Cornea

Kheirkhah A, Syed ZA, Satitpitakul V, Goyal S, Müller R, Tu EY, Dana R. Sensitivity and Specificity of Laser-Scanning In Vivo Confocal Microscopy for Filamentous Fungal Keratitis: Role of Observer Experience. Am J Ophthalmol 2017;179:81-89.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine sensitivity and specificity of laser-scanning in vivo confocal microscopy (LS-IVCM) for detection of filamentous fungi in patients with microbial keratitis and to evaluate the effect of observer's imaging experience on these parameters. DESIGN: Retrospective reliability study. METHODS: This study included 21 patients with filamentous fungal keratitis and 24 patients with bacterial keratitis (as controls). The etiology of infection was confirmed based on the response to specific therapy regardless of culture results. All patients had undergone full-thickness corneal imaging by a LS-IVCM (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph 3 with Rostock Cornea Module; Heidelberg Engineering, Heidelberg, Germany). The images were evaluated for the presence of fungal filaments by 2 experienced observers and 2 inexperienced observers. All observers were masked to the clinical and microbiologic data. RESULTS: The mean number of images obtained per eye was 917 ± 353. The average sensitivity of LS-IVCM for detecting fungal filaments was 71.4% ± 0% for the experienced observers and 42.9% ± 6.7% for the inexperienced observers. The average specificity was 89.6% ± 3.0% and 87.5% ± 17.7% for these 2 groups of observers, respectively. Although there was a good agreement between the 2 experienced observers (κ = 0.77), the inexperienced observers showed only a moderate interobserver agreement (κ = 0.51). The LS-IVCM sensitivity was higher in patients with fungal infections who had positive culture or longer duration of the disease. CONCLUSIONS: Although LS-IVCM has a high specificity for diagnosing filamentous fungal keratitis, its sensitivity is moderate and highly dependent on the level of the observer's experience and training with this imaging modality.
Farrand KF, Fridman M, Stillman IÖ, Schaumberg DA. Prevalence of Diagnosed Dry Eye Disease in the United States Among Adults Aged 18 Years and Older. Am J Ophthalmol 2017;Abstract
PURPOSE: To provide current estimates of the prevalence of diagnosed dry eye disease (DED) and associated demographics among US adults aged ≥18 years. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, population-based survey. METHODS: Data were analyzed from 75,000 participants in the 2013 National Health and Wellness Survey to estimate prevalence/risk of diagnosed DED overall, and by age, sex, insurance, and other demographic factors. We weighted the observed DED prevalence to project estimates to the US adult population and examined associations between demographic factors and DED using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Based on weighted estimates, 6.8% of the US adult population was projected to have diagnosed DED (∼16.4 million people). Prevalence increased with age (18-34 years: 2.7%; ≥75 years: 18.6%) and was higher among women (8.8%; ∼11.1 million) than men (4.5%; ∼5.3 million). After adjustment, there were no substantial differences in prevalence/risk of diagnosed DED by race, education, or US census region. However, there was higher risk of diagnosed DED among those aged 45-54 years (odds ratio [OR]: 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.74-2.20) and ≥75 years (OR: 4.95; 95% CI: 4.26-5.74), vs those aged 18-34 years. Risk was also higher among women vs men (OR: 2.00; 95% CI: 1.88-2.13) and insured vs uninsured participants (OR: 2.12; 95% CI: 1.85-2.43 for those on government and private insurance vs none). CONCLUSIONS: We estimate that >16 million US adults have diagnosed DED. Prevalence is higher among women than men, increases with age, and is notable among those aged 18-34 years.
Bron AJ, de Paiva CS, Chauhan SK, Bonini S, Gabison EE, Jain S, Knop E, Markoulli M, Ogawa Y, Perez V, Uchino Y, Yokoi N, Zoukhri D, Sullivan DA. TFOS DEWS II pathophysiology report. Ocul Surf 2017;15(3):438-510.Abstract
The TFOS DEWS II Pathophysiology Subcommittee reviewed the mechanisms involved in the initiation and perpetuation of dry eye disease. Its central mechanism is evaporative water loss leading to hyperosmolar tissue damage. Research in human disease and in animal models has shown that this, either directly or by inducing inflammation, causes a loss of both epithelial and goblet cells. The consequent decrease in surface wettability leads to early tear film breakup and amplifies hyperosmolarity via a Vicious Circle. Pain in dry eye is caused by tear hyperosmolarity, loss of lubrication, inflammatory mediators and neurosensory factors, while visual symptoms arise from tear and ocular surface irregularity. Increased friction targets damage to the lids and ocular surface, resulting in characteristic punctate epithelial keratitis, superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis, filamentary keratitis, lid parallel conjunctival folds, and lid wiper epitheliopathy. Hybrid dry eye disease, with features of both aqueous deficiency and increased evaporation, is common and efforts should be made to determine the relative contribution of each form to the total picture. To this end, practical methods are needed to measure tear evaporation in the clinic, and similarly, methods are needed to measure osmolarity at the tissue level across the ocular surface, to better determine the severity of dry eye. Areas for future research include the role of genetic mechanisms in non-Sjögren syndrome dry eye, the targeting of the terminal duct in meibomian gland disease and the influence of gaze dynamics and the closed eye state on tear stability and ocular surface inflammation.
Amparo F, Yin J, Di Zazzo A, Abud T, Jurkunas UV, Hamrah P, Dana R. Evaluating Changes in Ocular Redness Using a Novel Automated Method. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2017;6(4):13.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate interobserver concordance in measured ocular redness among a group of raters using an objective computer-assisted method (ocular redness index [ORI]) and a group of clinicians using an ordinal comparative scale. METHODS: We conducted a prospective study to evaluate ocular redness in clinical photographs of 12 patients undergoing pterygium surgery. Photographs were acquired preoperatively, and at 1 week and 1 month postoperatively. One group of clinicians graded conjunctival redness in the photographs using an image-based comparative scale. A second group applied the ORI to measure redness in the same photographs. We evaluated redness change between time points, level of agreement among raters, and assessed redness score differences among observers within each group. RESULTS: Interobserver agreement using the image-based redness scale was 0.458 (P < 0.001). Interobserver agreement with the ORI was 0.997 (P < 0.001). We observed statistically significant differences among clinicians' measurements obtained with the image-based redness scale (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences among measurements obtained with the ORI (P = 0.27). We observed a significant change in redness between baseline and follow-up visits with all scoring methods. Detailed analysis of redness change was performed only in the ORI group due to availability of continuous scores. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that the ORI scores provide higher consistency among raters than ordinal scales, and can discriminate redness changes that clinical observers often can miss. TRANSLATIONAL RELEVANCE: The ORI may be a reliable alternative to measure ocular redness objectively in the clinic and in clinical trials.
Benischke A-S, Vasanth S, Miyai T, Katikireddy KR, White T, Chen Y, Halilovic A, Price M, Price F, Liton PB, Jurkunas UV. Activation of mitophagy leads to decline in Mfn2 and loss of mitochondrial mass in Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy. Sci Rep 2017;7(1):6656.Abstract
Human corneal endothelial cells (HCEnCs) are terminally differentiated cells that have limited regenerative potential. The large numbers of mitochondria in HCEnCs are critical for pump and barrier function required for corneal hydration and transparency. Fuchs Endothelial Corneal Dystrophy (FECD) is a highly prevalent late-onset oxidative stress disorder characterized by progressive loss of HCEnCs. We previously reported increased mitochondrial fragmentation and reduced ATP and mtDNA copy number in FECD. Herein, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP)-induced mitochondrial depolarization decreased mitochondrial mass and Mfn2 levels, which were rescued with mitophagy blocker, bafilomycin, in FECD. Moreover, electron transport chain complex (I, V) decrease in FECD indicated deficient mitochondrial bioenergetics. Transmission electron microscopy of FECD tissues displayed an increased number of autophagic vacuoles containing degenerated and swollen mitochondria with cristolysis. An elevation of LC3-II and LAMP1 and downregulation of Mfn2 in mitochondrial fractions suggested that loss of fusion capacity targets fragmented mitochondria to the pre-autophagic pool and upregulates mitophagy. CCCP-induced mitochondrial fragmentation leads to Mfn2 and LC3 co-localization without activation of proteosome, suggesting a novel Mfn2 degradation pathway via mitophagy. These data indicate constitutive activation of mitophagy results in reduction of mitochondrial mass and abrogates cellular bioenergetics during degeneration of post-mitotic cells of ocular tissue.
Belmonte C, Nichols JJ, Cox SM, Brock JA, Begley CG, Bereiter DA, Dartt DA, Galor A, Hamrah P, Ivanusic JJ, Jacobs DS, McNamara NA, Rosenblatt MI, Stapleton F, Wolffsohn JS. TFOS DEWS II pain and sensation report. Ocul Surf 2017;15(3):404-437.Abstract
Pain associated with mechanical, chemical, and thermal heat stimulation of the ocular surface is mediated by trigeminal ganglion neurons, while cold thermoreceptors detect wetness and reflexly maintain basal tear production and blinking rate. These neurons project into two regions of the trigeminal brain stem nuclear complex: ViVc, activated by changes in the moisture of the ocular surface and VcC1, mediating sensory-discriminative aspects of ocular pain and reflex blinking. ViVc ocular neurons project to brain regions that control lacrimation and spontaneous blinking and to the sensory thalamus. Secretion of the main lacrimal gland is regulated dominantly by autonomic parasympathetic nerves, reflexly activated by eye surface sensory nerves. These also evoke goblet cell secretion through unidentified efferent fibers. Neural pathways involved in the regulation of meibomian gland secretion or mucin release have not been identified. In dry eye disease, reduced tear secretion leads to inflammation and peripheral nerve damage. Inflammation causes sensitization of polymodal and mechano-nociceptor nerve endings and an abnormal increase in cold thermoreceptor activity, altogether evoking dryness sensations and pain. Long-term inflammation and nerve injury alter gene expression of ion channels and receptors at terminals and cell bodies of trigeminal ganglion and brainstem neurons, changing their excitability, connectivity and impulse firing. Perpetuation of molecular, structural and functional disturbances in ocular sensory pathways ultimately leads to dysestesias and neuropathic pain referred to the eye surface. Pain can be assessed with a variety of questionaires while the status of corneal nerves is evaluated with esthesiometry and with in vivo confocal microscopy.
Xie H-T, Zhao D, Liu Y, Zhang M-C. Umbilical Cord Patch Transplantation for Corneal Perforations and Descemetoceles. J Ophthalmol 2017;2017:2767053.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical outcome of umbilical cord patch (UCP) transplantation for deep corneal ulcers with perforations and descemetoceles. METHODS: In this retrospective, noncomparative, interventional case series, 11 eyes of 11 patients with corneal perforation or descemetocele were included. The thickness and microstructure of UCP were measured. All eyes were treated with UCP and amniotic membrane transplantation for corneal reconstruction. Corneal ulcer healing, corneal thickness, anterior chamber formation, and best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) were recorded and analyzed. RESULTS: The thickness of human UCP is 398.6 ± 102.8 μm (n = 5) with compact aligned fibers. The average age was 56.2 ± 15.8 (ranging from 22 to 75) years. The mean follow-up period was 7.1 ± 1.7 (ranging from 5 to 10) months. Four patients had descemetocele and 7 had perforation. The anterior chambers in all the 7 perforated corneas were formed at postoperative day 1. All patients regained a normal corneal thickness and smooth corneal surface within the first postoperative month. The vision improved in 10 eyes and remained unchanged in 1 eye. No recurrence nor side effects occurred during the follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: UCP can serve as an alternative material in the treatment of corneal perforations and descemetoceles. This treatment option is also beneficial in those countries with limited cornea donors and eye bank services.
Zhang Y, Kam WR, Liu Y, Chen X, Sullivan DA. Influence of Pilocarpine and Timolol on Human Meibomian Gland Epithelial Cells. Cornea 2017;36(6):719-724.Abstract
PURPOSE: Investigators have discovered that topical antiglaucoma drugs may induce meibomian gland dysfunction. This response may contribute to the dry eye disease commonly found in patients with glaucoma taking such medications. We hypothesize that drug action involves a direct effect on human meibomian gland epithelial cells (HMGECs). To test this hypothesis, we examined the influence of the antiglaucoma drugs, pilocarpine and timolol, on the morphology, survival, proliferation, and differentiation of HMGECs. METHODS: Immortalized (I) HMGECs (n = 2-3 wells/treatment/experiment) were cultured with multiple concentrations of pilocarpine or timolol for up to 7 days. Experiments included positive controls for proliferation (epidermal growth factor and bovine pituitary extract) and differentiation (azithromycin). Cells were enumerated using a hemocytometer and evaluated for morphology, neutral lipid staining, and lysosome accumulation. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate that pilocarpine and timolol cause a dose-dependent decrease in the survival of IHMGECs. The clinically used concentrations are toxic and lead to cell atrophy, poor adherence, or death. By contrast, drug levels that are known to accumulate within the conjunctiva, adjacent to the meibomian glands, do not influence IHMGEC survival. These latter concentrations also have no effect on IHMGEC proliferation or differentiation, and they do not interfere with the ability of azithromycin to stimulate cellular neutral lipid and lysosome accumulation. This dose of pilocarpine, though, did suppress the epidermal growth factor+bovine pituitary extract-induced proliferation of IHMGECs. CONCLUSIONS: Our results support our hypothesis and demonstrate that these antiglaucoma drugs, pilocarpine and timolol, have direct effects on HMGECs that may influence their morphology, survival, and proliferative capacity.
Sriram S, Tran JA, Guo X, Hutcheon AEK, Kazlauskas A, Zieske JD. Development of wound healing models to study TGFβ3's effect on SMA. Exp Eye Res 2017;161:52-60.Abstract
The goal of this study was to test the efficacy of transforming growth factor beta 3 (TGFβ3) in reducing α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) expression in two models-an ex vivo organ culture and an in vitro 3D cell construct-both of which closely mimic an in vivo environment. For the ex vivo organ culture system, a central 6.0 mm corneal keratectomy was performed on freshly excised rabbit globes The corneas were then excised, segregated into groups treated with 1.0 ng/ml TGFβ1 or β3 (T1 or T3, respectively), and cultured for 2 weeks. The corneas were assessed for levels of haze and analyzed for SMA mRNA levels. For the 3D in vitro model, rabbit corneal fibroblasts (RbCFs) were cultured for 4 weeks on poly-transwell membranes in Eagle's minimum essential media (EMEM) + 10% FBS + 0.5 mM vitamin C ± 0.1 ng/ml T1 or T3. At the end of 4 weeks, the constructs were processed for analysis by indirect-immunofluorescence (IF) and RT-qPCR. The RT-qPCR data showed that SMA mRNA expression in T3 samples for both models was significantly lower (p < 0.05) than T1 treatment (around 3-fold in ex vivo and 2-fold in constructs). T3 also reduced the amount of scarring in ex vivo corneas as compared with the T1 samples. IF data from RbCF constructs confirmed that T3-treated samples had up to 4-fold (p < 0.05) lower levels of SMA protein expression than samples treated with T1. These results show that T3 when compared to T1 decreases the expression of SMA in both ex vivo organ culture and in vitro 3D cell construct models. Understanding the mechanism of T3's action in these systems and how they differ from simple cell culture models, may potentially help in developing T3 as an anti-scarring therapy.
Taniguchi T, Woodward AM, Magnelli P, McColgan NM, Lehoux S, Jacobo SMP, Mauris J, Argüeso P. N-Glycosylation affects the stability and barrier function of the MUC16 mucin. J Biol Chem 2017;292(26):11079-11090.Abstract
Transmembrane mucins are highly O-glycosylated glycoproteins that coat the apical glycocalyx on mucosal surfaces and represent the first line of cellular defense against infection and injury. Relatively low levels of N-glycans are found on transmembrane mucins, and their structure and function remain poorly characterized. We previously reported that carbohydrate-dependent interactions of transmembrane mucins with galectin-3 contribute to maintenance of the epithelial barrier at the ocular surface. Now, using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, we report that transmembrane mucin N-glycans in differentiated human corneal epithelial cells contain primarily complex-type structures with N-acetyllactosamine, a preferred galectin ligand. In N-glycosylation inhibition experiments, we find that treatment with tunicamycin and siRNA-mediated knockdown of the Golgi N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I gene (MGAT1) induce partial loss of both total and cell-surface levels of the largest mucin, MUC16, and a concomitant reduction in glycocalyx barrier function. Moreover, we identified a distinct role for N-glycans in promoting MUC16's binding affinity toward galectin-3 and in causing retention of the lectin on the epithelial cell surface. Taken together, these studies define a role for N-linked oligosaccharides in supporting the stability and function of transmembrane mucins on mucosal surfaces.
Taniguchi EV, Paschalis EI, Crnej A, Ren A, Colby KA, Chodosh J, Pasquale LR, Shen LQ, Dohlman CH, Cruzat A. The Role of the Back Plate in Angle Anatomy with the Boston Type I Keratoprosthesis. Cornea 2017;36(9):1096-1101.Abstract
PURPOSE: To quantitatively evaluate the angle anatomy in eyes with the Boston type I keratoprosthesis (B-KPro) differing in the back plate (BP) material and size using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. METHODS: B-KPro eyes with poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) (7.0 and 8.5 mm) and titanium (7.0, 8.5, and 9.5 mm) BPs were imaged with anterior segment optical coherence tomography. The angle opening distance at 500 μm from the scleral spur (AOD500), trabecular iris surface area at 500 μm from the scleral spur (TISA500), and trabecular iris angle at 500 μm from the scleral spur (TIA500) were measured. Among the visible quadrants, the average, the temporal, the widest, and the narrowest angle of each eye were included in the analysis. Average time between B-KPro implantation and imaging was 7.5 ± 1.4 years for a PMMA BP and 2.4 ± 2.3 years for a titanium BP (P < 0.0001). RESULTS: We analyzed 17 B-KPro eyes with PMMA BPs and 24 B-KPro eyes with titanium BPs. The average AOD500 (394.1 ± 226.9 vs. 454.5 ± 255.6 μm, P = 0.44), average TIA500 (26.2 ± 14.2 vs. 29.8 ± 13.9 degrees, P = 0.43), and average TISA500 (0.15 ± 0.08 vs. 0.17 ± 0.10 μm, P = 0.52) were not statistically different between eyes with PMMA and titanium BPs, nor were the temporal, the narrowest, and the widest angle measurements of each eye (all P > 0.05). Similarly, no significant differences were found between the angle measurements of B-KPro eyes with a titanium BP diameter of 8.5 or 9.5 mm (all P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We successfully visualized the angle anatomy in 66.1% of the imaged eyes, including all BPs studied. Neither the material nor the size of the B-KPro BP had a significant impact on the angle anatomy.
Abdelaziz M, Dohlman CH, Sayegh RR. Measuring Forward Light Scatter by the Boston Keratoprosthesis in Various Configurations. Cornea 2017;36(6):732-735.Abstract
PURPOSE: Light scatter results in degradation of visual function. An optical bench model was used to identify the origins of scatter in the setting of a Boston keratoprosthesis (KPro). The effect of various modifications in the device design and light-blocking configurations was explored. METHODS: A KPro was mounted on a contact lens holder on a bench, and forward light scatter was recorded with a camera attached to a rotating goniometer arm. Scattered light was recorded at different angles for different KPro modifications, and the point-spread function (PSF) curves were recorded. The area under the curve (AUC) was calculated for each PSF curve. RESULTS: The isolated KPro optical cylinder in a totally blackened holding lens had a tight PSF (AUC = 3.3). Additional blackening of the walls of the KPro stem did not further diminish forward scatter significantly. If the holding lens is made translucent by sandblasting (to simulate an in vivo carrier cornea) and the KPro is inserted without a backplate, forward scatter is substantial (AUC = 11.3). If a standard backplate (with holes) is added, light scatter is considerably reduced regardless of whether the backplate is made of polymethyl methacrylate or titanium (AUC = 5.3 and 4.4, respectively). Addition of an acrylic intraocular lens behind the KPro (the pseudophakic KPro setup) did not increase scatter. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the scattered light in eyes implanted with a KPro originates from the surrounding hazy corneal graft. The standard addition of a backplate reduces light scatter. There was no difference in forward light scatter between the aphakic and the pseudophakic KPro.
Chen Y, Chauhan SK, Shao C, Omoto M, Inomata T, Dana R. IFN-γ-Expressing Th17 Cells Are Required for Development of Severe Ocular Surface Autoimmunity. J Immunol 2017;199(3):1163-1169.Abstract
Th17 cells are critical effectors mediating the ocular surface autoimmunity in dry eye disease (DED). Increased IFN-γ has also been implicated in DED; however, it remains unclear to what extent Th1 cells contribute to DED pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the cellular source of IFN-γ and assessed its contribution to corneal epitheliopathy in DED mice. We discovered a significant IL-17A(+)IFN-γ(+) (Th17/1) population and determined that these cells are derived from Th17 precursors. Adoptive transfer of Th17/1, but not Th1, cells confers the disease to naive recipients as effectively as do Th17 cells alone. DED-induced IL-12 and IL-23 are required for in vivo transition of pathogenic Th17 cells to IFN-γ producers. Furthermore, using IFN-γ-deficient Th17 cells, we demonstrate the disease-amplifying role of Th17-derived IFN-γ in DED pathogenesis. These results clearly demonstrate that Th17 cells mediate ocular surface autoimmunity through both IL-17A and IFN-γ.
Omoto M, Suri K, Amouzegar A, Li M, Katikireddy KR, Mittal SK, Chauhan SK. Hepatocyte Growth Factor Suppresses Inflammation and Promotes Epithelium Repair in Corneal Injury. Mol Ther 2017;25(8):1881-1888.Abstract
Corneal injuries are among the major causes of ocular morbidity and vision impairment. Optimal epithelial wound healing is critical for the integrity and transparency of the cornea after injury. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a mitogen and motility factor that primarily regulates epithelial cell function. Herein, we investigate the effect of HGF on proliferation of corneal epithelial cells (CECs) in inflamed conditions both in vitro and in vivo. We demonstrate that HGF not only promotes CEC proliferation in homeostatic conditions but also reverses the anti-proliferative effect of the inflammatory environment on these cells. Furthermore, using a mouse model of ocular injury, we show that HGF treatment suppresses ocular inflammation and actively augments CEC proliferation, leading to improved and accelerated corneal epithelial repair. These findings have potential translational implications and could provide a framework for the development of novel HGF-based therapies for corneal epithelial defects.
Satitpitakul V, Kheirkhah A, Crnej A, Hamrah P, Dana R. Determinants of Ocular Pain Severity in Patients With Dry Eye Disease. Am J Ophthalmol 2017;179:198-204.Abstract
PURPOSE: To quantify the severity of ocular pain in patients with dry eye disease (DED) and evaluate factors associated with pain severity. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Eighty-four patients with DED were asked to score their severity level of ocular pain using a 10-point scale, with 10 indicating the most severe pain. All patients also had a comprehensive ophthalmic assessment including a detailed history, Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, and ocular surface examination. Regression analysis was used to determine the factors associated with ocular pain severity. RESULTS: The mean OSDI score was 45.6 ± 23.1. At least some degree of ocular pain (score >1) was reported by 88.1% of patients, including mild pain (scores 2-4) in 46.4%, moderate pain (scores 5-7) in 34.5%, and severe pain (scores 8-10) in 7.1% of patients. Ocular pain levels significantly correlated with the OSDI score (rs = 0.49, P < .001). Regression analysis showed that the severity of ocular pain had a significant association with use of antidepressant medications (P = .045) but not with tear breakup time, corneal fluorescein staining, or ocular medications used by patients. In patients without pain, a significant correlation was seen between OSDI and corneal fluorescein staining scores (rs = 0.67, P = .01). However, such a correlation was not observed in those with ocular pain. CONCLUSIONS: A majority of patients with DED report some degree of ocular pain, which correlates only moderately with the OSDI score. Severity of ocular pain correlates with nonocular comorbidities such as use of antidepressant medications rather than with clinical signs of DED.

Pages