Oculoplastics

Osaki TH, Jakobiec FA, Mendoza PR, Lee Y, Fay AM. Immunohistochemical investigations of orbital infantile hemangiomas and adult encapsulated cavernous venous lesions (malformation versus hemangioma). Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2013;29(3):183-95.Abstract
PURPOSE: Immunohistochemical studies have begun to advance knowledge regarding the pathogenesis of vascular anomalies in many anatomical regions. However, the immunohistochemical features of most orbital tumors have been overlooked. Therefore, a comparative immunohistochemical study of a series of the 2 most common orbital vascular lesions- infantile hemangioma (IH) and encapsulated cavernous venous lesion (ECVL), the latter also termed cavernous hemangioma or venous malformation-was undertaken. METHODS: Twenty surgically excised orbital tumors diagnosed clinically and histopathologically as IHs (10 cases) or "cavernous hemangioma" (10 cases) were evaluated pathologically and immunohistochemically using hematoxylin and eosin, Alcian blue, Masson trichrome, GLUT-1, CD31, CD34, D2-40, smooth muscle actin (SMA), desmin, and Ki-67 probes. RESULTS: All cases reacted strongly with the traditional blood vessel endothelial markers CD31 and CD34 and were negative for D2-40, a selective marker for lymphatic endothelium. All IH were positive for GLUT-1, and all ECVL were negative for GLUT-1. In IH, SMA (but not desmin) stained a monolayer of pericytes and in ECVL multilaminar smooth muscle vascular mural cells and intravascular (interstitial) stromal cells. Nuclear Ki-67 immunostaining was strongly positive in IH (average of 16.3%) and close to zero in ECVL. CONCLUSIONS: Immunophenotypic results for ECVL and IH demonstrated no overlapping staining patterns. Infantile hemangioma had the classical architecture of capillaries. Because of the constant presence of mural smooth muscle, it was concluded that ECVL is an accurate and descriptive term. However, desmin negativity in ECVL indicates myofibroblastic differentiation rather than full-fledged smooth muscle differentiation. Infantile hemangioma may display ectatic channels as the lesion ages but does not acquire multilaminar smooth muscle walls. Its pericytes lack cytoplasmic filaments and desmin reactivity but are SMA-positive because of the presence of poorly polymerized actin in the cytosol. In IH, Ki-67 positivity was observed in the endothelial cells of the solid and more ectatic regions. In contrast, the virtual absence of Ki-67 positivity in ECVL lends further support for the interpretation that it is more closely related to a malformation than a benign neoplasm.
Jakobiec FA, Zakka FR, Yoon MK. Complex orbital angiomyoma with features of a lymphangiohemangioma. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2013;29(2):e61-5.Abstract
A 31-year-old woman developed left frontal headache and retrobulbar pain with exotropia and mild limitation of upgaze without proptosis. Imaging studies disclosed a circumscribed mass measuring 1.5 cm in the greatest diameter. At surgery, the lesion was adherent to the surrounding normal orbital tissues, making for a difficult and dangerous resection. Histopathologically and immunohistochemically, the lesion was a mixed cavernous angiomatous (CD31-positive) and lymphangiomatous (D2-40-positive) tumor with abundant interstitial smooth muscle. Such lesions can present significant surgical challenges due to incomplete pseudoencapsulation.
Fay A, Santiago YMB. A modified levine palpebral spring for the treatment of myogenic ptosis. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2012;28(5):372-5.Abstract
PURPOSE: Surgical treatment of myogenic ptosis usually requires a form of frontalis suspension. Complications can include entropion, headache, contour abnormalities, and poor eyelid excursion. The Levine palpebral spring has been used successfully to augment eyelid closure in more than 2,000 patients. The authors present a modified Levine spring to correct ptosis in a patient with poor levator function. METHODS: Interventional case report. A 55-year-old man with profound myogenic ptosis was treated with bilateral modified Levine palpebral springs. Eyelid position, contour and excursion, blink reflex, lagophthalmos, and ocular surface were evaluated. RESULTS: The Levine palpebral spring functioned well to open both eyelids. Margin reflex distance improved from -3 mm to 3 m postoperatively. Excellent contour and excursion were observed. Orbicularis action, including blink reflex, was preserved, and ocular surface was not compromised. CONCLUSION: The modified Levine palpebral spring is an alternative to frontalis suspension in treating select patients with eyelid ptosis with poor levator function.
Callahan AB, Jakobiec FA, Zakka FR, Fay A. Isolated unilateral linear epidermal nevus of the upper eyelid. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2012;28(6):e135-8.Abstract
A 75-year-old man presented with a recurrent, unilateral, solitary, linear, corrugated lesion of the right upper eyelid of prolonged duration together with bilateral dermatochalasis. A re-excision with blepharoplasty was performed. Histopathologic analysis of the tissue revealed parallel linear arrays of papillomatosis and acanthosis with overlying basket-weave hyperkeratosis consistent with a linear epidermal nevus. Immunohistochemical studies disclosed normal numbers of intraepidermal melanocytes and Langerhans cells without Merkel cells or an increase in cycling keratinocytes. Although the term "nevus" is mostly used in conjunction with the common nevomelanocytic nevus, in fact nevi of other cutaneous cellular elements can occur on a malformational basis (such as sebaceous, eccrine, apocrine, pilar, and elastic fiber nevi). Ophthalmologists should be aware of epidermal nevi because they are rarely associated with cataracts, malignant cutaneous neoplasms, neurologic abnormalities, and musculoskeletal disorders. For focal lesions like the present one, local excision is appropriate. A select differential diagnosis of histopathologically related conditions is provided.
De Castro DK, Hadlock T, Fay A. Dynamic imaging of paralytic eyelid disorders. Semin Ophthalmol 2012;27(5-6):167-74.Abstract
PURPOSE: Eyelid dysmotility may result from trauma, tumors, inflammation, infection, and a variety of other conditions. In these cases, a mechanical effect is disrupting a normal neuromuscular apparatus. Dysmotility can also be caused by paralytic eyelid disorders; included in this broad category are neurologic and myogenic disorders of eyelid opening and/or closure. Secondary effects include spastic eyelid closure and synkinesis syndromes. These conditions, by definition, are disorders of movement, and can only be studied adequately using dynamic imaging techniques. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was performed on PubMed. Ninety abstracts were reviewed. RESULTS: Dynamic eyelid imaging has evolved dramatically over the past two decades, at least partially due to the rise of inexpensive digital technology. Magnetic search coil imaging, high- and low-speed videography, electromyography, and high-resolution microscopy coil magnetic resonance imaging each has its advantages and disadvantages, an understanding of which will guide appropriate selection of technology in any given clinical situation. CONCLUSIONS: Dynamic eyelid imaging is useful to study dysmotility. The optimal technique depends upon the clinical setting and the physiologic or pathologic topic of interest. To our knowledge, a report of this type has not been previously summarized.
Jakobiec FA, Zakka FR, Papakostas TD, Fay A. Angiomyofibroma of the orbit: a hybrid of vascular leiomyoma and cavernous hemangioma. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2012;28(6):438-45.Abstract
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to describe a novel primary orbital vascular tumor combining elements of a vascular leiomyoma (angioleiomyoma) and a cavernous hemangioma. METHODS: A critical review of clinical records, diagnostic tests, and radiographic studies combined with histopathologic evaluation with standard and special histochemical staining and immunohistochemical investigations was conducted. RESULTS: A 44-year-old man slowly developed 5 mm of well-tolerated relative right proptosis with minimal motility disturbance and no visual decline. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a medial and intraconal rounded mass that perfused slowly and whose anterior surface was well circumscribed. At surgery, the tumor was solid and pink with intersecting white bands and densely attached to surrounding normal tissues. The most adherent apical portion of the mass was left behind after subtotal excision. Histopathologically, only a partial pseudocapsule was discovered. The tumor was composed of cavernous channels, capillary zones, compressed lumens with linear strands of endothelium, and collections of muscular veins devoid of an elastica. Striking smooth muscle actin positivity was identified in disorganized masses of smooth muscle cells in the intervascular spaces and around the cavernous vascular units; these myocytes were intermixed with bundles of interstitial keloidal collagen. The endothelium was CD31 and CD34 positive for vascular endothelium and D2-40 negative for lymphatic endothelium. CONCLUSIONS: The authors have classified this hybrid tumor an angiomyofibroma with low neoplastic potential and features of a malformation. It is a composite variant of cavernous hemangioma associated with a conspicuous proliferation of anomalous disorganized smooth muscle cells (leiomyoma). Most of the lesion lacked a pseudocapsule, which impeded surgical delivery. Incomplete excision is recommended in such cases as preferable to the complications that could ensue from overly aggressive efforts at complete removal, particularly at the orbital apex. Supporting this position is the observation that incompletely excised cavernous hemangioma generally does not recur.
Callahan AB, Yoon MK. Infantile hemangiomas: A review. Saudi J Ophthalmol 2012;26(3):283-91.Abstract
Infantile hemangiomas (IH) are the most common eyelid and orbital tumors of childhood. Although they are considered benign lesions that have a generally self-limited course, in the periocular region, they have the potential to cause amblyopia, strabismus, and severe disfigurement. The decision for treatment can be a source of anxiety for patients, parents, and physicians alike. There are numerous treatment modalities, including emerging therapies that may make treatment safer and more effective than ever before. This review discusses our current understanding of this disease, its management, and future therapies.
Pemberton JD, Fay A. Idiopathic sclerosing orbital inflammation: a review of demographics, clinical presentation, imaging, pathology, treatment, and outcome. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2012;28(1):79-83.Abstract
PURPOSE: To characterize clinical features, diagnostics studies, treatments, and outcomes of patients with histologically proven idiopathic sclerosing orbital inflammation (ISOI), to define optimal management for this recalcitrant disease, and to determine changes in characterization and management by comparing our results with the last significant literature review. METHODS: A search of the U.S. National Library of Medicine: National Institutes of Health's electronic database for cases and case series in the English literature of biopsy-proven ISOI published between March 1994 and September 2010 was conducted. A cross-literature review was performed to tabulate demographics, clinical findings, studies, treatments, and outcomes, which were compared with the ISOI data published by Rootman et al. (1994). RESULTS: Sixty-one cases, 71 eyes from 17 published reports, met inclusion criteria. No ethnic, sex, or comorbidity predilection was established. Patients typically presented in the fourth decade with proptosis (73%), pain (49%), and normal vision (44%). Orbital imaging and histopathology were sparsely reported. Most common treatments involved systemic corticosteroids either alone (34%) or combined with other modalities (51%). CONCLUSIONS: Characteristics of the disease remain unchanged, and best management was not determined due to inconsistent reporting methods across the literature. Collaboration with established groups (i.e., European Group On Graves Orbitopathy (EUGOGO), International Thyroid Eye Disease Society (ITEDS)) or the formation of a new group of physicians and scientists to help develop a systematic approach for future reporting and evaluation was proposed.
Perry LPJ, Jakobiec FA, Zakka FR. Bacterial and mucopeptide concretions of the lacrimal drainage system: an analysis of 30 cases. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2012;28(2):126-33.Abstract
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the histopathologic characteristics of different types of lacrimal drainage system concretions with clinical correlations. METHODS: Thirty lacrimal drainage system concretions submitted to the Cogan Eye Pathology Laboratory at the Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary over a 2-year period were reviewed. Concretions were studied in detail using their histopathologic staining features as revealed with hematoxylin and eosin, Gomori methenamine silver, periodic acid-Schiff, iron stain, and Brown-Hopps tissue gram stain. A separate retrospective chart review was conducted for each patient to identify any clinical correlations. RESULTS: Two major forms of concretions were identified histopathologically: mucopeptide (7) and bacterial (20). Mucopeptide concretions were found exclusively within the lacrimal sac, while bacterial concretions were found chiefly in the canaliculus. A third category of "mixed" concretions with substantial mucopeptide and bacterial characteristics comprised 3 specimens. Bacterial concretions consisted of large matted masses of filamentous, presumed Actinomyces organisms that were easily identified with the Grocott's methenamine silver stain; they were frequently cocolonized at their edges with coccal bacterial forms. Mucopeptide concretions were generally devoid of cellular elements and were composed of broad bland whorls of diffusely eosinophilic, acellular, periodic acid-Schiff-positive material punctuated by lacunae. They were often cocolonized by small numbers of bacterial cocci and occasional fungi. Culture results disclosed low virulence species. All 3 types of concretions predominated in women. Patients with bacterial concretions frequently had dry eye symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The 2 major types of lacrimal system concretions differ in their primary location and histopathologic composition. Further characterization may lead to an understanding of the mechanisms for their formation. Mucopeptide concretion is more appropriate than terms such as "dacryolith" and "mucolith," and bacterial concretion is a more appropriate term than "canaliculith," because of the absence of significant calcium or stone-like density in these masses.
Lefebvre DR, Freitag SK. Update on imaging of the lacrimal drainage system. Semin Ophthalmol 2012;27(5-6):175-86.Abstract
Epiphora is a common problem seen by the ophthalmologist. There are numerous etiologies of a watering eye, and the underlying diagnosis is not always clear. A variety of in-office examination techniques and procedures exist to aid with diagnosis and determination of appropriate therapy, but sometimes the diagnosis remains elusive, or an instituted therapy fails. Lacrimal imaging, particularly in these cases, can be helpful in assessing the function and anatomy of the lacrimal drainage system. This review serves to examine the literature of the last 10 years concerning imaging of the lacrimal drainage system.
Perry LJP, Jakobiec FA, Zakka FR, Rubin PAD. Giant dacryocystomucopyocele in an adult: a review of lacrimal sac enlargements with clinical and histopathologic differential diagnoses. Surv Ophthalmol 2012;57(5):474-85.Abstract
Dacryocystocele is an umbrella term that refers to any diffuse, centrifugal enlargement of the lacrimal sac that results from combined proximal and distal obstructions in the tear drainage system. In adults, the presence of mucus in the cyst's contents leads to the modified term of dacryocystomucocele. If infection supervenes, which almost always occurs in protracted cases and adds the clinical dimension of a dacryocystitis, then a dacryocystomucopyocele is created. Dacryocystocele and its congeners are much rarer in adults than in children. We describe a 95-year-old woman with an acquired, enormous dacryocystomucopyocele, larger than any previously reported, that developed over 25 years and produced globe displacement with an associated conspicuous enlargement of the nasolacrimal duct. The aspirated sac fluid was mucopurulent and harbored low-virulence bacterial organisms of the Prevotella and Petosteptococcus species. In infants, dacryocystoceles are transitory as the result of spontaneously reversible factors. In adults, secondary proximal irreversible fibrotic strictures or bony changes around the nasolacrimal duct typically arise from chronic inflammation or low grade infection. Other possible causations of duct obstruction, in addition to florid mucosal edema, include encroachment on the duct by enlarged contiguous ethmoid air cells; a sinus mucocele or sinusitis; idiopathic, post-traumatic or dysplastic bony remodeling of the wall of the duct; and a neoplasm-all of which require some form of surgical intervention, typically dacryocystorhinostomy. The differential diagnosis of medial canthal swellings centered on the lacrimal sac spans malformations, diverticula, dermoid/epidermoid cysts, sac inflammations/infections causing swelling without generalized sac enlargement, encephaloceles and primary epithelial tumors, as well as extrinsic tumors impinging on the sac.
Robb RM, Elliott AT, Robson CD. Developmental conjunctival cyst of the eyelid in a child. J AAPOS 2012;16(2):196-8.Abstract
Conjunctival cysts unrelated to surgery or trauma are uncommon adnexal lesions in children and may be difficult to recognize. We report the clinical and pathological findings of an apparently spontaneous conjunctival cyst in the upper eyelid of a child whose first ophthalmological examination was at 7 months of age. The cyst was surgically excised at 5 years of age.
Kirzhner M, Jakobiec FA, Borodic G. Desmoplastic trichoepithelioma: report of a unique periocular case. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2012;28(5):e121-3.Abstract
In a 58-year-old woman with blepharospasm, a slowly enlarging left inferomedial eyelid lesion developed. It measured 3 × 5 mm and was nonulcerated, well-circumscribed, whitish, upraised, and firm. An initial incomplete excision followed by a total repeated excision revealed small squamous microcysts, often exhibiting calcifications and cords of nonclefting basaloid cells embedded in a scirrhous stroma characteristic of desmoplastic trichoepithelioma (DTE). Immunohistochemical investigations disclosed CD34-positive stromal fibroblasts and many CK20-positive Merkel cells located among the epithelial cells, features absent in mimicking sclerosing basal cell carcinoma (BCC). The tumor has not recurred during 6 months of follow up. Besides BCC, the differential diagnosis chiefly concerns syringoma and microcystic adnexal carcinoma. Surgical therapy should aim at complete excision but does not have to be as extensive or aggressive as that used for morpheic or sclerosing BCC because of its lack of diffusely infiltrating margins.

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