Oculoplastics

Dohlman JC, Habib LA, Cunnane ME, Yoon MK. Subperiosteal Masqueraders as Compared to Subperiosteal Abscess: Contrasting Clinical Presentation and Radiographic Densities. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2020;36(6):596-600.Abstract
PURPOSE: Subperiosteal orbital lesions are most commonly abscesses secondary to sinusitis but, in rare cases, may represent other processes. Here, the authors compare the clinical and radiographic presentation of subperiosteal abscesses and alternate subperiosteal processes ("masqueraders") in an effort to establish distinguishing preoperative diagnostic criteria. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of cases of subperiosteal orbital lesions that underwent surgical intervention over a 3-year period was performed. The medical records of 6 cases of subperiosteal masqueraders and 6 cases of abscesses were reviewed for the clinical course, imaging (including radiographic density of lesions), and pathology. Clinical and radiographic features of the 2 groups were compared. RESULTS: All cases presented with orbital signs on exam. Fever and leukocytosis were absent in the masquerader group and present in 3 patients from the abscess group. Common radiographic findings in both groups included a rim-enhancing convex mass along the orbital wall and adjacent sinus opacification, often with bony dehiscence. Of the masqueraders, the final diagnosis was hematoma in 3 cases, mucocele in 1, and malignancy in 2. The difference between the mean radiodensity of the subperiosteal abscesses, 38 ± 5 Hounsfield units (95% CI, 34-42), as compared with the average radiodensity of the masqueraders, 71 ± 5 Hounsfield units (95% CI, 67-75), was significant (p = 0.042). Comparing radiodensity of the orbital lesion to adjacent sinus lesions and metastatic lesions elsewhere was also informative in establishing the diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Radiographic features, particularly radiodensity, may help distinguish subperiosteal abscesses from other lesions and aid in preoperative diagnosis and management.
Habib LA, Wolkow N, Cohen L, Ma L, Yoon MK, Lee NG. Pyoderma gangrenosum of the eyelid associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2020;18:100623.Abstract
Purpose: Pyoderma gangrenosum (PG) of the eyelid can be difficult to diagnosis and may mimic other, more common pathologies, thereby delaying proper treatment and management. PG may be associated with systemic disorders that have significant comorbidities. Observations: The authors present two cases of pyoderma gangrenosum of the eyelid associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Conclusions and importance: This case series highlights the importance of early recognition of eyelid pyoderma gangrenosum to avoid local and systemic comorbidities with timely and appropriate management.
Wolkow N, Jakobiec FA, Afrogheh AH, Kidd M, Eagle RC, Pai SI, Faquin WC. PD-L1 and PD-L2 Expression Levels Are Low in Primary and Secondary Adenoid Cystic Carcinomas of the Orbit: Therapeutic Implications. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2020;36(5):444-450.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine if there is a biologic rationale for using checkpoint inhibitor drugs targeting programmed cell death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and PD-L2 in the treatment of adenoid cystic carcinoma of the orbit. METHODS: Twenty-three cases of adenoid cystic carcinoma involving the orbit (13 primary lacrimal gland, 5 secondarily extending into the orbit, and 5 unspecified) were examined histopathologically. Immunohistochemistry for PD-L1, PD-L2, and CD8 was performed. Charts were reviewed for clinical correlations. RESULTS: Expression of PD-L1 and of PD-L2 was overall low in adenoid cystic carcinoma (mean expression 1.4 ± 0.9 of 5 for PD-L1, mean 0.83 ± 1.1 of 5 for PD-L2), and tumor-infiltrating CD8-positive T-lymphocytes were sparse (mean 1.1 ± 0.51 of 3). Only 13 of the 23 (57%) cases expressed PD-L1 as a combined positive score ≥1 of cells. No associations were found between expression levels of these markers and patient sex, tumor site of origin, Tumor, Node, Metastasis stage, or patient outcome. A significant association was observed between stromal PD-L1 expression and tumor histopathologic subtype (p = 0.05), and between tumor PD-L1 expression and prior exposure to radiation (p = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS: Checkpoint inhibitor drugs may have limited impact in the treatment and clinical course of orbital adenoid cystic carcinoma based on the low frequency of CD8 infiltrate and low expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2. Pretreatment with radiation, however, may improve tumor response to checkpoint inhibitor drugs.
Fay A, Nallasamy N, Allen RC, Bernardini FP, Bilyk JR, Cockerham K, Cruz AA, Devoto M, Dolman PJ, Dutton JJ, Jordan DR, Kersten R, Kim Y-D, Lucarelli MJ, McNab AA, Mombaerts I, Mourits M, Nerad J, Perry JD, Rose G, Saeed P, Seah LL, Selva D, Sivak-Callcott J, Strianese D, Verity DH, Verity DH. Perioperative Prophylactic Antibiotics in 1,250 Orbital Surgeries. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2020;36(4):385-389.Abstract
PURPOSE: Intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis is used for many clean-contaminated surgeries or clean surgeries with an implant, but its value for clean orbital surgery has not been determined. This study investigated infection risks and adverse effects related to antibiotics in patients undergoing orbital surgery. METHODS: A prospective, nonrandomized comparative case series of all patients undergoing orbital surgery with participating surgeons between October 1, 2013, and March 1, 2015. Types of surgery, antibiotic regimens, corticosteroid use, antibiotic side effects, and surgical site infections (SSIs) were entered into an electronic database and subsequently analyzed. Cases in which patients received postoperative oral antibiotics were analyzed separately. RESULTS: Of 1,250 consecutive orbital surgeries, 1,225 met inclusion criteria. A total of 1208 patients were included in the primary analysis: 603 received no antibiotic prophylaxis (group A), and 605 received a single dose of intravenous antibiotic (group B). Five patients (0.42%) developed an SSI, 3 in group A and 2 in group B. The difference in SSI rates was not statistically significant between the 2 groups (p = 0.66). Antibiotic prophylaxis, alloplastic implants, paranasal sinus entry, and corticosteroid use were not associated with differences in SSI rates. All SSIs resolved on a single course of oral antibiotics; an implant was removed in 1 case. There were no complications associated with a single dose of intravenous prophylaxis. However, 12% of 17 patients (group C) who received 1 week of oral postoperative prophylactic antibiotics developed antibiotic-related complications (diarrhea, renal injury), yielding a number needed to harm of 8.5. CONCLUSIONS: In this large series, antibiotic prophylaxis does not appear to have reduced the already low incidence of SSI following orbital surgery. Given the detriments of systemic antibiotics, the rarity of infections related to orbital surgery, and the efficacy of treating such infections should they occur, patients undergoing orbital surgery should be educated to the early symptoms of postoperative infection and followed closely, but do not routinely require perioperative antibiotics.
Freitag SK, Tanking T. A Nomenclature to Describe the Sequence of Visual Field Defects in Progressive Thyroid Eye Disease-Compressive Optic Neuropathy (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis). Am J Ophthalmol 2020;213:293-305.Abstract
PURPOSE: To create a novel nomenclature to characterize the longitudinal sequence of visual field (VF) defects in patients with progression of thyroid eye disease-compressive optic neuropathy (TED-CON). METHODS: A retrospective review of records from 1 institution identified patients with progressive Humphrey VF defects secondary to TED-CON. The VF defects were analyzed by 2 independent reviewers and classified into 1 of 10 categories, divided into 3 stages that reflect the observed progression pattern, plus a miscellaneous category (stage X). Stage 1 VF defects are the earliest detectable and involve the inferior visual field with 3 levels of severity. Stage 2 VF defects include 2 distinguishable levels of severity and occur as the inferior defects advance above the horizontal midline to involve the superior VF. Stage 3 involves progression of stage 2 VF defects to complete loss of inferior and superior hemifields. RESULTS: Of 234 VFs in 37 eyes of 23 subjects, inferior defects were most common, including stage 1a (small inferior paracentral defect) in 22 of 234 VFs (9.4%), stage 1b (large inferior paracentral defect) in 112 of 234 VFs (47.9%), and stage 1c (inferior altitudinal defect) in 11 of 234 VFs (4.7%). Stage 2a (inferior altitudinal with superior advancement above the horizontal meridian) occurred in 41 of 234 VFs (17.5%), stage 2b (inferior altitudinal with superior arcuate) occurred in 6 of 234 VFs (2.6%), and stage 3 (total loss) occurred in 5 of 234 VFs (2.1%). The longitudinal sequence of VF defects from the 37 eyes of 23 patients was analyzed. Thirty-one of 37 eyes (83.8%) demonstrated a predictable progression pattern from least to more severe: stage 1a, stage 1b, stage 1c, stage 2a, stage 2b, and stage 3. A reverse order of VF defect progression was noted in 15 eyes with improving TED-CON. A minority of progression patterns (16.2%) originated from stage X (central/paracentral, enlarged blind spot, and scatter). CONCLUSIONS: Humphrey VF defects resulting from TED-CON are most often inferior, often have a predictable pattern of progression, and can be categorized into a novel descriptive nomenclature system. NOTE: Publication of this article is sponsored by the American Ophthalmological Society.
Cohen LM, Habib LA, Yoon MK. Post-traumatic enophthalmos secondary to orbital fat atrophy: a volumetric analysis. Orbit 2020;39(5):319-324.Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate via volumetric analysis whether orbital fat atrophy occurs in late post-traumatic enophthalmos. METHODS: An IRB-approved retrospective cohort study identified patients with diagnoses of both orbital fracture and enophthalmos with a CT orbits >3 months after injury. Exclusion criteria were surgical repair, other orbital disease or surgery, adjacent sinus disease, and an abnormal contralateral orbit. Images were analyzed using OsiriX imaging software (v.9.0.2, Pixmeo, Switzerland). Total orbital volume and orbital fat volume for the fractured and normal contralateral orbits were measured via three-dimensional volume rendering assisted region-of-interest computation. Enophthalmos was measured radiographically. Paired samples -tests were used to compare orbital fat and total orbital volumes between the fractured and normal contralateral orbits. RESULTS: Thirteen patients met the inclusion criteria. The numbers of patients with each fracture pattern were floor (4), medial wall (4), floor/medial wall (3), zygomaticomaxillary complex (floor+lateral wall) (1), zygomaticomaxillary complex+medial (inferior/medial/lateral walls) (1). Mean time from injury to CT scan was 21.8 ± 16.3 months. Comparing the fractured and normal contralateral orbits, there was a statistically significant decrease in orbital fat volume (mean difference 0.9 ml (14.2%), = .0002) and increase in total orbital volume (mean difference 2.0 ml (7.0%), = .0001). One ml orbital volume change was responsible for 0.83 mm enophthalmos. CONCLUSIONS: In addition to an increase in total orbital volume, orbital fat loss occurs with late post-traumatic enophthalmos due to unrepaired fractures. This suggests correction of bony change alone may be insufficient in some cases, and the use of custom implants may compensate for fat atrophy.
Gaier ED, Tarabishy S, Bayers C, Wolkow N, Gardiner M, Lefebvre DR, Grob S. Poor prognoses of open globe injuries with concomitant orbital fractures. Orbit 2020;39(4):241-250.Abstract
PURPOSE: Orbital trauma, particularly with open globe injury, can have a wide range of visual outcomes, which can be difficult to predict at presentation. Clinical features on presentation may provide insight into visual prognosis. We hypothesized that patients with open globe injuries and concomitant orbital fractures have poorer visual outcomes than patients without orbital fractures. METHODS: We reviewed the charts of 77 patients with isolated open globe injuries (OG) and 76 patients with open globe injuries and concomitant orbital fractures (OGOF). Multivariate regression analysis was performed to assess the relative influence of individual presenting historical and clinical features on visual outcome. RESULTS: OGOF patients were more likely to have sustained blunt trauma than a sharp, penetrating injury compared to OG patients. Ocular wound locations were more posterior and likely to involve multiple zones in OGOF compared to OG patients. Among OGOF patients, orbital floor fractures were the most common and roof fractures were the least common, but the latter was associated with presenting NLP vision and multiple zone involvement. The presence of an orbital fracture independently increased the odds of subsequent evisceration/enucleation (OR: 4.6, 95% CI 1.3-20.1, = .0246) and NLP vision (OR: 6.81, 95% CI 2.42-21.85, = .0005) when controlling for zone, mechanism of injury, uveal prolapse and demographic variables. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of an orbital fracture independently confers a worse visual and ocular prognosis in patients with open globe injuries. Patients with open globe injuries in this category should be appropriately counseled.
Banks C, Scangas GA, Husain Q, Hatton MP, Fullerton Z, Metson R. The role of routine nasolacrimal sac biopsy during endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy. Laryngoscope 2020;130(3):584-589.Abstract
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Most patients who undergo endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) have a diagnosis of idiopathic nasolacrimal duct obstruction. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of routine biopsy of the lacrimal sac performed at time of DCR on subsequent patient diagnosis and treatment. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. METHODS: The histopathology of nasolacrimal specimens (n = 769), obtained from 654 consecutive patients undergoing endoscopic DCR by a single surgeon over a 30-year period, were reviewed. Specific focus included the identification of unanticipated pathologic findings as they related to pertinent patient demographics, clinical presentation, radiologic findings, and intraoperative observations. RESULTS: The study population was 69.6% female, with an average age of 56.1 ± 18.2 years. Pathological findings of tissue from the nasolacrimal sac, which was routinely sampled in all cases, showed inflammation (n = 566 [73.6%]), normal histology (n = 147 [19.1%]), granulomas (n = 8 [1.0%]), and neoplastic process (n = 7 [0.9%]). Patient history, preoperative CT scan, and/or intraoperative findings alerted the surgeon to the possibility of an unusual diagnosis in 12 of the 15 patients. An unsuspected neoplastic or granulomatous cause of lacrimal obstruction was identified on intraoperative biopsy in three patients (0.46%). CONCLUSIONS: Although neoplastic and granulomatous diseases are relatively rare causes of lacrimal obstruction necessitating DCR surgery, they may be identified by through patient evaluation in most cases and by routine intraoperative biopsy of the lacrimal sac in all cases. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 4 Laryngoscope, 130:584-589, 2020.
Choung H, Reshef ER, Tanking T, Freitag SK. A conjunctival-sparing surgical technique for lower eyelid cicatricial entropion repair in ocular cicatricial pemphigoid. Orbit 2020;39(1):23-30.Abstract
: To present five cases of lower eyelid cicatricial entropion secondary to ocular cicatricial pemphigoid (OCP) successfully repaired with a conjunctival-sparing surgical technique.: The records of one surgeon (SKF) were reviewed to identify patients with lower eyelid cicatricial entropion secondary to OCP who underwent repair with a conjunctival-sparing technique between September 1, 2016 and October 18, 2017. The medical records were reviewed and extracted data included: age, gender, past medical history, current medical and OCP status, clinical examination, details of entropion repair surgery, and outcome.: Five patients (three female, two male) were included with ages ranging from 44 to 93 years. All had biopsy proven OCP, which was in remission at the time of surgery, and all were currently receiving immunomodulatory medications. All patients were symptomatic from cicatricial entropion secondary to OCP and underwent successful lower eyelid entropion repair with a conjunctival-sparing technique described herein, involving infraciliary rotation with suture fixation of the orbicularis muscle to the tarsus. Other contributing mechanisms of eyelid malposition including horizontal eyelid laxity and orbicularis oculi override were addressed simultaneously with lateral tarsal plication or orbicularis muscle debulking, resulting in 100% anatomic success and relief of symptoms with no cases of OCP reactivation, and with good durability with an average 13.9 months follow up (range 6.5-22 months).: Successful repair of lower eyelid cicatricial entropion in immunomodulated patients with OCP can be achieved without disease reactivation using a surgical technique that spares the conjunctiva and lower eyelid retractors.
El Rassi E, Adappa ND, Battaglia P, Castelnuovo P, Dallan I, Freitag SK, Gardner PA, Lenzi R, Lubbe D, Metson R, Moe KS, Muscatello L, Mustak H, Nogueira JF, Palmer JN, Prepageran N, Ramakirshnan VR, Sacks R, Snyderman CH, Stefko TS, Turri-Zanoni M, Wang EW, Zhou B, Bleier BS. Development of the international orbital Cavernous Hemangioma Exclusively Endonasal Resection (CHEER) staging system. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2019;9(7):804-812.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Orbital cavernous hemangiomas (OCH) are the most common adult orbital tumor and represent an ideal index lesion for endonasal orbital tumor surgery. In order to standardize outcomes reporting, an anatomic-based staging system was developed. METHODS: An international, multidisciplinary panel of 23 experts in orbital tumor surgery was formed. A modified Delphi method was used to develop the cavernous hemangioma exclusively endonasal resection (CHEER) staging system with a total of 2 rounds being completed. RESULTS: Tumors medial to a plane along the long axis of the optic nerve may be considered amenable for an exclusively endonasal resection. In select cases, tumors may extend inferolaterally if the tumor remains below a plane from the contralateral naris through the long axis of the optic nerve (ie, plane of resectability [POR]). This definition reached consensus with 91.3% of panelists in agreement. Five stages were designed based on increasing technical resection difficulty and potential for morbidity. Stages were based on the relationship of the tumor to the extraocular muscles, the inferomedial muscular trunk of the ophthalmic artery (IMT), and orbital foramina. Staging by anatomic location also reached consensus with 87.0% of panelists in agreement. Size was not included in the staging system due to the lack of agreement on the contribution of size to resection difficulty. CONCLUSION: Endoscopic orbital tumor surgery is a nascent field with a growing, yet heterogeneous, body of literature. The CHEER staging system is designed to facilitate international, high-quality, standardized studies establishing the safety, efficacy, and outcomes of endonasal resection of OCH.
Charles NC, Jakobiec FA, Ma L, Belinsky I. Angiofibroma of the Eyelid: A Rare Clinical and Histologic Variant. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2019;35(4):e199-e102.Abstract
A flesh-colored, supraciliary lesion of the left upper eyelid in a 47-year-old man was excised for cosmetic reasons. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry demonstrated CD34-positive benign spindle cells, factor XIIIa-positive dendritic cells, and CD163-positive histiocytes, all dispersed within a diffuse collagenous background. Prominent loose perivascular cuffs of fibroblastic cells and collagen surrounded small blood vessels. Interpreted as an angiofibroma, the histopathology bore resemblance to that of a single previously-reported forearm lesion termed a "dermal fibroma with a distinctive perivascular cell arrangement." The lesion represents the first eyelid example of an unusual variant of angiofibroma.

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