Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), a major cause of blindness worldwide, is a complex disease with a significant genetic contribution. We performed Exome Array (Illumina) analysis on 3504 POAG cases and 9746 controls with replication of the most significant findings in 9173 POAG cases and 26 780 controls across 18 collections of Asian, African and European descent. Apart from confirming strong evidence of association at CDKN2B-AS1 (rs2157719 [G], odds ratio [OR] = 0.71, P = 2.81 × 10(-33)), we observed one SNP showing significant association to POAG (CDC7-TGFBR3 rs1192415, ORG-allele = 1.13, Pmeta = 1.60 × 10(-8)). This particular SNP has previously been shown to be strongly associated with optic disc area and vertical cup-to-disc ratio, which are regarded as glaucoma-related quantitative traits. Our study now extends this by directly implicating it in POAG disease pathogenesis.
PURPOSE: To report the technique and result of keratopigmentation using a femtosecond laser for the treatment of functional visual disabilities caused by peripheral iridectomies. DESIGN: Case report. METHODS: Two eyes of 2 patients underwent femtosecond laser-assisted keratopigmentation (FLAK) for moderate to severe visual dysfunction secondary to peripheral iridectomies. The main outcomes measures of the study were changes in visual-related symptoms, cosmesis, and intraoperative surgical complications. RESULTS: Following FLAK, the visual-related symptoms (ghosting, glare, and monocular diplopia) improved in both cases with significant improvement to total elimination of symptoms. No patient lost any lines of visual acuity, and no significant complications were observed during the follow-up period. The cosmetic appearance was reported as very good. CONCLUSIONS: FLAK is minimally invasive and results in a significant decrease in the subjective glare and photophobia and even in resolution of monocular diplopia. The cosmetic outcome was also favorable. This technique allows surgeons to correct visual disabilities associated with iris defects with a high success rate while avoiding more aggressive intraocular surgery.
OBJECTIVE: Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) mediates retinal ganglion cell death in glaucoma. Anti-TNF drugs are neuroprotective in an animal model of glaucoma. It is unclear whether medications with anti-TNF properties such as bupropion have an impact on the risk of developing open-angle glaucoma (OAG) in humans. The purpose of this study is to determine whether bupropion use alters the risk of developing OAG. METHODS: Claims data for beneficiaries age ≥35 years with no pre-existing OAG enrolled in a large nationwide U.S. managed care network continuously for ≥4 years between 2001-2011 was analyzed to identify patients who had been newly-diagnosed with OAG. The amount of bupropion use as captured from outpatient pharmacy claims over a four-year period was also quantified for each beneficiary. Multivariable Cox regression modeling assessed the impact of bupropion and other antidepressant medications on the risk of developing OAG with adjustment for sociodemographic characteristics of the enrollees along with medical and ocular comorbidities. RESULTS: Of 638,481 eligible enrollees, 15,292 (2.4%) developed OAG. After adjustment for confounding factors including use of other antidepressant medication classes, each additional month of bupropion use was associated with a 0.6% reduced risk of OAG (HR = 0.994, (95% CI: 0.989-0.998), p = 0.007). Compared to nonusers, those with 24-48 months of bupropion use had a 21% reduced hazard (HR=0.79, (CI: 0.65-0.94), p = 0.0099) of OAG. This association did not differ among persons taking bupropion for depression or for other reasons (p-interaction = 0.82). There was no significant association between use of tricyclic antidepressants (HR = 1.000, (CI: 0.997-1.004), p = 0.95) or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (HR = 0.999, (CI: 0.997-1.001), p = 0.39) and development of OAG. CONCLUSION: These findings suggest bupropion use may be beneficial in reducing the risk of OAG. If prospective studies confirm the findings of this analysis, this may identify a novel therapeutic target for OAG.
OBJECTIVE: To examine effects of phacoemulsification on longer-term intraocular pressure (IOP) in patients with medically treated primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG; including normal-tension glaucoma), pseudoexfoliation glaucoma (PXG), or primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG), without prior or concurrent incisional glaucoma surgery. METHODS: PubMed and Cochrane database searches, last conducted in December 2014, yielded 541 unique citations. Panel members reviewed titles and abstracts and selected 86 for further review. The panel reviewed these articles and identified 32 studies meeting the inclusion criteria, for which the panel methodologist assigned a level of evidence based on standardized grading adopted by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. One, 15, and 16 studies were rated as providing level I, II, and III evidence, respectively. RESULTS: All follow-up, IOP, and medication data listed are weighted means. In general, the studies reported on patients using few glaucoma medications (1.5-1.9 before surgery among the different diagnoses). For POAG, 9 studies (total, 461 patients; follow-up, 17 months) showed that phacoemulsification reduced IOP by 13% and glaucoma medications by 12%. For PXG, 5 studies (total, 132 patients; follow-up, 34 months) showed phacoemulsification reduced IOP by 20% and glaucoma medications by 35%. For chronic PACG, 12 studies (total, 495 patients; follow-up, 16 months) showed phacoemulsification reduced IOP by 30% and glaucoma medications by 58%. Patients with acute PACG (4 studies; total, 119 patients; follow-up, 24 months) had a 71% reduction from presenting IOP and rarely required long-term glaucoma medications when phacoemulsification was performed soon after medical reduction of IOP. Trabeculectomy after phacoemulsification was uncommon; the median rate reported within 6 to 24 months of follow-up in patients with controlled POAG, PXG, or PACG was 0% and was 7% in patients with uncontrolled chronic PACG. CONCLUSIONS: Phacoemulsification typically results in small, moderate, and marked reductions of IOP and medications for patients with POAG, PXG, and PACG, respectively, and using 1 to 2 medications before surgery. Trabeculectomy within 6 to 24 months after phacoemulsification is rare in such patients. However, reports on its effects in eyes with advanced disease or poor IOP control before surgery are few, particularly for POAG and PXG.
PURPOSE: We explored whether risk factor associations differed by primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) subtypes defined by visual field (VF) loss pattern (i.e., paracentral or peripheral). METHODS: We included 77,157 women in the Nurses Health Study and 42,773 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1986-2010) and incident medical-record confirmed cases of paracentral (n=440) and peripheral (n=865) POAG subtypes. We evaluated African-heritage, glaucoma family history, body mass index (BMI), mean arterial blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, physical activity, smoking, caffeine and alcohol intakes. We used competing risk Cox regression analyses modeling age as the metameter and stratified by age, cohort and event type. We sequentially identified factors with the least significant differences in associations with POAG subtypes ("stepwise down" approach with P for heterogeneity [P-het]<0.10 as threshold). RESULTS: BMI was more inversely associated with the POAG paracentral VF loss subtype than the peripheral VF loss subtype (per 10 kg/m2; hazard ratio [HR]=0.67 [95% Confidence Interval [CI]: 0.52, 0.86] vs. HR=0.93 [95% CI: 0.78, 1.10]; P-het=0.03) as was smoking (per 10 pack-years; HR=0.92 [95% CI: 0.87, 0.98] vs. HR=0.98 [95% CI: 0.94, 1.01]; P-het=0.09). These findings were robust in sensitivity analyses using a "stepwise up" approach (identify factors that showed the most significant differences). Non-heterogeneous (p-het>0.10) adverse associations with both POAG subtypes were observed with glaucoma family history, diabetes, African-heritage, greater caffeine intake and higher mean arterial pressure. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that POAG with early paracentral VF loss has distinct as well as common determinants compared to POAG with peripheral VF loss.
Progress in understanding the pathophysiology, and providing novel treatments for glaucoma is dependent on good animal models of the disease. We present here a protocol for elevating intraocular pressure (IOP) in the rat, by injecting magnetic microspheres into the anterior chamber of the eye. The use of magnetic particles allows the user to manipulate the beads into the iridocorneal angle, thus providing a very effective blockade of fluid outflow from the trabecular meshwork. This leads to long-lasting IOP rises, and eventually neuronal death in the ganglion cell layer (GCL) as well as optic nerve pathology, as seen in patients with the disease. This method is simple to perform, as it does not require machinery, specialist surgical skills, or many hours of practice to perfect. Furthermore, the pressure elevations are very robust, and reinjection of the magnetic microspheres is not usually required unlike in some other models using plastic beads. Additionally, we believe this method is suitable for adaptation for the mouse eye.
Exfoliation syndrome (XFS) is the most common recognizable cause of open-angle glaucoma worldwide. To better understand the etiology of XFS, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 1,484 cases and 1,188 controls from Japan and followed up the most significant findings in a further 6,901 cases and 20,727 controls from 17 countries across 6 continents. We discovered a genome-wide significant association between a new locus (CACNA1A rs4926244) and increased susceptibility to XFS (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, P = 3.36 × 10(-11)). Although we also confirmed overwhelming association at the LOXL1 locus, the key SNP marker (LOXL1 rs4886776) demonstrated allelic reversal depending on the ancestry group (Japanese: ORA allele = 9.87, P = 2.13 × 10(-217); non-Japanese: ORA allele = 0.49, P = 2.35 × 10(-31)). Our findings represent the first genetic locus outside of LOXL1 surpassing genome-wide significance for XFS and provide insight into the biology and pathogenesis of the disease.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of combination pars plana vitrectomy, endoscopic peripheral panretinal photocoagulation, and endocyclophotocoagulation (ECP) as compared with standard care in patients with neovascular glaucoma. METHODS: This age-matched case-controlled retrospective series of 54 eyes compared the clinical outcomes between a consecutive series of combination pars plana vitrectomy/panretinal photocoagulation/ECP (n = 27) versus the current standard of care (n = 27) for patients with neovascular glaucoma. "Standard" treatments for patients with neovascular glaucoma include panretinal photocoagulation, intravitreal bevacizumab, filtration surgery, pars plana vitrectomy, and Ahmed valve placement. RESULTS: After 1 year, mean intraocular pressure reduced from 40.7 ± 12.40 mmHg preoperatively to 12.3 ± 4.84 mmHg (P < 0.001) in the ECP group and from 34.7 ± 12.38 mmHg to 23.2 ± 12.34 mmHg in the control group (P = 0.002). Compared with controls, the mean drop in intraocular pressure in the ECP group was significantly greater at all postoperative visits. Logarithm of the minimal angle of resolution visual acuity outcomes were similar in both groups. There were 2 cases (7.4%) of postoperative phthisis bulbi in each group. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic pars plana vitrectomy, panretinal photocoagulation, and ECP seem to control intraocular pressure to a greater extent than standard glaucoma treatments in patients with neovascular glaucoma. In this aged-matched comparative case series, there was no significant difference between the two treatments' effects on visual acuity.
PurposeTo study the correlation between glaucomatous visual field (VF) defects assessed by standard automated perimetry (SAP) and peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thinning measured by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) using a modified OCT-based peripapillary RNFL structure-function map.Patients and methodsPerimetric glaucoma patients and age-matched normal control subjects were recruited from a university hospital clinic. All eyes underwent testing with the Spectralis spectral domain OCT and SAP on the same day. An OCT-based correspondence map, which correlated VF areas with peripapillary RNFL sectors was created to evaluate the relationship between glaucomatous RNFL thinning and VF loss in six nerve fiber layer bundle areas. Correlations of RNFL thinning with corresponding VF defects were examined using Spearman rank-order correlations. To demonstrate the association between localized VF defects and RNFL thickness, the theoretical curves were made according to an established log-linear model. The measured RNFL thickness values and VF defects were presented in the same scatterplot for each sector.ResultsFifty-six glaucoma patients and 85 normal subjects were included in the study. Significant association between localized VF loss and RNFL thinning was found in corresponding areas. Data from the current study fit well with established log-linear models, which compare RNFL thickness values with VF defects.ConclusionAnalysis of RNFL thinning in eyes with localized glaucomatous VF defects showed good structure-function correlation in a new OCT-based structure-function correspondence map.
PURPOSE: To determine the diagnostic capability of spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD OCT) peripapillary retinal thickness (RT) measurements from 3-dimensional (3D) volume scans for primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: setting: Institutional. study population: 156 patients (89 POAG and 67 normal subjects). observation procedures: One eye of each subject was included. SD OCT peripapillary RT values from 3D volume scans were calculated for 4 quadrants of 3 different sized annuli. Peripapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness values were also determined. main outcome measures: Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) values, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and positive and negative likelihood ratios. RESULTS: The top 5 RT AUROCs for all glaucoma patients and for a subset of early glaucoma patients were for the inferior quadrant of outer circumpapillary annulus of circular grid (OCA) 1 (0.959, 0.939), inferior quadrant of OCA2 (0.945, 0.921), superior quadrant of OCA1 (0.890, 0.811), inferior quadrant of OCA3 (0.887, 0.854), and superior quadrant of OCA2 (0.879, 0.807). Smaller RT annuli OCA1 and OCA2 consistently showed better diagnostic performance than the larger RT annulus OCA3. For both RNFL and RT measurements, best AUROC values were found for inferior RT OCA1 and OCA2, followed by inferior and overall RNFL thickness. CONCLUSION: Peripapillary RT measurements from 3D volume scans showed excellent diagnostic performance for detecting both glaucoma and early glaucoma patients. Peripapillary RT values have the same or better diagnostic capability compared to peripapillary RNFL thickness measurements, while also having fewer algorithm errors.
PURPOSE: To determine patient factors and eye conditions associated with artifacts in Spectralis optical coherence tomography (OCT) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) scans. DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study. METHODS: The prevalence of 12 artifact types were described in this review of 2313 eye scans from 1188 patients who underwent a complete eye examination with Spectralis OCT scanning during the period of September 2009 to July 2013. The generalized estimating equations model was used to analyze associations between increased artifact prevalence and 10 patient characteristics, which included age, sex, race, visual acuity, refractive error, astigmatism, cataract status, glaucoma staging, visual field reliability, and glaucoma diagnosis. RESULTS: A total of 1070 or 46.3% of the 2313 eye scans had at least 1 artifact. Decentration error was the most common artifact (27.8%), followed by posterior vitreous detachment artifacts (14.4%). Visual acuity of less than 20/40 (P < .0001), presence of moderate to severe cataracts (P < .0001), advanced stage of glaucoma (P < .0001), and a diagnosis of open-angle glaucoma (P = .0003) were associated with increased prevalence of artifacts. CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians should first assess scans for artifacts before making therapeutic decisions based on RNFL thickness measurements.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of anterior segment (AS) optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a standardized method of imaging Boston type I keratoprosthesis (KPro) after surgery, particularly in the visualization of iris and angle structures. DESIGN: Prospective case series. PARTICIPANTS: Twenty patients who underwent KPro implantation in 1 eye. METHODS: Patients underwent AS OCT imaging before surgery. After KPro implantation, patients were imaged using the AS single, dual, and quad scans to obtain transverse images of the eye every 15° over 360°. High-resolution, corneal quad, and anterior chamber scans were also obtained. This imaging protocol allowed juxtaposition and comparison of the same imaging coordinates obtained before surgery and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Postoperative visual acuity (VA), glaucoma progression on clinical examination and formal visual field testing, and anatomic angle changes on AS OCT defined by angle closure, peripheral anterior synechiae (PAS), iris-KPro backplate touch, and graft-host interface changes over time. RESULTS: Mean follow-up was 18.8±3.2 months. The average preoperative VA was 1.9±0.5 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution. After surgery, VA improved to 1.0±0.9 at last follow-up (P = 0.002). Fourteen of 20 patients had glaucoma before surgery. After surgery, 5 of these patients deteriorated clinically and 1 de novo diagnosis of glaucoma was made. On OCT, the average total degrees of angle closure for all patients increased from 158.5±158.9° before surgery to 205.4±154.0° after surgery (P = 0.04). The number of eyes with 360° of PAS increased from 6 of 20 before surgery to 9 of 20 after surgery. Iris-backplate touch was demonstrated in 5 of 20 patients, with an average area of involvement of 24.2±36.2°. Overall, of the 12 of 20 patients with clear signs of anatomic angle narrowing and synechiae progression on imaging, 3 had glaucoma deterioration detected by clinical examination. In the other 9 patients, angle changes on OCT were not accompanied by any detectable clinical signs of glaucomatous deterioration. CONCLUSIONS: Anterior segment OCT can be used to observe anatomic changes after KPro implantation that cannot be detected otherwise. We were unable to demonstrate a correlation between anatomic features and clinical progression.