Glaucoma

Qiu M, Woreta FA, Boland MV. Microinvasive Glaucoma Surgery in US Ophthalmology Residency: Surgical Case Log Cross-sectional Analysis and Proposal for New Glaucoma Procedure Classification. J Glaucoma 2021;30(7):621-628.Abstract
PRECIS: A cross-sectional sample of the US ophthalmology residency graduating class of 2018 revealed that 18.4% of residents logged <5 traditional glaucoma surgeries, and 63.4% logged at least 1 microinvasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS). PURPOSE: Describe the state of MIGS in US ophthalmology residency training and propose a glaucoma procedure classification system for residents' surgical case logs. METHODS: Deidentified case logs from residents graduating in 2018 were requested from US residency program directors. RESULTS: Case logs were received for 152/488 (31%) residents from 36/115 (31%) programs. The mean number of traditional glaucoma surgeries per resident was 9.0±5.9 (range: 0 to 31). The mean number of MIGS per resident was 5.2±8.9 cases (range: 0 to 58). There were 28/152 (18.4%) residents from 16/36 (44.4%) programs who logged <5 traditional glaucoma surgeries as primary surgeon, and 3/152 (2.0%) residents from 3/36 (8.3%) programs who logged zero traditional glaucoma surgeries as primary surgeon. There were 98/152 (64.5%) residents from 32/36 (88.8%) programs who logged <5 MIGS as primary surgeon, and 48/152 (31.6%) residents from 25 of 36 (69.4%) programs who logged zero MIGS as primary surgeon. There were 104/152 (63.4%) residents from 33/36 (91.6%) programs who logged at least 1 MIGS as primary surgeon; there were 3/36 (8.3%) residency programs where no resident logged any MIGS as primary surgeon. CONCLUSIONS: US ophthalmology residents' MIGS experience varies widely. Residents can satisfy glaucoma surgery requirements with some MIGS, even in the absence of adequate traditional glaucoma surgeries. We propose a residency case log classification system that better reflects the growing role of MIGS in clinical practice and helps ophthalmic educators more accurately track procedures requiring related skills.
Chang EK, Gupta S, Chachanidze M, Hall N, Chang TC, Solá-Del Valle D. Safety and efficacy of microinvasive glaucoma surgery with cataract extraction in patients with normal-tension glaucoma. Sci Rep 2021;11(1):8910.Abstract
This study assesses the safety and efficacy of microinvasive glaucoma surgery (MIGS) with cataract extraction in patients with normal-tension glaucoma (NTG). In our sample of 45 NTG patients, mean intraocular pressure (IOP) decreased from 13.7 to 12.3 mmHg at 2.5 years, and mean medication burden decreased from 2.0 to 1.1 at 1.5 years. For success defined as IOP reduction ≥ 30% from baseline IOP with medication burden reduction from preoperative levels, success probability was 5.4% at 1.5 years. For success defined as medication burden reduction with an IOP reaching goal IOP as determined by the glaucoma specialist, success probabilities were 67.2% at 1.5 years and 29.4% at 2.5 years. At the last follow-up visit, eyes with two MIGS procedures with different mechanisms of action achieved successful medication reduction 68.8% of the time versus 35.7% achieved by a single MIGS procedure (p = 0.052). At their last visit, visual acuity was unchanged or improved in all eyes (100%). MIGS with cataract surgery results in modest reductions in IOP and medication burden in NTG patients, which may lead to lower costs and better therapeutic compliance. A combination of two MIGS procedures with different mechanisms of action may potentially be more effective in reducing medication burden than a single MIGS procedure in NTG patients. Further research is necessary to ascertain whether MIGS for NTG patients may help decrease medication burden while helping achieve goal IOP.
Soh Z, Yu M, Betzler BK, Majithia S, Thakur S, Tham YC, Wong TY, Aung T, Friedman DS, Cheng C-Y. The Global Extent of Undetected Glaucoma in Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Ophthalmology 2021;128(10):1393-1404.Abstract
TOPIC: Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness, despite having good prognosis with early treatment. We evaluated the global extent of undetected glaucoma and the factors associated with it in this systematic review and meta-analysis. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Undetected glaucoma increases the risk of vision impairment, which leads to detrimental effects on the quality-of-life and socioeconomic well-being of those affected. Detailed information on the extent and factors associated with undetected glaucoma aid in the development of public health interventions. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of population-based studies published between January 1, 1990, and June 1, 2020. Article search was conducted in online databases (PubMED, Web-of-Science), grey literatures (OpenGrey), and nongovernment organization reports. Our outcome measure was the proportion of glaucoma cases that were undetected previously. Manifest glaucoma included any form of glaucoma reported in the original studies and may include primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), primary angle-closure-glaucoma, secondary glaucoma, or a combination thereof. Undetected glaucoma was defined as glaucoma cases that were undetected prior to diagnosis in the respective study. Random-effect meta-analysis was used to estimate the pooled proportion of undetected glaucoma. We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses and the Meta-analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology guidelines in our study. RESULTS: We identified 61 articles from 55 population-based studies (n = 189 359 participants; n = 6949 manifest glaucoma). Globally, more than half of all glaucoma cases were undetected previously on average in each geographical region. Africa (odds ratio [OR], 12.70; 95% confidence interval [CI], 4.91-32.86) and Asia (OR, 3.41; 95% CI, 1.63-7.16) showed higher odds of undetected glaucoma as compared with Europe. Countries with low Human Development Index (HDI; <0.55) showed a higher proportion of undetected manifest glaucoma as compared with countries of medium to very high HDI (≥0.55; all P < 0.001). In 2020, 43.78 million POAG cases were projected to be undetected, of which 76.7% were in Africa and Asia. DISCUSSION: Undetected glaucoma is highly prevalent across diverse communities worldwide and more common in Africa and Asia. Strategies to improve detection are needed to prevent excess visual disability and blindness resulting from glaucoma.
Susanna FN, Melchior B, Paula JS, Boland MV, Myers JS, Wellik SR, Elze T, Pasquale LR, Shen LQ, Ritch R, Susanna R, Hood DC, Liebmann JM, De Moraes CG. Variability and Power to Detect Progression of Different Visual Field Patterns. Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2021;4(6):617-623.Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare the variability and ability to detect visual field (VF) progression of 24-2, central 12 locations of the 24-2 and 10-2 VF tests in eyes with abnormal VFs. DESIGN: Retrospective, multisite cohort. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 52 806 24-2 and 11 966 10-2 VF tests from 7307 eyes from the Glaucoma Research Network database were analyzed. Only eyes with ≥ 5 visits and ≥ 2 years of follow-up were included. METHODS: Linear regression models were used to calculate the rates of mean deviation (MD) change (slopes), whereas their residuals were used to assess variability across the entire MD range. Computer simulations (n = 10 000) based on real MD residuals of our sample were performed to estimate power to detect significant progression (P < 5%) at various rates of MD change. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time required to detect progression. RESULTS: For all 3 patterns, the MD variability was highest within the -5 to -20 decibel (dB) range and consistently lower with the 10-2 compared with 24-2 or central 24-2. Overall, time to detect confirmed significant progression at 80% power was the lowest with 10-2 VF, with a decrease of 14.6% to 18.5% when compared with 24-2 and a decrease of 22.9% to 26.5% when compared with central 24-2. CONCLUSIONS: Time to detect central VF progression was reduced with 10-2 MD compared with 24-2 and C24-2 MD in glaucoma eyes in this large dataset, in part because 10-2 tests had lower variability. These findings contribute to current evidence of the potential value of 10-2 testing in the clinical management of patients with glaucoma and in clinical trial design.
Zebardast N, Sekimitsu S, Wang J, Elze T, Gharahkhani P, Cole BS, Lin MM, Segrè AV, Wiggs JL, Wiggs JL. Characteristics of p.Gln368Ter Myocilin Variant and Influence of Polygenic Risk on Glaucoma Penetrance in the UK Biobank. Ophthalmology 2021;128(9):1300-1311.Abstract
PURPOSE: MYOC (myocilin) mutations account for 3% to 5% of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) cases. We aimed to understand the true population-wide penetrance and characteristics of glaucoma among individuals with the most common MYOC variant (p.Gln368Ter) and the impact of a POAG polygenic risk score (PRS) in this population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population-based study. PARTICIPANTS: Individuals with the p.Gln368Ter variant among 77 959 UK Biobank participants with fundus photographs (FPs). METHODS: A genome-wide POAG PRS was computed, and 2 masked graders reviewed FPs for disc-defined glaucoma (DDG). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Penetrance of glaucoma. RESULTS: Two hundred individuals carried the p.Gln368Ter heterozygous genotype, and 177 had gradable FPs. One hundred thirty-two showed no evidence of glaucoma, 45 (25.4%) had probable/definite glaucoma in at least 1 eye, and 19 (10.7%) had bilateral glaucoma. No differences were found in age, race/ethnicity, or gender among groups (P > 0.05). Of those with DDG, 31% self-reported or had International Classification of Diseases codes for glaucoma, whereas 69% were undiagnosed. Those with DDG had higher medication-adjusted cornea-corrected intraocular pressure (IOPcc) (P < 0.001) vs. those without glaucoma. This difference in IOPcc was larger in those with DDG with a prior glaucoma diagnosis versus those not diagnosed (P < 0.001). Most p.Gln368Ter carriers showed IOP in the normal range (≤21 mmHg), although this proportion was lower in those with DDG (P < 0.02) and those with prior glaucoma diagnosis (P < 0.03). Prevalence of DDG increased with each decile of POAG PRS. Individuals with DDG demonstrated significantly higher PRS compared with those without glaucoma (0.37 ± 0.97 vs. 0.01 ± 0.90; P = 0.03). Of those with DDG, individuals with a prior diagnosis of glaucoma had higher PRS compared with undiagnosed individuals (1.31 ± 0.64 vs. 0.00 ± 0.81; P < 0.001) and 27.5 times (95% confidence interval, 2.5-306.6) adjusted odds of being in the top decile of PRS for POAG. CONCLUSIONS: One in 4 individuals with the MYOC p.Gln368Ter mutation demonstrated evidence of glaucoma, a substantially higher penetrance than previously estimated, with 69% of cases undetected. A large portion of p.Gln368Ter carriers, including those with DDG, have IOP in the normal range, despite similar age. Polygenic risk score increases disease penetrance and severity, supporting the usefulness of PRS in risk stratification among MYOC p.Gln368Ter carriers.
Aboobakar IF, Friedman DS. Home Monitoring for Glaucoma: Current Applications and Future Directions. Semin Ophthalmol 2021;36(4):310-314.Abstract
Technological advances provide a number of options for glaucoma monitoring outside the office setting, including home-based tonometry and perimetry. This has the potential to revolutionize management of this chronic disease, improve access to care, and enhance patient engagement. Here, we provide an overview of existing technologies for home-based glaucoma monitoring. We also discuss areas for future research and the potential applications of these technologies to telemedicine, which has been brought to the forefront during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic.
Ong AY, Ng SM, Vedula SS, Friedman DS. Lens extraction for chronic angle-closure glaucoma. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021;3:CD005555.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is characterized by a rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) secondary to aqueous outflow obstruction, with relative pupillary block being the most common underlying mechanism. There is increasing evidence that lens extraction may relieve pupillary block and thereby improve IOP control. As such, comparing the effectiveness of lens extraction against other commonly used treatment modalities can help inform the decision-making process. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of lens extraction compared with other interventions in the treatment of chronic PACG in people without previous acute angle-closure attacks. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, one other database, and two trials registers (December 2019). We also screened the reference lists of included studies and the Science Citation Index database. We had no date or language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing lens extraction with other treatment modalities for chronic PACG. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We followed standard Cochrane methodology. MAIN RESULTS: We identified eight RCTs with 914 eyes. We obtained data for participants meeting our inclusion criteria for these studies (PACG only, no previous acute angle-closure attacks), resulting in 513 eyes included in this review. The participants were recruited from a diverse range of countries. We were unable to conduct meta-analyses due to different follow-up periods and insufficient data. One study compared phacoemulsification with laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI) as standard care. Participants in the phacoemulsification group were less likely to experience progression of visual field loss (odds ratio [OR] 0.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.13 to 0.91; 216 eyes; moderate certainty evidence), and required fewer IOP-lowering medications (mean difference [MD] -0.70, 95% CI -0.89 to -0.51; 263 eyes; moderate certainty evidence) compared with standard care at 12 months. Moderate certainty evidence also suggested that phacoemulsification improved gonioscopic findings at 12 months or later (MD -84.93, 95% CI -131.25 to -38.61; 106 eyes). There was little to no difference in health-related quality of life measures (MD 0.04, 95% CI -0.16 to 0.24; 254 eyes; moderate certainty evidence), and visual acuity (VA) (MD 2.03 ETDRS letter, 95% CI -0.77 to 4.84; 242 eyes) at 12 months, and no observable difference in mean IOP (MD -0.03mmHg, 95% CI -2.34 to 2.32; 257 eyes; moderate certainty evidence) compared to standard care. Irreversible loss of vision was observed in one participant in the phacoemulsification group, and three participants in standard care at 36 months (moderate-certainty evidence). One study (91 eyes) compared phacoemulsification with phaco-viscogonioplasty (phaco-VGP). Low-certainty evidence suggested that fewer IOP-lowering medications were needed at 12 months with phacoemulsification (MD -0.30, 95% CI -0.55 to -0.05). Low-certainty evidence also suggested that phacoemulsification may have improved gonioscopic findings at 12 months or later compared to phaco-VGP (angle grading MD -0.60, 95% CI -0.91 to -0.29; TISA500 MD -0.03, 95% CI -0.06 to -0.01; TISA750 MD -0.03, 95% CI -0.06 to -0.01; 91 eyes). Phacoemulsification may result in little to no difference in best corrected VA at 12 months (MD -0.01 log MAR units, 95% CI -0.10 to 0.08; low certainty evidence), and the evidence is very uncertain about its effect on IOP at 12 months (MD 0.50 mmHg, 95% CI -2.64 to 3.64; very low certainty evidence). Postoperative fibrin reaction was observed in two participants in the phacoemulsification group and four in the phaco-VGP group. Three participants in the phaco-VGP group experienced hyphema. No data were available for progression of visual field loss and quality of life measurements at 12 months. Two studies compared phacoemulsification with phaco-goniosynechialysis (phaco-GSL). Low-certainty evidence suggested that there may be little to no difference in mean IOP at 12 months (MD -0.12 mmHg, 95% CI -4.72 to 4.48; 1 study, 32 eyes) between the interventions. Phacoemulsification did not reduce the number of IOP-lowering medications compared to phaco-GSL at 12 months (MD -0.38, 95% CI -1.23 to 0.47; 1 study, 32 eyes; moderate certainty evidence). Three eyes in the phaco-GSL group developed hyphemas. No data were available at 12 months for progression of visual field loss, gonioscopic findings, visual acuity, and quality of life measures. Three studies compared phacoemulsification with combined phaco-trabeculectomy, but the data were only available for one study (63 eyes). In this study, low-certainty evidence suggested that there was little to no difference between groups in mean change in IOP from baseline (MD -0.60 mmHg, 95% CI -1.99 to 0.79), number of IOP-lowering medications at 12 months (MD 0.00, 95% CI -0.42 to 0.42), and VA measured by the Snellen chart (MD -0.03, 95% CI -0.18 to 0.12). Participants in the phacoemulsification group had fewer complications (risk ratio [RR] 0.59, 95% CI 0.34 to 1.04), and the phaco-trabeculectomy group required more IOP-lowering procedures (RR 5.81, 95% CI 1.41 to 23.88), but the evidence was very uncertain. No data were available for other outcomes. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Moderate certainty evidence showed that lens extraction has an advantage over LPI in treating chronic PACG with clear crystalline lenses over three years of follow-up; ultimately, the decision for intervention should be part of a shared decision-making process between the clinician and the patient. For people with chronic PACG and visually significant cataracts, low certainty evidence suggested that combining phacoemulsification with either viscogonioplasty or goniosynechialysis does not confer any additional benefit over phacoemulsification alone. There was insufficient evidence to draw any meaningful conclusions regarding phacoemulsification versus trabeculectomy. Low certainty evidence suggested that combining phacoemulsification with trabeculectomy does not confer any additional benefit over phacoemulsification alone, and may cause more complications instead. These conclusions only apply to short- to medium-term outcomes; studies with longer follow-up periods can help assess whether these effects persist in the long term.
Ratanawongphaibul K, Tsikata E, Zemplenyi M, Lee H, Margeta MA, Ondeck CL, Kim J, Pan BX, Petrakos P, Coleman AL, Yu F, de Boer JF, Chen TC. Earlier Detection of Glaucoma Progression Using High-Density 3-Dimensional Spectral-Domain OCT Optic Nerve Volume Scans. Ophthalmol Glaucoma 2021;4(6):604-616.Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare onset times of glaucoma progression among different glaucoma tests: disc photography (DP), visual field (VF) testing, 2-dimensional (2D) retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness, and 3-dimensional (3D) spectral-domain (SD) OCT neuroretinal rim measurements. DESIGN: Prospective, longitudinal cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred twenty-four eyes of 124 patients with open-angle glaucoma. METHODS: Over a 5-year period, 124 patients with open-angle glaucoma underwent yearly DP, VF testing, SD OCT RNFL thickness scans, and optic nerve volume scans (Spectralis; Heidelberg Engineering), all performed on the same day. From high-density optic nerve volume scans, custom-built software calculated the minimum distance band (MDB) thickness, a 3D neuroretinal rim parameter. Patients were classified as glaucoma progressors or nonglaucoma progressors using event-based analysis. Progression by DP and VF testing occurred when 3 masked glaucoma specialists unanimously concurred. Progression by RNFL and MDB thickness occurred if change of more than test-retest variability was observed. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed to analyze time-to-progression data. Kappa Coefficients were used to measure agreement of progressing eyes among methods. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Time to glaucoma progression among all 4 methods. RESULTS: Global MDB thickness detected glaucoma progression in the highest percentage of eyes (52.4%) compared with DP (16.1%; P < 0.001) and global RNFL thickness (15.3%; P < 0.001). Global MDB thickness detected glaucoma progression earlier than either DP (23 months vs. 44 months; P < 0.001) or global RNFL thickness (23 months vs. 33 months; P < 0.001). Among MDB progressing eyes, 46.2% were confirmed simultaneously or later by other conventional methods. Agreement of glaucoma-progressing eyes for all 4 methods in paired fashion were slight to fair (κ = 0.095-0.300). CONCLUSIONS: High-density 3D SD OCT neuroretinal rim measurements detected glaucoma progression approximately 1 to 2 years earlier compared with current clinically available structural tests (i.e., DP and 2D RNFL thickness measurements).
Gharahkhani P, Jorgenson E, Hysi P, Khawaja AP, Pendergrass S, Han X, Ong JS, Hewitt AW, Segrè AV, Rouhana JM, Hamel AR, Igo RP, Choquet H, Qassim A, Josyula NS, Cooke Bailey JN, Bonnemaijer PWM, Iglesias A, Siggs OM, Young TL, Vitart V, Thiadens AAHJ, Karjalainen J, Uebe S, Melles RB, Nair SK, Luben R, Simcoe M, Amersinghe N, Cree AJ, Hohn R, Poplawski A, Chen LJ, Rong S-S, Aung T, Vithana EN, Vithana EN, Vithana EN, Vithana EN, Vithana EN, and Consortium UKBEV, and Consortium UKBEV, and Consortium UKBEV, Tamiya G, Shiga Y, Yamamoto M, Nakazawa T, Currant H, Birney E, Wang X, Auton A, Lupton MK, Martin NG, Ashaye A, Olawoye O, Williams SE, Akafo S, Ramsay M, Hashimoto K, Kamatani Y, Akiyama M, Momozawa Y, Foster PJ, Khaw PT, Morgan JE, Strouthidis NG, Kraft P, Kang JH, Pang CP, Pasutto F, Mitchell P, Lotery AJ, Palotie A, van Duijn C, Haines JL, Hammond C, Pasquale LR, Klaver CCW, Hauser M, Khor CC, Mackey DA, Kubo M, Cheng C-Y, Craig JE, Macgregor S, Wiggs JL. Genome-wide meta-analysis identifies 127 open-angle glaucoma loci with consistent effect across ancestries. Nat Commun 2021;12(1):1258.Abstract
Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG), is a heritable common cause of blindness world-wide. To identify risk loci, we conduct a large multi-ethnic meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies on a total of 34,179 cases and 349,321 controls, identifying 44 previously unreported risk loci and confirming 83 loci that were previously known. The majority of loci have broadly consistent effects across European, Asian and African ancestries. Cross-ancestry data improve fine-mapping of causal variants for several loci. Integration of multiple lines of genetic evidence support the functional relevance of the identified POAG risk loci and highlight potential contributions of several genes to POAG pathogenesis, including SVEP1, RERE, VCAM1, ZNF638, CLIC5, SLC2A12, YAP1, MXRA5, and SMAD6. Several drug compounds targeting POAG risk genes may be potential glaucoma therapeutic candidates.
Chang EK, Gupta S, Chachanidze M, Miller JB, Chang TC, Solá-Del Valle DA. Combined pars plana glaucoma drainage device placement and vitrectomy using a vitrectomy sclerotomy site for tube placement: a case series. BMC Ophthalmol 2021;21(1):106.Abstract
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to report the safety and efficacy of pars plana glaucoma drainage devices with pars plana vitrectomy using one of the vitrectomy sclerotomy sites for tube placement in patients with refractory glaucoma. METHODS: Retrospective case series of 28 eyes of 28 patients who underwent combined pars plana glaucoma drainage device and pars plana vitrectomy between November 2016 and September 2019 at Massachusetts Eye and Ear. Main outcome measures were intraocular pressure (IOP), glaucoma medication burden, best corrected visual acuity, and complications. Statistical tests were performed with R and included Kaplan-Meier analyses, Wilcoxon paired signed-rank tests, and Fisher tests. RESULTS: Mean IOP decreased from 22.8 mmHg to 11.8 mmHg at 1.5 years (p = 0.002), and mean medication burden decreased from 4.3 to 2.1 at 1.5 years (p = 0.004). Both IOP and medication burden were significantly lower at all follow-up time points. The probability of achieving 5 < IOP ≤ 18 mmHg with at least 20% IOP reduction from preoperative levels was 86.4% at 1 year and 59.8% at 1.5 years. At their last visit, three eyes (10.7%) achieved complete success with IOP reduction as above without medications, and 14 eyes (50.0%) achieved qualified success with medications. Hypotony was observed in 1 eye (3.6%) prior to 3 months postoperatively and 0 eyes after 3 months. Visual acuity was unchanged or improved in 23 eyes (82.1%) at their last follow-up. Two patients had a visual acuity decrease of > 2 lines. Two eyes required subsequent pars plana vitrectomies for tube obstruction, and one eye had transient hypotony. CONCLUSIONS: The results of pars plana glaucoma drainage device and pars plana vitrectomy using one of the vitrectomy sclerotomy sites for tube placement are promising, resulting in significant IOP and medication-burden reductions through postoperative year 1.5 without additional risk of postoperative complications. Inserting glaucoma drainage devices into an existing vitrectomy sclerotomy site may potentially save surgical time by obviating the need to create another sclerotomy for tube placement and suture one of the vitrectomy ports.
Waksmunski AR, Song YE, Kinzy TG, Laux RA, Sewell J, Fuzzell D, Fuzzell S, Miller S, Wiggs JL, Pasquale LR, Skarie JM, Haines JL, Cooke Bailey JN. The GGLEAM Study: Understanding Glaucoma in the Ohio Amish. Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021;18(4)Abstract
Glaucoma leads to millions of cases of visual impairment and blindness around the world. Its susceptibility is shaped by both environmental and genetic risk factors. Although over 120 risk loci have been identified for glaucoma, a large portion of its heritability is still unexplained. Here we describe the foundation of the Genetics of GLaucoma Evaluation in the AMish (GGLEAM) study to investigate the genetic architecture of glaucoma in the Ohio Amish, which exhibits lower genetic and environmental heterogeneity compared to the general population. To date, we have enrolled 81 Amish individuals in our study from Holmes County, Ohio. As a part of our enrollment process, 62 GGLEAM study participants (42 glaucoma-affected and 20 unaffected individuals) received comprehensive eye examinations and glaucoma evaluations. Using the data from the Anabaptist Genealogy Database, we found that 80 of the GGLEAM study participants were related to one another through a large, multigenerational pedigree containing 1586 people. We plan to integrate the health and kinship data obtained for the GGLEAM study to interrogate glaucoma genetics and pathophysiology in this unique population.
WuDunn D, Takusagawa HL, Sit AJ, Rosdahl JA, Radhakrishnan S, Hoguet A, Han Y, Chen TC. OCT Angiography for the Diagnosis of Glaucoma: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2021;128(8):1222-1235.Abstract
PURPOSE: To review the current published literature on the use of OCT angiography (OCTA) to help detect changes associated with the diagnosis of primary open-angle glaucoma. METHODS: Searches of the peer-reviewed literature were conducted in March 2018, June 2018, April 2019, December 2019, and June 2020 in the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases. Abstracts of 459 articles were examined to exclude reviews and non-English articles. After inclusion and exclusion criteria were applied, 75 articles were selected and the panel methodologist rated them for strength of evidence. Three articles were rated level I and 57 articles were rated level II. The 15 level III articles were excluded. RESULTS: OCT angiography can detect decreased capillary vessel density within the peripapillary nerve fiber layer (level II) and macula (level I and II) in patients with suspected glaucoma, preperimetric glaucoma, and perimetric glaucoma. The degree of vessel density loss correlates significantly with glaucoma severity both overall and topographically (level II) as well as longitudinally (level I). For differentiating glaucomatous from healthy eyes, some studies found that peripapillary and macular vessel density measurements by OCTA show a diagnostic ability (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) that is comparable with structural OCT retinal nerve fiber and ganglion cell thickness measurements, whereas other studies found that structural OCT measurements perform better. Choroidal or deep-layer microvasculature dropout as measured by OCTA is also associated with glaucoma damage (level I and II). Lower peripapillary and macular vessel density and choroidal microvasculature dropout are associated with faster rates of disease progression (level I and II). CONCLUSIONS: Vessel density loss associated with glaucoma can be detected by OCTA. Peripapillary, macular, and choroidal vessel density parameters may complement visual field and structural OCT measurements in the diagnosis of glaucoma.
of Partnership GES, Li Z, Wang Z, Lee MC, Zenkel M, Peh E, Ozaki M, Topouzis F, Nakano S, Chan A, Chen S, Williams SEI, Orr A, Nakano M, Kobakhidze N, Zarnowski T, Popa-Cherecheanu A, Mizoguchi T, Manabe S-I, Hayashi K, Kazama S, Inoue K, Mori Y, Miyata K, Sugiyama K, Higashide T, Chihara E, Ideta R, Ishiko S, Yoshida A, Tokumo K, Kiuchi Y, Ohashi T, Sakurai T, Sugimoto T, Chuman H, Aihara M, Inatani M, Mori K, Ikeda Y, Ueno M, Gaston D, Rafuse P, Shuba L, Saunders J, Nicolela M, Chichua G, Tabagari S, Founti P, Sim KS, Meah WY, Soo HM, Chen XY, Chatzikyriakidou A, Keskini C, Pappas T, Anastasopoulos E, Lambropoulos A, Panagiotou ES, Mikropoulos DG, Kosior-Jarecka E, Cheong A, Li Y, Lukasik U, Nongpiur ME, Husain R, Perera SA, Álvarez L, García M, González-Iglesias H, Cueto AFV, Cueto LFV, Martinón-Torres F, Salas A, Oguz Ç, Tamcelik N, Atalay E, Batu B, Irkec M, Aktas D, Kasim B, Astakhov YS, Astakhov SY, Akopov EL, Giessl A, Mardin C, Hellerbrand C, Cooke Bailey JN, Igo RP, Haines JL, Edward DP, Heegaard S, Davila S, Tan P, Kang JH, Pasquale LR, Kruse FE, Reis A, Carmichael TR, Hauser M, Ramsay M, Mossböck G, Yildirim N, Tashiro K, Konstas AGP, Coca-Prados M, Foo JN, Kinoshita S, Sotozono C, Kubota T, Dubina M, Ritch R, Wiggs JL, Pasutto F, Schlötzer-Schrehardt U, Ho YS, Aung T, Tam WL, Khor CC. Association of Rare CYP39A1 Variants With Exfoliation Syndrome Involving the Anterior Chamber of the Eye. JAMA 2021;325(8):753-764.Abstract
Importance: Exfoliation syndrome is a systemic disorder characterized by progressive accumulation of abnormal fibrillar protein aggregates manifesting clinically in the anterior chamber of the eye. This disorder is the most commonly known cause of glaucoma and a major cause of irreversible blindness. Objective: To determine if exfoliation syndrome is associated with rare, protein-changing variants predicted to impair protein function. Design, Setting, and Participants: A 2-stage, case-control, whole-exome sequencing association study with a discovery cohort and 2 independently ascertained validation cohorts. Study participants from 14 countries were enrolled between February 1999 and December 2019. The date of last clinical follow-up was December 2019. Affected individuals had exfoliation material on anterior segment structures of at least 1 eye as visualized by slit lamp examination. Unaffected individuals had no signs of exfoliation syndrome. Exposures: Rare, coding-sequence genetic variants predicted to be damaging by bioinformatic algorithms trained to recognize alterations that impair protein function. Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the presence of exfoliation syndrome. Exome-wide significance for detected variants was defined as P < 2.5 × 10-6. The secondary outcomes included biochemical enzymatic assays and gene expression analyses. Results: The discovery cohort included 4028 participants with exfoliation syndrome (median age, 78 years [interquartile range, 73-83 years]; 2377 [59.0%] women) and 5638 participants without exfoliation syndrome (median age, 72 years [interquartile range, 65-78 years]; 3159 [56.0%] women). In the discovery cohort, persons with exfoliation syndrome, compared with those without exfoliation syndrome, were significantly more likely to carry damaging CYP39A1 variants (1.3% vs 0.30%, respectively; odds ratio, 3.55 [95% CI, 2.07-6.10]; P = 6.1 × 10-7). This outcome was validated in 2 independent cohorts. The first validation cohort included 2337 individuals with exfoliation syndrome (median age, 74 years; 1132 women; n = 1934 with demographic data) and 2813 individuals without exfoliation syndrome (median age, 72 years; 1287 women; n = 2421 with demographic data). The second validation cohort included 1663 individuals with exfoliation syndrome (median age, 75 years; 587 women; n = 1064 with demographic data) and 3962 individuals without exfoliation syndrome (median age, 74 years; 951 women; n = 1555 with demographic data). Of the individuals from both validation cohorts, 5.2% with exfoliation syndrome carried CYP39A1 damaging alleles vs 3.1% without exfoliation syndrome (odds ratio, 1.82 [95% CI, 1.47-2.26]; P < .001). Biochemical assays classified 34 of 42 damaging CYP39A1 alleles as functionally deficient (median reduction in enzymatic activity compared with wild-type CYP39A1, 94.4% [interquartile range, 78.7%-98.2%] for the 34 deficient variants). CYP39A1 transcript expression was 47% lower (95% CI, 30%-64% lower; P < .001) in ciliary body tissues from individuals with exfoliation syndrome compared with individuals without exfoliation syndrome. Conclusions and Relevance: In this whole-exome sequencing case-control study, presence of exfoliation syndrome was significantly associated with carriage of functionally deficient CYP39A1 sequence variants. Further research is needed to understand the clinical implications of these findings.
Shroff S, Gu SZ, Vardhan S A, Mani I, Aziz K, P N, Datta D, Friedman DS. Screening first-degree relatives of glaucoma patients reveals barriers to participation. Br J Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
PURPOSE: To report the results of a glaucoma screening campaign targeting first-degree relatives of glaucoma patients in South India. METHODS: 1598 glaucoma patients were contacted via letter or letter and phone call and asked to bring their siblings and children to a glaucoma screening. Participants underwent standardised eye examinations and completed questionnaires that assessed barriers to participation and awareness of glaucoma risk. Two-proportion z-tests were used to compare categorical data. Costs associated with the screening were recorded. RESULTS: 206 probands (12.9%) attended the screening along with 50 siblings and children. Probands were nearly twice as likely to attend if they had been contacted via both letter and phone call rather than letter only. Over half of probands reported that their relatives could not participate because they did not live in the region, and one-fifth reported that their relatives had other commitments. Fifty-eight per cent of the siblings and children who attended did not know that they were at increased risk for glaucoma due to their family history, and 32.0% did not know that the relative who had invited them to the screening had glaucoma. Thirteen siblings and children (26.0% of those who attended) were found to have findings concerning for glaucoma. The average cost per first-degree relative who was screened was INR2422 (£26). CONCLUSION: Participation in this glaucoma screening campaign was poor. The major barrier to participation was distance from the screening site and associated indirect costs. Better strategies for bringing first-degree relatives in for examinations are needed.
E J-Y, Schrack JA, Mihailovic A, Wanigatunga AA, West SK, Friedman DS, Gitlin LN, Li T, Ramulu PY. Patterns of Daily Physical Activity across the Spectrum of Visual Field Damage in Glaucoma Patients. Ophthalmology 2021;128(1):70-77.Abstract
PURPOSE: To define and quantify patterns of objectively measured daily physical activity by level of visual field (VF) damage in glaucoma patients including: (1) activity fragmentation, a metric of health and physiologic decline, and (2) diurnal patterns of activity, a measure of rest and activity rhythms. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Older adults diagnosed with glaucoma or suspected glaucoma. METHODS: Degree of VF damage was defined by the average VF sensitivity within the integrated VF (IVF). Each participant wore a hip accelerometer for 1 week to measure daily minute-by-minute activity for 7 consecutive days. Activity fragmentation was calculated as the reciprocal of the average activity bout duration in minutes, with higher fragmentation indicating more transient, rather than sustained, activity. Multivariate linear regression was used to test for cross-sectional associations between VF damage and activity fragmentation. Multivariate linear mixed-effects models were used to assess the associations between VF damage and accumulation of activity across 6 3-hour intervals from 5 am to 11 pm. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Activity fragmentation and amount of activity (steps) over the course of the day. RESULTS: Each 5-dB decrement in IVF sensitivity was associated with 16.3 fewer active minutes/day (P < 0.05) and 2% higher activity fragmentation (P < 0.05), but not with the number of active bouts per day (P = 0.30). In time-of-day analyses, lower IVF sensitivity was associated with fewer steps over the 11 am to 2 pm, 2 pm to 5 pm, and 5 pm to 8 pm periods (106.6, 93.1, and 89.2 fewer steps, respectively; P < 0.05 for all), but not over other periods. The activity midpoint (the time at which half of the daily activity is completed) did not vary across level of VF damage. CONCLUSIONS: At worse levels of VF damage, glaucoma patients demonstrate shorter, more fragmented bouts of physical activity throughout the day and lower activity levels during typical waking hours, reflecting low physiologic functioning. Further work is needed to establish the temporality of this association and whether glaucoma patients with such activity patterns are at a greater risk of adverse health outcomes associated with activity fragmentation.

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