Oculoplastics

Nguyen J, Fay A, Yadav P, MacIntosh PW, Metson R. Stereotactic microdebrider in deep lateral orbital decompression for patients with thyroid eye disease. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2014;30(3):262-6.Abstract
PURPOSE: Stereotactic navigation systems have been used in neurosurgery and otolaryngology with great success. The current investigation illustrates the novel use of a microdebrider with built-in stereotactic guidance in a series of thyroid orbitopathy patients who underwent deep lateral orbital wall decompression surgery. METHODS: A noncomparative, interventional, retrospective case series of patients who underwent deep lateral deep orbital wall decompression from 2006 to 2013 was conducted in accordance with Institutional Review Board policy and the Declaration of Helsinki. Patient demographics, indications for surgery, pre-, intra-, and postoperative findings along with complications were recorded. RESULTS: One hundred eight deep lateral orbital decompression surgeries were performed in 69 patients using the Straightshot M4 Microdebrider with built-in stereotactic guidance (Medtronics). Seventy-eight cases were in women and 30 cases were in men. The average age was 50.4 years (SD = 11.9 years). Indications for surgery included proptosis, exposure keratopathy, or compressive optic neuropathy. No patient experienced intraoperative complications. Specifically, cerebrospinal fluid leak, visual loss, infection, or unanticipated inflammation were not encountered. The average postoperative follow-up time was 5.35 months. Mean reduction in proptosis was 3.72 mm (SD = 2.1). Visual acuity improved in 32.4% (35/108) of cases. CONCLUSIONS: This surgical instrument combines a single handpiece locator, microdebrider, irrigator, retractor, and suction device into one. It enhances anatomical localization during orbital decompression and, with an integrated tissue guard, may decrease the risk of injury to orbital soft tissues. Stereotactic navigation enhances the surgeon's ability to determine the maximal limits of decompression in real time by confirming depth of bone removal and may potentially increase surgeons' confidence in orbital decompression surgery.
Borodic GE, Caruso P, Acquadro M, Chick S. Parry-Romberg syndrome vasculopathy and its treatment with botulinum toxin. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2014;30(1):e22-5.Abstract
Parry-Romberg syndrome is a rare condition characterized by progressive, hemifacial atrophy, hair loss, enophthalmos, retinal vasculopathy occasionally associated with hemicranial pain syndrome (secondary trigeminal neuralgia). The cause of the condition is unknown; however, substantial evidence suggests that vasculopathy plays a significant role in the genesis of the neurologic damage and facial lipodystrophy. Herein describes a case of Parry-Romberg syndrome treated with repetitive botulinum type A toxin injections, with almost complete resolution of severe chronic pain.
Yadav P, Jakobiec FA, De Castro DK, Mendoza PR, Fay A. Extruded, partially disintegrated, poly-HEMA orbital implant (AlphaSphere). Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2014;30(4):e86-91.Abstract
A 54-year-old diabetic man underwent enucleation for endophthalmitis. Secondary implantation of a 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) sphere (AlphaSphere, Addition Technology) was performed 2 weeks later. Six weeks after insertion, noninfectious disintegration of sutured tissue planes represented by Tenon's capsule, rectus muscle, and conjunctiva occurred, requiring removal of the fragmenting implant before uncontrolled extrusion occurred. Histopathologic analysis revealed an absence of infectious pathogens and no tissue necrosis, but rather breakup of the implant material that elicited a granulomatous response with sparse T-lymphocytes and almost no polymorphonuclear leukocytes. This distinctively designed poly-HEMA orbital implant incited a dramatic and irreversible host tissue response. Investigation of other cases will be necessary to determine the frequency of such a complication and should include rigorous histopathologic techniques.
Borodic GE. Use of fillers as adjunct therapy for the treatment of lower face hemifacial spasm. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2013;29(3):225-6.Abstract
The treatment of hemifacial spasm with periorbital injections of higher doses of botulinum toxin can create disfiguring and undesirable weakness in the lower face during active facial movements. The use of asymmetric hyaluronidate filler injections to the lower face provides a refinement allowing for a lowered neurotoxin dose. The filler creates a ballasting effect and involuntary facial movement. The conventional filler effect also further reduces asymmetric nasolabial folds and marionette lines. Fifteen of 18 patients with lower facial spasms found the filler toxin combination an improvement over neurotoxin alone.
Fay A, Nallasamy N, Nallassamy N, Pemberton JD, Callahan A, Wladis EJ, Nguyen J, Durand ML, Durand ML. Prophylactic postoperative antibiotics for enucleation and evisceration. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2013;29(4):281-5.Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate the necessity and usefulness of prophylactic postoperative antibiotics in patients undergoing enucleation or ocular evisceration. METHODS: A retrospective, multicenter, comparative case series was designed. After obtaining Institutional Review Board authorization, a medical records' review was conducted. Demographics, indication for surgery, surgical technique, postoperative antibiotic dosing, and postoperative course were evaluated. Records were grouped according to antibiotic protocols, and presence or absence of postoperative wound infection (orbital cellulitis) was recorded. Rates of postoperative infection were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Between 1996 and 2011, 666 evisceration or enucleation surgeries were conducted at 4 institutions. Six hundred forty-eight records were available for analysis, of which 4 were excluded due to insufficient follow-up data. All the remaining 644 patients received a single, perioperative, intravenous dose of antibiotics. Five hundred seventy-eight patients (90%) received an orbital implant, while 66 (10%) did not. Three hundred eighty-one patients (59%) received postoperative antibiotics, and 263 patients (41%) did not. Two cases were identified with signs suggestive of infection, but no culture-positive infections were found, and no patient was admitted to the hospital for management. Of the 2 suspicious cases, 1 was found in the group that received postoperative antibiotics (group 1) and 1 in the group that did not receive postoperative antibiotics (group 2). No statistically significant difference in postoperative infection rate was noted between the 2 groups (p=0.52). While patients with infectious indications for surgery were more likely to receive postoperative antibiotics (p<0.001), there was no statistically significant difference in rates of infection among patients with infectious indications for surgery based on receiving or not receiving postoperative antibiotics (p=0.79), and no patients with infectious indications for surgery not receiving postoperative antibiotics developed a postoperative infection. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the clinical safety of withholding postoperative prophylactic antibiotics in orbital surgery even when implanting alloplastic material in a sterile field. Furthermore, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines mandate cessation of postoperative antibiotics within 24 hours of surgery. Surgeons are cautioned not to generalize these results to nonsterile surgery such as sinonasal or nasolacrimal surgery.
De Castro DK, Fay A, Wladis EJ, Nguyen J, Osaki T, Metson R, Curry W. Self-irrigating piezoelectric device in orbital surgery. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2013;29(2):118-22.Abstract
PURPOSE: Orbital osteotomy risks injury to the eyeball and orbit soft tissues. Used extensively in oral and maxillofacial surgery, piezoelectric technology offers a greater margin of safety than traditional bone cutting instruments. The authors describe the novel use of this system in a variety of orbital surgeries. METHODS: This interventional case series was performed in accordance with institutional review board regulations. The medical records of all patients who had undergone orbital surgery using the piezoelectric blade at 3 institutions were reviewed. Indication for surgery, gender, age, duration of follow up, intraoperative complications, surgical result, and postoperative course was recorded. RESULTS: Sixteen patients underwent surgery on 18 orbits using the piezoelectric system between August 2011 and June 2012. Surgeries performed included orbital decompression (8), lateral orbitotomy (5), cranio-orbitotomy (4), and external dacryocystorhinostomy (1). Eight were female and 8 were male patients. Mean age was 55 years old (standard deviation 15 years). Mean follow up was 82 days. The osteotomy created by the blade was narrow and smooth in every case. The surgeons uniformly appreciated the precision and safety of the instrument compared with traditional electric saw blades. There were no soft tissue lacerations or intraoperative complications and reconstructions were uniformly uneventful. Postoperative healing was rapid with no unexpected inflammation, and no palpable bony defects were appreciated in the reconstructed cases. CONCLUSIONS: Because it does not cut soft tissue and cuts a narrow trough, the self-irrigating piezoelectric saw blade appears safer and more precise than traditional electric saw blades in and around the orbit.
Yadav P, De Castro DK, Waner M, Meyer L, Fay A. Vascular anomalies of the head and neck: a review of genetics. Semin Ophthalmol 2013;28(5-6):257-66.Abstract
PURPOSE: Vascular anomalies comprise malformations, hemangiomas, and rare tumors. The commonality among these lesions is their origin in vascular endothelia. Most occur sporadically, but occasional inheritance is observed and thus allows genetic research and insight into etiology. This review highlights those vascular anomalies in which genetic inheritance has been demonstrated. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed on PubMed. Fifty-five full-length articles were reviewed. RESULTS: Five categories of vascular anomalies with patterned inheritance were identified: arteriovenous malformation (AVM), capillary malformation (CM), lymphatic malformation (LM), venous malformation (VM), and infantile hemangioma (IH). Capillary and arteriovenous malformation subtypes are associated with a RASA-1 gene mutation and show autosomal dominant inheritance. VEGFR3 mutations have been associated with generalized forms of LM and lymphedema. Mutations in TIE2/TEK genes cause inherited forms of venous malformations also with autosomal dominant inheritance. Familial clustering and atopic disease are associated with infantile hemangioma, and gene expression varies with the developmental stage of these lesions. CONCLUSION: Most vascular anomalies occur sporadically, but several genes and genetic disorders have been associated with them. Specific forms of capillary malformation appear to be most convincingly associated with genomic errors. Further research promises new insights into the development of this diverse group of disorders.
Yoon MK, McCulley TJ. Secondary tarsoconjunctival graft: a modification to the Cutler-Beard procedure. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2013;29(3):227-30.Abstract
PURPOSE: The Cutler-Beard procedure is a commonly used technique to reconstruct large upper eyelid defects. Eyelid retraction and entropion are common complications. To prevent these problems, the authors modified the traditional Cutler-Beard procedure with secondary placement of an autologous tarsoconjunctival graft. METHODS: This is a retrospective review of 2 patients with large upper eyelid defects necessitating upper eyelid reconstruction. The initial stage is unaltered. At the time of flap division, a tarsoconjunctival graft from the contralateral upper eyelid is sutured to the posterior surface of the newly constructed upper eyelid. Two patients underwent this procedure, and follow up was 4 and 23 months, respectively. Patients developed no postoperative complications, including entropion or retraction. CONCLUSIONS: This modification to the Cutler-Beard operation is a technically simple procedure that can restore a more anatomically correct eyelid and can prevent subsequent entropion or retraction. This technique is unique, offering 3 major advances: first, placing the graft at the second surgical stage; second, replacing the tarsus and conjunctiva with like tissue; and third, preserving a lip of conjunctiva to cover the edge of the newly reconstructed upper eyelid.
Yoon MK, Jakobiec FA, Mendoza PR. Canaliculops: clinicopathologic features and treatment with marsupialization. Am J Ophthalmol 2013;156(5):1062-1068.e1.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report the features of the rare and under-recognized condition of canaliculops (or canaliculocele) of the eyelid, which is a dilation of the canaliculus, and to evaluate treatment with marsupialization. DESIGN: Retrospective interventional case series. METHODS: The records of 2 patients with canaliculops from the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary were reviewed. Data collected included clinical history, surgical technique, histopathologic analysis, and comparative immunohistochemical analysis of a range of cytokeratins in normal conjunctival epithelium, normal canalicular epithelium, and canaliculops epithelium. RESULTS: Two women, 53 and 66 years of age, experienced chronic, noninflammatory, painless medial eyelid and eyelid margin fluctuant swelling after earlier trauma or eyelid surgery. The external mass was accompanied by a whitish opalescent or bluish discoloration of a palpebral surface bulge. Biopsy revealed multilaminar (up to 12 cells thick), nonkeratinizing, tightly packed small squamous epithelial cells that surmounted a highly regimented basal layer with a picket fence arrangement. No goblet cells or subepithelial inflammation were present. Immunohistochemistry revealed only superficial CK7 immunostaining and positive patchy suprabasilar CK17 staining in the canaliculops epithelium, contrasting with their full-thickness positivity and negativity, respectively, in normal conjunctival epithelium. Marsupialization achieved resolution of the condition in each patient. CONCLUSIONS: An improved awareness of the normal canalicular epithelial structure and its immunohistochemical features can definitively separate canaliculops from conjunctival cysts. Previous treatment of canaliculops has involved complete excisions. Canaliculops may, however, be effectively treated with less invasive marsupialization while obtaining an adequate biopsy specimen for histopathologic diagnosis.
Yoon MK, Parsa AT, Horton JC. Skull thickening, paranasal sinus expansion, and sella turcica shrinkage from chronic intracranial hypotension. J Neurosurg Pediatr 2013;11(6):667-72.Abstract
In children or young adults, the morphology of the skull can be altered by excessive drainage of CSF following placement of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. In Sunken Eyes, Sagging Brain Syndrome, gradual enlargement of the orbital cavity occurs from low or negative intracranial pressure (ICP), leading to progressive bilateral enophthalmos. The authors report several heretofore unrecognized manifestations of this syndrome, which developed in a 29-year-old man with a history of VP shunt placement following a traumatic brain injury at the age of 9 years. Magnetic resonance imaging showed typical features of chronic intracranial hypotension, and lumbar puncture yielded an unrecordable subarachnoid opening pressure. The calvaria was twice its normal thickness, owing to contraction of the inner table. The paranasal sinuses were expanded, with aeration of the anterior clinoid processes, greater sphenoid wings, and temporal bones. The sella turcica showed a 50% reduction in cross-sectional area as compared with that in control subjects, resulting in partial extrusion of the pituitary gland. These new features broaden the spectrum of clinical findings associated with low ICP. Secondary installation of a valve to restore normal ICP is recommended to halt progression of these rare complications of VP shunt placement.
Osaki TH, De Castro DK, Yabumoto C, Mingkwansook V, Ting E, Nallasamy N, Curtin H, Fay A. Comparison of methodologies in volumetric orbitometry. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2013;29(6):431-6.Abstract
PURPOSE: The rate at which the orbit matures is not well-documented. Limiting this pursuit are the difficulties inherent in measuring orbital volumes accurately. This study compared 3 common methods of determining orbital volume and sought to identify an accurate, practical manner for doing so. METHODS: The volume of 1 orbit of 8 human cadaver heads was independently measured using 3 different methods: 1) CT was performed, and images were analyzed with 3-dimensional (3D) volumetric software; 2) The same orbits were then exenterated and a silicone cast was taken. The cast volumes were measured by water displacement; 3) The orbits were then filled with 1-mm glass beads that were transferred to a graduated cylinder where their volume was determined. The data were analyzed statistically. RESULTS: Intraobserver agreements were good for both beads and casts. Interobserver agreements were good for both beads and CT (p > 0.05). Values obtained using the bead method were equal to values obtained using the cast method (p > 0.05). However, agreement between direct (orbital fillers and casts) and indirect measurements (radiographic techniques) was not satisfactory (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Independent of method, determining orbital volume is inherently difficult owing to the hyperbolic parabola that is the orbit entrance; all methods require estimation. Glass beads and casts yielded more reproducible values but can only be used in cadavers. CT measurement is prone to error due to the variability of methodologies used but allows access to enormous testing populations. Interstudy comparison is currently not possible. CT volumetric software with strict universal standards for estimating the anterior limit of the orbit appears to be the best method of studying human orbital volumes.
Osaki TH, Fay A, Mehta M, Nallasamy N, Waner M, De Castro DK. Orbital development as a function of age in indigenous North American skeletons. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2013;29(2):131-6.Abstract
PURPOSE: Infants with orbital hemangiomas and vascular malformations often develop expanded orbits or regional hyperostosis. Treatment in these cases depends, in part, on the stage of orbital development at the time of intervention; yet, orbital development with respect to age is not well-known. The authors sought to determine the rate of orbital development and the age of orbital maturation in a single ethnic population. METHODS: Skeletons recovered in North America and housed at the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard University, were inspected. The age of specimen was determined by dentition. Orbital volume was measured using 1-mm glass beads and a graduated cylinder. Linear measurements were taken with calipers and paper rulers. The measurements were plotted against age, and statistical analysis was performed. Relevant literature was reviewed. RESULTS: Of the hundreds of skeletons examined, 42 were sufficiently intact for orbital measurement. The specimens represented a period of up to 1000 years. Thirty-two were pediatric (defined prenatal to 18 years) and 10 were adults. Mean adult orbital volume was 26.2 ml. Based on the regression analysis, 60% of adult orbital volume was achieved at 4.35 years, 75% at 9.36 years, and 90% at 17.13 years of age. Linear dimensions progressively increased with age. CONCLUSIONS: This largest direct-measure study of pediatric orbital volume suggests that orbital growth continually decelerates from birth until maturity at 22 years. With 50% of orbital growth occurring by 16 months of age, surgeons removing periocular vascular anomalies after that age should consider concurrent skeletal management.
Patel MM, Stacy RC. Paraneoplastic dermatomyositis related to a chondrosarcoma involving the cavernous sinus. J Neuroophthalmol 2013;33(4):363-6.Abstract
Approximately one third of all cases of dermatomyositis may be associated with malignancy. We describe a patient with unexplained rash, joint pain, and muscle weakness, who subsequently developed a cavernous sinus syndrome due to a central nervous system chondrosarcoma. Discovery of this tumor and further dermatologic evaluation, including skin biopsy, resulted in diagnosis of paraneoplastic dermatomyositis due to cavernous sinus chondrosarcoma.
Mendoza PR, Jakobiec FA, Townsend DJ. Bilateral nevus comedonicus of the eyelids. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2013;29(4):e95-8.Abstract
Nevus comedonicus is a rare developmental abnormality of the infundibulum of the hair follicle. It is usually unilateral and commonly presents at birth or during childhood. A rare case of late-onset, bilateral nevus comedonicus of the eyelids is reported. A 79-year-old man presented with asymptomatic but disfiguring eyelid lesions noted several months earlier. On physical examination, multiple papules resembling comedones were present bilaterally in the eyelids, canthi, temple regions, and bridge of the nose. Microscopically, there were deep invaginations of the follicular canals forming focal tunnels or pseudosinus tracts with poral openings to the surface. These variably cystic structures were lined by keratinizing and nonkeratinizing squamous epithelium, contained concentric lamellae of keratin in their lumens, and some were acutely or chronically inflamed. The diagnosis of a nevus comedonicus was made. The clinical and histopathologic characteristics, pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, and management of nevus comedonicus are briefly discussed.

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