs is of paramount importance to optimizing the management of ocular trauma patients.
VanderVeen DK, Cataltepe SU. Anti-vascular endothelial growth factor intravitreal therapy for retinopathy of prematurity. Semin Perinatol 2019;43(6):375-380.Abstract
Retinopathy of prematurity treatment modalities have expanded over the years, from cryotherapy to laser therapy and now, anti-vascular endothelial factor (VEGF) therapy by intravitreal injection. Use of anti-VEGF treatment varies regionally and depends on multiple factors including severity and progression of ROP, availability of alternative treatments, experience of the local ophthalmologists, medical status of the infant, and expectations for long-term follow-up. While the advantages and disadvantages of anti-VEGF intravitreal treatment on the eye are relatively well-described, few studies provide information about potential long-term systemic effects of this treatment, which is known to transiently reduce systemic VEGF concentrations.
Saeedi OJ, Elze T, D'Acunto L, Swamy R, Hegde V, Gupta S, Venjara A, Tsai J, Myers JS, Wellik SR, De Moraes CG, Pasquale L, Shen LQ, Boland MV. Reply. Ophthalmology 2019;126(10):e78-e79.
Miller JW. Developing Therapies for Age-related Macular Degeneration: The Art and Science of Problem-solving: The 2018 Charles L. Schepens, MD, Lecture. Ophthalmol Retina 2019;3(10):900-909.Abstract
PURPOSE: To review the roles of analytic and innovative thought in advancing knowledge, using past examples in ophthalmology, and to explore potential strategies to improve our understanding of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and develop new therapies. DESIGN: Presented as the 2018 Charles L. Schepens, MD, Lecture at the American Academy of Ophthalmology Retina Subspecialty Day, Chicago, Illinois, on October 26, 2018. PARTICIPANTS: None. METHODS: Review of published literature and sources on creativity and innovation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Recommendations for future AMD research. RESULTS: Innovative solutions to problems often seem intuitively obvious in hindsight. Yet, some problems seem impossible to solve. In the 1990s, AMD was a significant unmet need, with only destructive therapies for neovascular disease. This changed with the development of 2 therapies: (1) verteporfin photodynamic therapy (PDT) and (2) anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapies, which are now administered to millions of people annually around the world. Now, we are frustrated by the lack of therapies for early and intermediate AMD and geographic atrophy. Photodynamic therapy and anti-VEGF drug development occurred through a combination of analytic thought and creative disruption through innovation. To get past our current impasse in understanding and treating AMD, we need to harness both analysis and innovation. We have many important building blocks in place-information on genetics, clinical findings, imaging, and histology-and have identified key pathways and potential therapeutic targets. Perhaps we need additional investigation, analysis, and integration to improve our understanding through work on structure/function and genotype/phenotype correlations and development of imaging and systemic biomarkers. We likely also need an innovative disruption. This innovation might be the concept that there are subtypes of early and intermediate AMD characterized by specific clinical phenotypes, genotype, functional characteristics, and biomarkers that are dependent on particular pathways and treatable with a specific agent. We need to encourage innovation in each of us within our research and clinical community. CONCLUSIONS: Although we have accumulated extensive knowledge about AMD, we are currently at an impasse in the development of new treatments. We need to continue the analytic process, but at the same time encourage innovative disruption to develop successful AMD therapies.
Antar H, Tsikata E, Ratanawongphaibul K, Zhang J, Shieh E, Lee R, Freeman M, Papadogeorgou G, Simavli H, Que C, Verticchio Vercellin AC, Khoueir Z, de Boer JF, Chen TC. Analysis of Neuroretinal Rim by Age, Race, and Sex Using High-Density 3-Dimensional Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography. J Glaucoma 2019;28(11):979-988.Abstract
PRéCIS:: Neuroretinal rim minimum distance band (MDB) thickness is significantly lower in older subjects and African Americans compared with whites. It is similar in both sexes. PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between age, race, and sex with the neuroretinal rim using high-density spectral-domain optical coherence tomography optic nerve volume scans of normal eyes. METHODS: A total of 256 normal subjects underwent Spectralis spectral-domain optical coherence tomography optic nerve head volume scans. One eye was randomly selected and analyzed for each subject. Using custom-designed software, the neuroretinal rim MDB thickness was calculated from volume scans, and global and quadrant neuroretinal rim thickness values were determined. The MDB is a 3-dimensional neuroretinal rim band comprised of the shortest distance between the internal limiting membrane and the termination of the retinal pigment epithelium/Bruch's membrane complex. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to determine the associations of age, race, and sex with neuroretinal rim MDB measurements. RESULTS: The population was 57% female and 69% white with a mean age of 58.4±15.3 years. The mean MDB thickness in the normal population was 278.4±47.5 µm. For this normal population, MDB thickness decreased by 0.84 µm annually (P<0.001). African Americans had thinner MDBs compared with whites (P=0.003). Males and females had similar MDB thickness values (P=0.349). CONCLUSION: Neuroretinal rim MDB thickness measurements decreased significantly with age. African Americans had thinner MDB neuroretinal rims than whites.
McKay TB, Priyadarsini S, Karamichos D. Mechanisms of Collagen Crosslinking in Diabetes and Keratoconus. Cells 2019;8(10)Abstract
Collagen crosslinking provides the mechanical strength required for physiological maintenance of the extracellular matrix in most tissues in the human body, including the cornea. Aging and diabetes mellitus (DM) are processes that are both associated with increased collagen crosslinking that leads to increased corneal rigidity. By contrast, keratoconus (KC) is a corneal thinning disease associated with decreased mechanical stiffness leading to ectasia of the central cornea. Studies have suggested that crosslinking mediated by reactive advanced glycation end products during DM may protect the cornea from KC development. Parallel to this hypothesis, riboflavin-mediated photoreactive corneal crosslinking has been proposed as a therapeutic option to halt the progression of corneal thinning by inducing intra- and intermolecular crosslink formation within the collagen fibrils of the stroma, leading to stabilization of the disease. Here, we review the pathobiology of DM and KC in the context of corneal structure, the epidemiology behind the inverse correlation of DM and KC development, and the chemical mechanisms of lysyl oxidase-mediated crosslinking, advanced glycation end product-mediated crosslinking, and photoreactive riboflavin-mediated corneal crosslinking. The goal of this review is to define the biological and chemical pathways important in physiological and pathological processes related to collagen crosslinking in DM and KC.
Kruszka P, Hu T, Hong S, Signer R, Cogné B, Isidor B, Mazzola SE, Giltay JC, van Gassen KLI, England EM, Pais L, Ockeloen CW, Sanchez-Lara PA, Kinning E, Adams DJ, Treat K, Torres-Martinez W, Bedeschi MF, Iascone M, Blaney S, Bell O, Tan TY, Delrue M-A, Jurgens J, Barry BJ, Engle EC, Savage SK, Fleischer N, Martinez-Agosto JA, Boycott K, Zackai EH, Muenke M. Phenotype delineation of ZNF462 related syndrome. Am J Med Genet A 2019;179(10):2075-2082.Abstract
Zinc finger protein 462 (ZNF462) is a relatively newly discovered vertebrate specific protein with known critical roles in embryonic development in animal models. Two case reports and a case series study have described the phenotype of 10 individuals with ZNF462 loss of function variants. Herein, we present 14 new individuals with loss of function variants to the previous studies to delineate the syndrome of loss of function in ZNF462. Collectively, these 24 individuals present with recurring phenotypes that define a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome. Most have some form of developmental delay (79%) and a minority has autism spectrum disorder (33%). Characteristic facial features include ptosis (83%), down slanting palpebral fissures (58%), exaggerated Cupid's bow/wide philtrum (54%), and arched eyebrows (50%). Metopic ridging or craniosynostosis was found in a third of study participants and feeding problems in half. Other phenotype characteristics include dysgenesis of the corpus callosum in 25% of individuals, hypotonia in half, and structural heart defects in 21%. Using facial analysis technology, a computer algorithm applying deep learning was able to accurately differentiate individuals with ZNF462 loss of function variants from individuals with Noonan syndrome and healthy controls. In summary, we describe a multiple congenital anomaly syndrome associated with haploinsufficiency of ZNF462 that has distinct clinical characteristics and facial features.
Ing E, Pagnoux C, Torun N. Advances in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2019;30(6):407-411.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize recent advances in the diagnosis of giant cell arteritis (GCA). RECENT FINDINGS: Less common manifestations of GCA include corneal edema, proptosis from lacrimal gland ischemia and sensorineuronal hearing loss. Histology studies have suggested that temporal artery biopsies (TAB) with fixed specimen lengths of 15 mm may be adequate to prevent false negative biopsies. In centers with appropriate radiologic expertise, a European rheumatology consensus guideline has proposed Doppler ultrasound as a first-line confirmatory test for GCA in lieu of temporal artery biopsy. Finding extracranial large vessel disease can help to diagnose GCA. Statistical prediction rules can help risk stratify patients with suspected GCA. Age and platelet level when maintained as continuous variables are the strongest predictors for GCA. SUMMARY: GCA can present with diverse ophthalmic and systemic presentations and expedient recognition of same can avoid diagnostic delay and possible vision loss, among other complications. TAB remains the conventional diagnostic standard test for GCA. The use of statistical prediction models and increased expertise in noninvasive imaging techniques such as ultrasound may decrease reliance on TAB, especially in patients determined to be at low risk for GCA.
Kumar V. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Cross-Talk in Neurodegenerative and Eye Diseases. Neurology (ECronicon) 2019;11(9):864-873.Abstract
Neurodegenerative diseases demonstrate the progressive decline of brain functions resulting in a significant deterioration in the quality of patient's life. With increasing life expectancy, there has been a significant increase in the incidence of these diseases. Neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are devastating and afflicts a large world population. Eye, given the similar neural and vascular similarity to the brain, demonstrates many pathological hallmarks of some of these neurological diseases. Moreover, these diseases create an economic and social burden to society. Despite tremendous efforts made in the drug discovery, there is no cure for these fatal diseases. Thus, there is an unmet need to understand cellular and molecular pathophysiology of these diseases. All these diseases demonstrate damage to a large number of seemingly disparate cellular processes and functions such as Ca homeostasis, lipid metabolism, axonal transport, unfolded protein response, autophagy and inflammatory responses. Mitochondria are closely associated with Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and ER-mitochondrial cross-talk regulates many of these cellular processes and functions damaged in neurodegenerative and eye diseases. Several studies have implicated the disruption of ER-mitochondria contacts in these diseases. This review is aimed at understanding and summarizing the role of ER-mitochondria interacting proteins in major neurodegenerative and eye diseases studied so far.
Pennington MR, Saha A, Painter DF, Gavazzi C, Ismail AM, Zhou X, Chodosh J, Rajaiya J. Disparate Entry of Adenoviruses Dictates Differential Innate Immune Responses on the Ocular Surface. Microorganisms 2019;7(9)Abstract
Human adenovirus infection of the ocular surface is associated with severe keratoconjunctivitis and the formation of subepithelial corneal infiltrates, which may persist and impair vision for months to years following infection. Long term pathology persists well beyond the resolution of viral replication, indicating that the prolonged immune response is not virus-mediated. However, it is not clear how these responses are sustained or even initiated following infection. This review discusses recent work from our laboratory and others which demonstrates different entry pathways specific to both adenovirus and cell type. These findings suggest that adenoviruses may stimulate specific pattern recognition receptors in an entry/trafficking-dependent manner, leading to distinct immune responses dependent on the virus/cell type combination. Additional work is needed to understand the specific connections between adenoviral entry and the stimulation of innate immune responses by the various cell types present on the ocular surface.
Pal-Ghosh S, Tadvalkar G, Lieberman VR, Guo X, Zieske JD, Hutcheon A, Stepp MA. Transient Mitomycin C-treatment of human corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts alters cell migration, cytokine secretion, and matrix accumulation. Sci Rep 2019;9(1):13905.Abstract
A single application of Mitomycin C (MMC) is used clinically in ophthalmology to reduce scarring and enhance wound resolution after surgery. Here we show in vitro that a 3-hour MMC treatment of primary and telomerase immortalized human corneal limbal epithelial (HCLE) cells impacts their migration and adhesion. Transient MMC treatment induces HCLE expression of senescence associated secretory factors, cytokine secretion, and deposition of laminin 332 for several days. Transient MMC treatment also reduces migration and deposition of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGFβ1)-stimulated collagen by corneal fibroblasts. Using conditioned media from control and MMC treated cells, we demonstrate that factors secreted by MMC-treated corneal epithelial cells attenuate collagen deposition by HCFs whereas those secreted by MMC-treated HCFs do not. These studies are the first to probe the roles played by corneal epithelial cells in reducing collagen deposition by corneal fibroblasts in response to MMC.
Caron-Cantin M, Cestari DM, Fortin E. Clinical and radiologic approach to 'typical' versus antibody-related optic neuritis. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2019;30(6):412-417.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Optic neuritis is an autoimmune optic neuropathy that has been associated with multiple sclerosis (MS), neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), and more recently antimyelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (anti-MOG)-positive disorder. At initial presentation, it is often difficult to differentiate these entities given their significant overlap in clinical presentation and MRI findings. This review summarizes the distinguishing clinical and radiological features of MS, NMOSD, and anti-MOG disorders to help clinicians accurately diagnose and manage patients affected by these conditions. RECENT FINDINGS: Antiaquaporin-4 (AQP4) and more recently anti-MOG antibodies are both associated with central nervous system demyelinating diseases that often initially present with optic neuritis. Serologic testing now allows for a new classification of these overlapping conditions that can help to differentiate 'typical' optic neuritis that is often associated with MS from 'atypical' optic neuritis associated with NMOSD and anti-MOG-positive disorder. SUMMARY: Optic neuritis associated with MS, NMOSD, and anti-MOG-positive disease can have a similar clinical presentation. However, some clinical and radiologic findings can help clinicians to differentiate these entities so that they can be properly managed to optimize visual prognosis.
Fini EM, Jeong S, Gong H, Martinez-Carrasco R, Laver NMV, Hijikata M, Keicho N, Argüeso P. Membrane-associated mucins of the ocular surface: New genes, new protein functions and new biological roles in human and mouse. Prog Retin Eye Res 2019;:100777.Abstract
The mucosal glycocalyx of the ocular surface constitutes the point of interaction between the tear film and the apical epithelial cells. Membrane-associated mucins (MAMs) are the defining molecules of the glycocalyx in all mucosal epithelia. Long recognized for their biophysical properties of hydration, lubrication, anti-adhesion and repulsion, MAMs maintain the wet ocular surface, lubricate the blink, stabilize the tear film and create a physical barrier to the outside world. However, it is increasingly appreciated that MAMs also function as cell surface receptors that transduce information from the outside to the inside of the cell. A number of excellent review articles have provided perspective on the field as it has progressed since 1987, when molecular cloning of the first MAM was reported. The current article provides an update for the ocular surface, placing it into the broad context of findings made in other organ systems, and including new genes, new protein functions and new biological roles. We discuss the epithelial tissue-equivalent with mucosal differentiation, the key model system making these advances possible. In addition, we make the first systematic comparison of MAMs in human and mouse, establishing the basis for using knockout mice for investigations with the complexity of an in vivo system. Lastly, we discuss findings from human genetics/genomics, which are providing clues to new MAM roles previously unimagined. Taken together, this information allows us to generate hypotheses for the next stage of investigation to expand our knowledge of MAM function in intracellular signaling and roles unique to the ocular surface.

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