Cosmetic facial fillers have gained immense popularity in recent years. Although some patients opt to undergo an injection over surgery in light of the risks of an operation, there have been numerous reports of complications from these injections, including blindness. It is thought that filler particles can migrate within an artery and become emboli within small vessels. This case of focal orbital inflammation and dysmotility as a consequence of calcium hydroxylapatite filler injection in the face has not yet been documented in the literature.
The authors describe a 20-year-old man who sustained multiple facial fractures in a high-speed motor vehicle crash, including a bone fragment from a skull base fracture that penetrated the orbital soft tissues superomedially. Serial CT scans documented spontaneous resorption over a 6-month period. While it is known that autologous bone grafts used in craniofacial reconstruction exhibit variable amounts of bone resorption, the complete resorption of an intraorbital fracture fragment has not been documented in the literature. His clinical care and the report of his case were undertaken in a fashion in accordance with the principles of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act regulations.
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is a systemic process that can cause significant orbital disease. It can affect both sexes and all ages, with irreversible consequences if left untreated. Diagnosis is currently based upon a combination of clinical and imaging evidence of tissue swelling or mass, serum evidence of elevated IgG4 levels and histopathologic evidence of inappropriate IgG4 presence. The cause of IgG4-RD is as of yet unclear; this lack of understanding and the dearth of prospective studies have limited our ability to manage patients effectively. In this review, we discuss the most recent published evidence regarding best-practice management of IgG4-related orbital disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature remains retrospective, and has focused on the use of corticosteroid therapy as a first-line treatment. Rituximab infusions have also received significant attention, among other second-line agents. Radiation therapy has been reported to be effective. Long-term monitoring for relapse, involvement of other organ systems and potential neoplastic transformation is required. SUMMARY: The management of orbital IgG4-RD will gain from more targeted therapy in the future as the underlying cause is better understood. In the meantime, randomized, controlled trials of varying treatment regimens would be of benefit.
Mucormycosis is a rare often fatal opportunistic fungal infection. It is typically described in patients with diabetes in ketoacidotic status and is rare in renal transplant recipients. Calciphylaxis is a rare and highly morbid disease of vascular calcification affecting patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). The first case of a renal transplant recipient who was inflicted with both rhinoorbitocerebral mucormycosis and calciphylaxis is reported. A 45-year-old man presented with 2-day history of left upper blepharoptosis, periorbital pain, left-sided headache, binocular diplopia, and left V2 numbness. He had undergone renal transplant for ESRD 7 months earlier with resultant immunosuppressive therapy. MRI and nasal biopsy confirmed rhinoorbitocerebral mucormycosis. Immunosuppressive therapy was stopped and antifungal therapy begun. He had orbital exenteration for progressive rhinoorbitocerebral mucormycosis. Two months later, the patient reported new-onset intermittent bitemporal headache and bilateral swollen, tender temporal arteries. Temporal artery biopsy revealed features consistent with calciphylaxis. Clinical presentation, treatment course, and follow up are discussed.
Lipogranulomas of the periocular tissues with fulminant fibrotic and lymphohistiocytic responses were initially described in cases of exogenous paraffin or petrolatum jelly injections ("paraffinomas"). A 49-year-old Cambodian woman slowly developed bilateral pseudoptosis with intact levator function and redundant, taut upper eyelid skin. At surgery, vesiculations or "bubbles" in the preaponeurotic fat were encountered and were demonstrated histopathologically to be empty locules surrounded by a thin collagenous lamina. Outside these extracellular spaces were CD68/CD163-positive mononucleated and univacuolated histiocytes simulating damaged fat cells or neoplastic lipoblasts in hematoxylin and eosin sections. Giant cells and chronic sclerosing inflammation were absent. The patient denied any previous injections. The bland character of the lipogranulomas in comparison with that of other injectable agents, the absence of any residual particles associated with other cosmetic fillers, and the distinctive histiocytic response of lipoblast-like cells that were sufficiently characteristic to compel the diagnosis of surreptitious silicone injections. Other conditions were excluded based on comparative clinicopathologic criteria.
PURPOSE: To describe the patterns of the melanocytic populations of 3 cases of lacrimal sac benign melanosis and 1 of atypical primary-acquired sac melanosis with a melanomatous nodule secondary to spread of atypical conjunctival primary-acquired melanosis to the sac. METHODS: Clinical records, photographs, and paraffin sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin and the Fontana reaction were critically reviewed. Additional sections were immunoreacted for melanoma antigen recognized by T cells and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. Five nonpigmented pterygia and 4 nonpigmented lacrimal sacs served as controls. RESULTS: Three patients with obstructive dacryocystitis and benign melanosis were African-Americans whose sacs disclosed the presence of nonclustering, melanoma antigen recognized by T cells, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor-positive intraepithelial dendritic melanocytes at all levels of the epithelium. The transferred melanin granules were concentrated in the adlumenal apical region of the epithelial cells. No fusiform melanocytes were found in the lamina propria. The fourth patient, a Caucasian, had atypical conjunctival and sac primary-acquired melanosis and conjunctival and sac melanomas. The intraepithelial sac melanocytes in this case were strikingly atypical and profusely distributed in a back to back fashion at all levels of a thickened epithelial layer focally approximating the appearance of a melanoma in situ. Five nonpigmented pterygia and 4 nonpigmented lacrimal sacs served as controls. Each displayed nonnesting dendritic melanocytes of various densities without back to back contact. CONCLUSION: Low densities of intraepithelial melanocytes were discovered in all controls and therefore represent a normal subpopulation within the conjunctival and lacrimal sacs. Due to the pseudostratification of the sac epithelium, melanocytes can move to higher levels without implying atypia. Benign melanosis is produced by small diffusely distributed individual intraepithelial melanocytes, whereas primary-acquired melanosis with atypia exhibits back to back, dense proliferations of large atypical melanocytes.
PURPOSE: To retrospectively review and describe full-thickness skin graft repair of lower eyelid cicatricial ectropion secondary to actinic skin. METHODS: A retrospective, noncomparative chart review of all patients who underwent lower eyelid ectropion repair with placement of a full-thickness skin graft between June 2004 and March 2014 was conducted with IRB approval. The etiology of lower eyelid ectropion, demographics including age, gender, ethnicity, laterality, graft donor site, additional surgical procedures, graft viability, surgical success rate, complications, and clinical exam findings were summarized. RESULTS: Twenty-nine eyelids in 24 patients underwent skin grafting for repair of cicatricial ectropion secondary to actinic skin changes. Ninety six percent of patients were male and 96% were Caucasian. Donor sites for skin grafts included upper eyelid (9, 31%), supraclavicular skin (9, 31%), postauricular skin (7, 24%), inner brachial skin (2, 7%), axilla (1, 3.5%), and preauricular skin (1, 3.5%). Twenty-four of 29 eyelids in the series underwent 1 or more additional procedures at the time of full-thickness skin grafting, including lateral tarsal strip (9 eyelids, 37.5%), punctoplasty (8, 33%), canthoplasty (7, 29%), excision of keratinized conjunctiva (2, 8%), transverse tarsotomy (1, 4%), ipsilateral external dacryocystorhinostomy (3, 12.5%), and lesion removal (1, 4%). There was 100% viability of the skin grafts. Overall surgical success rate was 76%, with asymptomatic recurrence rate of 17% and symptomatic recurrence rate of 7%. CONCLUSION: Repair of cicatricial lower eyelid ectropion secondary to actinic skin changes may be accomplished with full-thickness skin grafting, and is often performed in conjunction with additional procedures to fully address anatomic abnormalities.
Excised redundant, forniceal "conjunctival" tissue from a 67-year-old man who experienced a chemical injury to his OS 25 years earlier was evaluated histopathologically with the hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid Schiff (PAS) with and without diastase, mucicarmine, and Alcian blue methods. Additional immunoperoxidase testing for gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15) was undertaken. Non-keratinizing squamous epithelium composed of 8 to 10 layers of swollen keratinocytes without goblet cells surmounted a variably dense and well-vascularized collagenized lamina propria deep to which, in submucosal fibroadipose tissue, was embedded an accessory gland. The acini of the gland were composed of both GCDFP-15-positive serous cells and mucicarmine-positive goblet cells, indicating they were seromucinous rather than entirely serous, as is characteristic of normal lacrimal glandular tissue. Different features of the surface epithelium, the lamina propria, and the submucosa can separate the conjunctival and oral mucous membranes. A close analysis of the cytologic composition of associated accessory glands can reinforce the correct diagnosis of an oral mucous membrane graft when the past surgical history is unclear, because only serous cells but not mucocytes comprise the lacrimal glandular units.
The orbital branch of the infraorbital artery, a key vascular structure that is not universally noted in orbital textbooks and atlases, is clinically significant, since injury to it can result in perioperative hemorrhage. We conducted a cadaver dissection to document its presence, measure its location, and evaluate it histopathologically. It was present in 8 of 9 orbits and was a mean distance of 16.6 mm (range 10-23) from the inferior orbital rim. In half of the specimens, there were 2 separate structures seen. Histopathology confirmed these structures to be neurovascular bundles.
IMPORTANCE: Antibiotic stewardship is important in controlling resistance, adverse reactions, and cost. The literature regarding antibiotic use for eyelid surgery is lacking. OBJECTIVES: To determine standard care and assess factors influencing antibiotic prescribing practices for eyelid surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: A survey study was conducted from February 2, 2014, to March 24, 2014. The survey was distributed to 2397 oculoplastic surgeons in private and academic oculoplastic surgery practices in 43 countries. All surgeons were members of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery societies. Data were analyzed by geographic location. Linear regression was performed to quantify contributions to rates of prescribing postoperative antibiotics for routine eyelid surgical procedures. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Rates of prescribing prophylactic intravenous, oral, and topical antibiotics as well as factors that influence surgeons' prescribing practices. RESULTS: A total of 782 responses were received from 2397 surgeons (average response rate, 36.7%; 2.5% margin of error) from 43 countries. Topical antibiotic use was common in all regions (85.2%). Perioperative intravenous antibiotic use was uncommon in all regions (13.5%). Geographic location was the greatest predictor of antibiotic prescribing practices (range, 2.9% in the United Kingdom to 86.7% in India; mean, 24%). Within Europe, Italy had the highest rate of antibiotic prescriptions for eyelid surgery (41.7%) and the United Kingdom had the lowest rate (2.9%.) In South America, Venezuela had the highest rate of antibiotic prescriptions for eyelid surgery (83.3%) and Chile had the lowest rate (0%). The practice locations that were associated with routinely prescribing postoperative oral antibiotics were India (odds ratio [OR], 15.83; 95% CI, 4.85-51.68; P < .001), Venezuela (OR, 13.47; 95% CI, 1.43-127.19; P = .02), and Southeast Asia (OR, 2.80; 95% CI, 1.15-6.84; P = .02). Conversely, practice location in the United Kingdom (OR, 0.048; 95% CI, 0.0063-0.37; P = .004), Australia and New Zealand (OR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.033-0.67; P = .01), and the United States and Canada (OR, 0.41; 95% CI, 0.23-0.72; P = .002) were associated with decreased rates of postoperative oral antibiotic use. Surgeons' concern for allergic reactions was associated with decreased rates of prescribing antibiotics (OR, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.23-0.49; P < .001), while surgeons' concern for infection was associated with increased rates of prescribing antibiotics (OR 1.80; 95% CI, 1.45-2.23; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These results from members of ophthalmic plastic and reconstructive surgery societies confirm that antibiotic prescribing practices for routine eyelid surgical procedures vary widely throughout the world. No standard of care has been established that would require the routine use of postoperative prophylactic antibiotics following eyelid surgery.
Lymphedema is caused by defective drainage of the lymphatic system. In Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, involvement is predominantly of the lumens with blockage of lymphatic channels by histiocytic-epithelioid cell clusters accompanied by dermal granulomas and lymphocytes. It is a localized, painless, nonitching, and nonpitting form of lymphedema. Besides the eyelids, the disease can cause lip edema, facial palsy, and/or fissured tongue. It is rare and has received little attention in the ophthalmic literature, either in its complete triadic form, or more frequently, in its monosymptomatic forms. Pathogenesis is not well understood, and there is no effective therapy. The authors describe a case of Melkesson-Rosenthal syndrome in a 45-year-old Hispanic man with isolated unilateral upper eyelid edema. Histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluations of an eyelid biopsy specimen revealed intravascular and extravascular clusters of histiocytic-epithelioid cells that were CD68/163-positive. Variable numbers of mostly T-lymphocytes were found in the epidermis, dermis, and orbicularis muscle and by virtue of the associated granulomas established the diagnosis of Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome. CD4 helper and CD8 suppressor T-lymphocytes were equally represented. CD20 B-lymphocytes were exceedingly sparse. Conspicuous CD1a-positive Langerhans' cells were present in the epidermis, sometimes formed subepithelial loose aggregates and were also incorporated in the granulomas. The differential diagnosis includes the far more common condition of acne rosacea. Management of Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome, and of angioedema in general, is reviewed.