Glaucoma

Gardiner SK, Kinast RM, De Moraes CG, Budenz DL, Jeoung JW, Lind JT, Myers JS, Nouri-Mahdavi K, Rhodes LA, Strouthidis NG, Chen TC, Mansberger SL. Clinicians' Use of Quantitative Information while Assessing the Rate of Functional Progression in Glaucoma. Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2022;5(5):498-506.Abstract
PURPOSE: Clinicians use both global and point-wise information from visual fields to assess the rate of glaucomatous functional progression. We asked which objective, quantitative measures best correlated with subjective assessment by glaucoma experts. In particular, we aimed to determine how much that judgment was based on localized rates of change vs. on global indices reported by the perimeter. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven academic, expert glaucoma specialists independently scored the rate of functional progression, from 1 (improvement) to 7 (very rapid progression), for a series of 5 biannual clinical printouts from 100 glaucoma or glaucoma suspect eyes of 51 participants, 20 of which were scored twice to assess repeatability. METHODS: Regression models were used to predict the average of the 11 clinicians' scores based on objective rates of change of mean deviation (MD), visual field index (VFI), pattern standard deviation (PSD), the Nth fastest progressing location, and the Nth fastest progressing of 10 anatomically defined clusters of locations after weighting by eccentricity. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Correlation between the objective rates of change and the average of the 11 clinicians' scores. RESULTS: The average MD of the study eyes was -2.4 dB (range, -16.8 to +2.8 dB). The mean clinician score was highly repeatable, with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.95. It correlated better with the rate of change of VFI (pseudo-R2 = 0.73, 95% confidence interval [CI, 0.60-0.83]) than with MD (pseudo-R2 = 0.63, 95% CI [0.45-0.76]) or PSD (pseudo-R2 = 0.41, 95% CI [0.26-0.55]). Using point-wise information, the highest correlations were found with the fifth-fastest progressing location (pseudo-R2 = 0.71, 95% CI [0.56-0.80]) and the fastest-progressing cluster after eccentricity weighting (pseudo-R2 = 0.61, 95% CI [0.48-0.72]). Among 25 eyes with an average VFI of > 99%, the highest observed pseudo-R2 value was 0.34 (95% CI [0.16-0.61]) for PSD. CONCLUSIONS: Expert academic glaucoma specialists' assessment of the rate of change correlated best with VFI rates, except in eyes with a VFI near the ceiling of 100%. Sensitivities averaged within clusters of locations have been shown to detect change sooner, but the experts' opinions correlated more closely with global VFI. This could be because it is currently the only index for which the perimeter automatically provides a quantitative estimate of the rate of functional progression.
Ichhpujani P, Thakur S, Singh T, Singh RB, Kumar S. Effect of laser peripheral iridotomy on contrast sensitivity using Spaeth/Richman Contrast Sensitivity test. Ther Adv Ophthalmol 2022;14:25158414221078142.Abstract
Background: Laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) is the current standard of care for primary angle-closure glaucoma. The existing literature lacks evidence regarding the effects of LPI on contrast sensitivity (CS) after the procedure. Objective: This study evaluates central and peripheral CS in patients undergoing LPI using the computer-based, Spaeth/Richman Contrast Sensitivity (SPARCS) test. Methods: We performed a pilot, prospective, interventional cohort study including 30 patients of primary angle-closure suspect (PACS) or primary angle closure (PAC) in both eyes. LPI was performed after a detailed history and clinical examination using standard procedure in all eyes. Intraocular pressure (IOP) and CS testing using SPARCS was performed before, 2 weeks and 3 months after LPI. Results: Data analyses revealed female predominance (66.67%, 20/30); the mean age of enrolled patients was 49.93 ± 10.43 years, and presenting acuity was 0.02 ± 0.06 (Log of Minimum Angle of Resolution [LogMAR]). The mean vertical cup-to-disc ratio (VCDR), mean deviation (MD in dB) and pattern standard deviation (PSD in dB) were 0.34 ± 0.09, -2.36 ± 1.72 and 2.34 ± 0.81, respectively. There was a statistically significant decrease between the pre- (15.17 ± 3.83 mmHg) and 2 weeks post-LPI (11.70 ± 1.53 mmHg) IOP (p < 0.001). However, CS in the pre- (73.47 ± 9.88) and 3 months post-LPI (75.20 ± 11.98) SPARCS scores did not reveal any statistical difference. The group-wise analysis showed a similar trend between PAC and PACS patients. Conclusion: LPI does not affect central as well as peripheral CS assessment in patients with the primary angle-closure disease.
Fenwick EK, Roldan AM, Halawa OA, Meshkin RS, Zebardast N, Popov V, Lis P, Friedman DS, Lamoureux EL. Implementation of an Online Glaucoma-Specific Quality of Life Computerized Adaptive Test System in a US Glaucoma Hospital. Transl Vis Sci Technol 2022;11(2):24.Abstract
Purpose: The feasibility of implementing a computerized adaptive test (CAT) system in routine clinical care in ophthalmology has not been assessed. We evaluated the implementation of a glaucoma-specific CAT (GlauCAT) in outpatients at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Institute. Methods: In this implementation study (July 2020-April 2021), 216 adults (mean ± SD age 64.8 ± 15.3 years; 56.0% women) completed six adaptive GlauCAT quality of life (QOL) tests on an internet-enabled tablet at the clinic. A real-time printable report summarizing domain scores was shared with physicians prior to consultation. The implementation was evaluated using Proctor's outcomes: acceptability (patient satisfaction); appropriateness (independent complete rate [%]); feasibility (acceptance rate [%]; completion time); and fidelity (percentage of patients discussing GlauCAT results with their physician). Physician barriers/facilitators were explored using open-ended questions. Results: Patients' mean ± SD satisfaction score was 3.5 ± 0.5 of 4, with >95% of patients willing to recommend it to others. Of the 216 (89.2%) patients accepting to participate, 173 (80%) completed GlauCAT independently. Patients took 8 minutes and 5 seconds (median) to complete all 6 GlauCAT tests. Almost two-thirds (n = 136/216) of the patients reported discussing their GlauCAT results with their doctor. Physicians described the GlauCAT summary report as helpful and user-friendly, although lack of time and uncertainty about how to action information were reported. Conclusions: Pilot implementation of six GlauCAT QOL tests in glaucoma outpatient clinics was feasible and acceptable. Integration of GlauCAT with electronic medical records (EMRs) and evaluation of long-term implementation outcomes are needed. Translational Relevance: GlauCAT's multiple outcomes and low test-taking burden makes it attractive for measuring glaucoma-specific QOL in routine clinical care.
Margeta MA, Ratanawongphaibul K, Tsikata E, Zemplenyi M, Ondeck CL, Kim J, Coleman AL, Yu F, de Boer JF, Chen TC. Disc Hemorrhages Are Associated With Localized Three-Dimensional Neuroretinal Rim Thickness Progression in Open-Angle Glaucoma. Am J Ophthalmol 2022;234:188-198.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between the occurrence of optic disc hemorrhages (DH) and glaucoma progression as determined by multiple glaucoma testing modalities. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: A longitudinal study was undertaken of 124 open-angle glaucoma patients who had yearly disc photography, visual fields (VFs), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness scans, and optic nerve volume scans (Spectralis), all performed on the same day over a 5-year period. The minimum distance band (MDB) thickness, a 3-dimensional (3D) neuroretinal rim parameter, was calculated from optic nerve volume scans. Patients were classified as glaucoma progressors or glaucoma nonprogressors using event-based analysis. RESULTS: Of 124 open-angle glaucoma patients, 19 (15.3%) had 1 or more DHs on yearly disc photographs. Presence of a DH was associated with localized 3D neuroretinal rim thickness progression (superior MDB progression; odds ratio: 3.96; P = .04) but not with global or inferior MDB progression (P = .14 and .81, respectively), DP progression (P = .08), VF progression (P = .45), or RNFL global, inferior, or superior progression (P = .17, .26, and .76, respectively). In the majority of patients with MDB progression (14/17 or 82%), the progression was noted before or concurrently with the first instance of DH. CONCLUSIONS: Glaucoma progression detected by high-density 3D SD-OCT neuroretinal rim measurements preceded DH occurrence in the majority of patients. These findings support the hypothesis that DHs are indicators of ongoing glaucoma progression rather than discrete events that cause subsequent progression.
Gardiner SK, Kinast RM, Chen TC, Strouthidis NG, De Moraes CG, Nouri-Mahdavi K, Myers JS, Jeoung JW, Lind JT, Rhodes LA, Budenz DL, Mansberger SL. Clinicians' Use of Quantitative Information When Assessing the Rate of Structural Progression in Glaucoma. Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2022;5(5):507-515.Abstract
PURPOSE: OCT scans contain large amounts of information, but clinicians often rely on reported layer thicknesses when assessing the rate of glaucomatous progression. We sought to determine which of these quantifications most closely relate to the subjective assessment of glaucoma experts who had all the diagnostic information available. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Eleven glaucoma specialists independently scored the rate of structural progression from a series of 5 biannual clinical OCT printouts. METHODS: A total of 100 glaucoma or glaucoma suspect eyes of 51 participants were included; 20 were scored twice to assess repeatability. Scores ranged from 1 (improvement) to 7 (very rapid progression). Generalized estimating equation linear models were used to predict the mean clinician score from the rates of change of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) or minimum rim width (MRW) globally or in the most rapidly thinning of the 6 sectors. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The correlation between the objective rates of change and the average of the 11 clinicians' scores. RESULTS: Average RNFLT within the series of study eyes was 79.3 μm (range, 41.4-126.6). Some 95% of individual clinician scores varied by ≤ 1 point when repeated. The mean clinician score was more strongly correlated with the rate of change of RNFLT in the most rapidly changing sector in %/year (pseudo-R2 = 0.657) than the rate of global RNFLT (0.372). The rate of MRW in the most rapidly changing sector had pseudo-R2 = 0.149. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of change of RNFLT in the most rapidly changing sector predicted experts' assessment of the rate of structural progression better than global rates or MRW. Sectoral rates may be a useful addition to current clinical printouts.
Chang TC, Celestin L, Hodapp EA, Grajewski AL, Junk A, Rothman AL, Duerr ERH, Swaminathan SS, Gedde SJ, Young TL, Wiggs J, Olivier MMG, Quintanilla R, Arrieta E, Savatovsky EJ, Vanner EA, Parrish RK. Glaucoma Cascade Screening in a High Risk Afro-Caribbean Haitian Population: A Pilot Study. J Glaucoma 2022;31(7):584-589.Abstract
PRCIS: Glaucoma cascade screening in first-degree relatives (FDRs) of young Haitian glaucoma patients had high yield for diagnosing manifest and suspected glaucoma in 30.8% of those screened despite modest participation. PURPOSE: To evaluate the outcomes of glaucoma cascade screening in FDRs (parents, siblings, and offspring) of Haitian juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Consecutive index patients (Haitians with JOAG) were identified, and the number/type of FDRs residing in South Florida were recorded. These FDRs were invited for free glaucoma screening, which included a comprehensive ophthalmic exam, gonioscopy, automated visual field testing and optical coherence tomographic analysis of the retinal nerve fiber layers. FDR characteristics and clinical findings from screening are reported. RESULTS: A total of 77 FDRs were invited, 26 (33.8%) agreed to undergo screening (18 females, 9 males), which revealed 2 (7.7%) with manifest glaucoma (mean age 77.5 y; one of whom was previously unaware of his glaucoma diagnosis), 6 (23.1%) with suspected glaucoma (mean age 29.8±18.3 y), and 18 (69.2%) without manifest or suspected glaucoma (mean age 37.2±21.8 y). Siblings of index patients were least likely to participate in cascade glaucoma screening when compared with index patients' parents or offspring. FDR eyes with manifest glaucoma had significantly worse best-corrected visual acuities, higher intraocular pressures, thinner central corneal thicknesses, and thinner circumferential papillary retinal nerve fiber layer thicknesses than those without glaucoma. CONCLUSION: Glaucoma cascade screening of Haitian JOAG patients' FDRs revealed that 30.8% had suspected or manifest glaucoma. Future efforts centered on provider-initiated recruitment and improving public glaucoma awareness and education may increase screening participation.
Scelfo C, ElSheikh RH, Shamim MM, Abbasian J, Ghaffarieh A, Elhusseiny AM. Ocular Surface Disease in Glaucoma Patients. Curr Eye Res 2022;:1-36.Abstract
Over the last several years, several studies have demonstrated the changes to the ocular surface in the setting of glaucoma, the best tests for markers of dry eye, and how management can be altered to help address ocular surface disease routinely or in preparation for glaucoma surgery. This review aims to summarize the most recent studies in the literature regarding the ocular surface in glaucoma patients and treatment options aimed to reduce ocular surface disease in this population.
Aboobakar IF, Wiggs JL. The genetics of glaucoma: Disease associations, personalised risk assessment and therapeutic opportunities-A review. Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2022;50(2):143-162.Abstract
Glaucoma refers to a heterogenous group of disorders characterised by progressive loss of retinal ganglion cells and associated visual field loss. Both early-onset and adult-onset forms of the disease have a strong genetic component. Here, we summarise the known genetic associations for various forms of glaucoma and the possible functional roles for these genes in disease pathogenesis. We also discuss efforts to translate genetic knowledge into clinical practice, including gene-based tests for disease diagnosis and risk-stratification as well as gene-based therapies.
Simcoe MJ, Shah A, Fan BJ, Choquet H, Weisschuh N, Waseem NH, Jiang C, Melles RB, Ritch R, Mahroo OA, Wissinger B, Jorgenson E, Wiggs JL, Garway-Heath DF, Hysi PG, Hammond CJ. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Two Common Loci Associated with Pigment Dispersion Syndrome/Pigmentary Glaucoma and Implicates Myopia in its Development. Ophthalmology 2022;129(6):626-636.Abstract
PURPOSE: To identify genetic variants associated with pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS) and pigmentary glaucoma (PG) in unrelated patients and to further understand the genetic and potentially causal relationships between PDS and associated risk factors. DESIGN: A 2-stage genome-wide association meta-analysis with replication and subsequent in silico analyses including Mendelian randomization. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 574 cases with PG or PDS and 52 627 controls of European descent. METHODS: Genome-wide association analyses were performed in 4 cohorts and meta-analyzed in 3 stages: (1) a discovery meta-analysis was performed in 3 cohorts, (2) replication was performed in the fourth cohort, and (3) all 4 cohorts were meta-analyzed to increase statistical power. Two-sample Mendelian randomization was used to determine whether refractive error and intraocular pressure exert causal effects over PDS. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The association of genetic variants with PDS and whether myopia exerts causal effects over PDS. RESULTS: Significant association was present at 2 novel loci for PDS/PG. These loci and follow-up analyses implicate the genes gamma secretase activator protein (GSAP) (lead single nucleotide polymorphism [SNP]: rs9641220, P = 6.0×10-10) and glutamate metabotropic receptor 5 (GRM5)/TYR (lead SNP: rs661177, P = 3.9×10-9) as important factors in disease risk. Mendelian randomization showed significant evidence that negative refractive error (myopia) exerts a direct causal effect over PDS (P = 8.86×10-7). CONCLUSIONS: Common SNPs relating to the GSAP and GRM5/TYR genes are associated risk factors for the development of PDS and PG. Although myopia is a known risk factor, this study uses genetic data to demonstrate that myopia is, in part, a cause of PDS and PG.
Collantes ERA, Delfin MS, Fan BJ, Torregosa JMR, Siguan-Bell C, de Florcruz NVG, Martinez JMD, Masna-Hidalgo BJ, Guzman VPT, Anotado-Flores JF, Levina FD, Hernandez SRC, Collantes AA, Sibulo MC, Rong SS, Wiggs JL. EFEMP1 rare variants cause familial juvenile-onset open-angle glaucoma. Hum Mutat 2022;43(2):240-252.Abstract
Juvenile open-angle glaucoma (JOAG) is a severe type of glaucoma with onset before age 40 and dominant inheritance. Using exome sequencing we identified 3 independent families from the Philippines with novel EFEMP1 variants (c.238A>T, p.Asn80Tyr; c.1480T>C, p.Ter494Glnext*29; and c.1429C>T, p.Arg477Cys) co-segregating with disease. Affected variant carriers (N = 34) exhibited severe disease with average age of onset of 16 years and with 76% developing blindness. To investigate functional effects, we transfected COS7 cells with vectors expressing the three novel EFEMP1 variants and showed that all three variants found in JOAG patients caused significant intracellular protein aggregation and retention compared to wild type and also compared to EFEMP1 variants associated with other ocular phenotypes including an early-onset form of macular degeneration, Malattia Leventinese/Doyne's Honeycomb retinal dystrophy. These results suggest that rare EFEMP1 coding variants can cause JOAG through a mechanism involving protein aggregation and retention, and that the extent of intracellular retention correlates with disease phenotype. This is the first report of EFEMP1 variants causing JOAG, expanding the EFEMP1 disease spectrum. Our results suggest that EFEMP1 mutations appear to be a relatively common cause of JOAG in Filipino families, an ethnically diverse population.
Guzman Aparicio MA, Chen TC. New views on three-dimensional imaging technologies for glaucoma: an overview. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2022;33(2):103-111.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To summarize the literature on three-dimensional (3D) technological advances in ophthalmology, the quantitative methods associated with this, and their improved ability to help detect glaucoma disease progression. RECENT FINDINGS: Improvements in measuring glaucomatous structural changes are the result of dual innovations in optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging technology and in associated quantitative software. SUMMARY: Compared with two-dimensional (2D) OCT parameters, newer 3D parameters provide more data and fewer artifacts.
Xu BY, Friedman DS, Foster PJ, Jiang Y, Porporato N, Pardeshi AA, Jiang Y, Munoz B, Aung T, He M. Ocular Biometric Risk Factors for Progression of Primary Angle Closure Disease: The Zhongshan Angle Closure Prevention Trial. Ophthalmology 2022;129(3):267-275.Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess baseline ocular biometric risk factors for progression from primary angle closure suspect (PACS) to primary angle closure (PAC) or acute angle closure (AAC). DESIGN: Prospective, observational study. PARTICIPANTS: Six hundred forty-three mainland Chinese with untreated PACS. METHODS: Participants underwent baseline clinical examinations, including gonioscopy, anterior segment OCT (AS-OCT) imaging, and A-scan ultrasound biometry as part of the Zhongshan Angle Closure Prevention (ZAP) Trial. Primary angle closure suspect was defined as an inability to visualize pigmented trabecular meshwork in 2 or more quadrants based on static gonioscopy. Primary angle closure was defined as development of intraocular pressure above 24 mmHg or peripheral anterior synechiae. Progression was defined as development of PAC or an AAC attack. Multivariable logistic regression models were developed to assess biometric risk factors for progression. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Six-year progression from PACS to PAC or AAC. RESULTS: Six hundred forty-three untreated eyes (609 nonprogressors, 34 progressors) of 643 participants were analyzed. In a multivariable model with continuous parameters, narrower horizontal angle opening distance of 500 μm from the scleral spur (AOD500; odds ratio [OR], 1.10 per 0.01-mm decrease; P = 0.03), flatter horizontal iris curvature (IC; OR, 1.96 per 0.1-mm decrease; P = 0.01), and older age (OR, 1.11 per 1-year increase; P = 0.01) at baseline were associated significantly with progression (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC], 0.73). Smaller cumulative gonioscopy score was not associated with progression (OR, 1.03 per 1-modified Shaffer grade decrease; P = 0.85) when replacing horizontal AOD500 in the multivariable model. In a separate multivariable model with categorical parameters, participants in the lowest quartile of horizontal AOD500 (OR, 3.10; P = 0.002) and IC (OR, 2.48; P = 0.014) measurements and 59 years of age or older (OR, 2.68; P = 0.01) at baseline showed higher odds of progression (AUC, 0.72). CONCLUSIONS: Ocular biometric measurements can help to risk-stratify patients with early angle closure for more severe disease. Anterior segment OCT measurements of biometric parameters describing the angle and iris are predictive of progression from PACS to PAC or AAC, whereas gonioscopy grades are not.
Halawa OA, Kolli A, Oh G, Mitchell WG, Glynn RJ, Kim DH, Friedman DS, Zebardast N. Racial and Socioeconomic Differences in Eye Care Utilization among Medicare Beneficiaries with Glaucoma. Ophthalmology 2022;129(4):397-405.Abstract
PURPOSE: Evaluate differences in eye care utilization among patients with glaucoma by race and socioeconomic status (SES). DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Representative 5% sample of Medicare beneficiaries aged > 65 years with continuous part A/B enrollment between January 1, 2014, and July 1, 2014, at least 1 diagnosis code for glaucoma within that period, and a glaucoma diagnosis in the Chronic Conditions Warehouse before January 1, 2014. METHODS: The following race/ethnicity categories were defined in our cohort: non-Hispanic White, Black/African American, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islander. Low SES was defined as having 2 or more enrollment-based low-income indicators (dual eligibility for Medicare/Medicaid, Part D limited income subsidies, and eligibility for Part A and B State buy-in). Negative binomial regression analyses were carried out to compare relative rate ratios (RRs) of eye care utilization among racial groups stratified by low and non-low SES. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Measured from July 1, 2014, to December 31, 2016: eye examinations and eye care-related office visits; eye care-related inpatient and emergency department (ED) encounters; eye care-related nursing home and home-visit encounters; visual field and retinal nerve fiber OCT tests; glaucoma lasers and surgeries. RESULTS: Among 78 526 participants with glaucoma, mean age was 79.1 years (standard deviation, 7.9 years), 60.9% were female, 78.4% were non-Hispanic White, and 13.8% met enrollment-based criteria for low-SES. Compared with White beneficiaries, Blacks had lower counts of outpatient visits (RR, 0.92; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.90-0.93), visual field (VF) tests (RR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.90-0.94), but more inpatient/ED encounters (RR, 2.42; 95% CI, 1.55-3.78) and surgeries (RR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03-1.27). Hispanics had fewer outpatient visits (RR, 0.97; 95% CI, 0.95-0.98) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) OCT tests (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.86-0.93), but more inpatient/ED encounters (RR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.18-4.57) and selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) (RR, 1.25; 95% CI, 1.11-1.42) versus non-Hispanic Whites. In the non-low SES group, Black versus White disparities persisted in outpatient visits (RR, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.92-0.95), VF (RR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.94-0.98), RNFL OCT (RR, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.78-0.83), and inpatient/ED encounters (RR, 2.57; 95% CI, 1.55-4.26). CONCLUSIONS: Disparities were found in eye care utilization among Black and Hispanic patients with glaucoma. These differences persisted among Blacks after stratification by SES, suggesting that systemic racism may be an independent driver in this population.
Baskaran M, Kumar RS, Friedman DS, Lu Q-S, Wong H-T, Chew PT, Lavanya R, Narayanaswamy A, Perera SA, Foster PJ, Aung T. The Singapore Asymptomatic Narrow Angles Laser Iridotomy Study: Five-Year Results of a Randomized Controlled Trial. Ophthalmology 2022;129(2):147-158.Abstract
PURPOSE: To examine the efficacy of laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) in patients who received a diagnosis of primary angle-closure suspect (PACS). DESIGN: Prospective, randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: This multicenter, randomized controlled trial (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT00347178) enrolled 480 patients older than 50 years from glaucoma clinics in Singapore with bilateral asymptomatic PACS (defined as having ≥2 quadrants of appositional angle closure on gonioscopy). METHODS: Each participant underwent prophylactic LPI in 1 randomly selected eye, whereas the fellow eye served as a control. Patients were followed up yearly for 5 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was development of primary angle closure (PAC; defined as presence of peripheral anterior synechiae, intraocular pressure [IOP] of >21 mmHg, or both or acute angle closure [AAC]) or primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) over 5 years. RESULTS: Of the 480 randomized participants, most were Chinese (92.7%) and were women (75.8%) with mean age of 62.8 ± 6.9 years. Eyes treated with LPI reached the end point less frequently after 5 years (n = 24 [5.0%]; incidence rate [IR], 11.65 per 1000 eye-years) compared with control eyes (n = 45 [9.4%]; IR, 21.84 per 1000 eye-years; P = 0.001). The adjusted hazard ratio (HR) for progression to PAC was 0.55 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.37-0.83; P = 0.004) in LPI-treated eyes compared with control eyes. Older participants (per year; HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.03-1.10; P < 0.001) and eyes with higher baseline IOP (per millimeter of mercury; HR, 1.35; 95% CI, 1.22-1.50; P < 0.0001) were more likely to reach an end point. The number needed to treat to prevent an end point was 22 (95% CI, 12.8-57.5). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with bilateral asymptomatic PACS, eyes that underwent prophylactic LPI reached significantly fewer end points compared with control eyes over 5 years. However, the overall incidence of PAC or PACG was low.

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