The impact of artificial intelligence in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma. Eye (Lond) 2020;34(1):1-11.Abstract.
Deep learning (DL) is a subset of artificial intelligence (AI), which uses multilayer neural networks modelled after the mammalian visual cortex capable of synthesizing images in ways that will transform the field of glaucoma. Autonomous DL algorithms are capable of maximizing information embedded in digital fundus photographs and ocular coherence tomographs to outperform ophthalmologists in disease detection. Other unsupervised algorithms such as principal component analysis (axis learning) and archetypal analysis (corner learning) facilitate visual field interpretation and show great promise to detect functional glaucoma progression and differentiate it from non-glaucomatous changes when compared with conventional software packages. Forecasting tools such as the Kalman filter may revolutionize glaucoma management by accounting for a host of factors to set target intraocular pressure goals that preserve vision. Activation maps generated from DL algorithms that process glaucoma data have the potential to efficiently direct our attention to critical data elements embedded in high throughput data and enhance our understanding of the glaucomatous process. It is hoped that AI will realize more accurate assessment of the copious data encountered in glaucoma management, improving our understanding of the disease, preserving vision, and serving to enhance the deep bonds that patients develop with their treating physicians.