Oculoplastics

Grob SR, Yoon MK. Central Retinal Vein Occlusion Resolving After Orbital Decompression in Thyroid Eye Disease. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;Abstract

A 49-year-old male presented with proptosis and was found to have optic nerve edema with peripapillary hemorrhages. Diagnostic testing showed a suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone. CT orbits showed homogenous tendon-sparing enlargement of the medial and inferior rectus muscles, characteristic of thyroid eye disease. Intravenous methylprednisolone was administered given the concern for compressive optic neuropathy. He initially had improvement of his symptoms, so orbital decompression was deferred. Subsequently he presented with worsening diplopia and right proptosis, a new afferent pupillary defect, and a cecocentral visual field defect. Dilated examination revealed significant optic nerve head edema and diffuse retinal hemorrhages in all 4 quadrants consistent with a central retinal vein occlusion. The patient underwent an urgent 3-wall orbital decompression on the right. Close follow up postoperatively showed resolution of the central retinal vein occlusion and the associated optic disc edema, peripapillary hemorrhages, and macular edema. Orbital decompression is known to improve many manifestations of thyroid eye disease, but this is the first report of orbital decompression resulting in resolution of a central retinal vein occlusion.

Ginat DT, Glass LRD, Yanoga F, Lee NG, Freitag SK. Lacrimal gland abscess presenting with preseptal cellulitis depicted on CT. J Ophthalmic Inflamm Infect 2016;6(1):1.Abstract

BACKGROUND: Pyogenic lacrimal gland abscesses are uncommon and thus may not be immediately clinically recognized without a high index of suspicion. FINDINGS: We present two patients with preseptal cellulitis and characteristic low-attenuation fluid collections in the lacrimal glands demonstrated on computed tomography (CT). CONCLUSIONS: Lacrimal gland abscesses should be considered when dacryoadenitis is refractory to medical treatment. Indeed, these cases highlight the value of prompt recognition of lacrimal abscess through ophthalmologic referral and the use of diagnostic imaging. Both patients were successfully treated via incision and drainage.

Shields PW, Jakobiec FA, Stagner AM, Yoon MK. Spitz nevus arising in the eyelid of a teenager. Surv Ophthalmol 2016;61(2):228-35.Abstract

A 16-year-old boy developed over a 2-month interval a lightly pigmented left upper eyelid lesion measuring 1.5 mm in greatest diameter that, when excised, microscopically was hypercellular and composed almost exclusively of nonpigmented epithelioid cells that created florid, large intraepidermal junctional nests and sheets and nests of subepidermal cells. The diagnosis was a Spitz nevus. HMB-45, MART-1, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor were all positive and established the melanocytic nature of the benign tumor. The Ki-67 proliferation index (5%) and 2 mitoses/mm(2) were both low; p16 protein was immunohistochemically identified in the nevoid cells. We review the clinical, histopathologic, and other immunohistochemical features of this entity and provide a brief differential diagnosis (including separation from a Spitzoid melanoma). This is only the third eyelid Spitz nevus reported in the literature and is the most fully characterized immunohistochemically. At their present stage of development, contemporary immunohistochemical biomarkers, while providing supplemental information, nonetheless remain less than definitive in terms of reliably distinguishing benign from malignant Spitz lesions.

Chen X, Bleier BS, Lefebvre DR, Lee NG. Pseudomonas Aeruginosa: A Masquerader in Sino-Orbital Infections. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;32(5):374-7.Abstract

PURPOSE: To report 2 immunocompromised patients with sino-orbital necrotizing pseudomonas infections and review the literature. METHODS: This is a noncomparative, retrospective case series, and review. The clinical data of 2 patients with histopathologic and microbiologic diagnoses of pseudomonas sinus infections causing orbital cellulitis were obtained from medical records. A retrospective literature review was performed on all reported cases of periorbital pseudomonas infections. RESULTS: One patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome was noted to have orbital cellulitis with clear visualization of eschar in the middle turbinate on nasal endoscopy. A second patient also had orbital cellulitis with ophthalmoplegia and presence of eschar in the sinus. Both patients had some degree of erosion through the lamina papyracea found on orbital imaging and both had intact vision without optic neuropathy. Pseudomonas infection was confirmed in both cases with permanent histopathology and cultures from conservative sinus debridement. CONCLUSIONS: Pseudomonas sino-orbital infections must be considered in the differential diagnosis in cases of eschar and orbital wall erosion especially when vision is preserved in immunocompromised individuals. This finding obviates the need for radical debridement including orbital exenteration, which can be indicated in cases of invasive fungal disease.

Lefebvre DR, Mandeville JT, Yonekawa Y, Arroyo JG, Torun N, Freitag SK. A Case Series and Review of Bisphosphonate-associated Orbital Inflammation. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2016;24(2):134-9.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report the largest series of new cases to date of bisphosphate-associated orbital inflammation. METHODS: A retrospective case review of patients with orbital inflammation following treatment with systemic bisphosphonate. RESULTS: Six patients over an 18-month period (2 males, 4 females) with an average age of 62.2 years had onset of orbital inflammatory symptoms 1-11 days after intravenous bisphosphonate infusion or, in 1 case, 4 weeks after initiation of oral bisphosphonate therapy. Imaging revealed diffuse orbital involvement in 3 cases, isolated lateral rectus muscle involvement in 2 cases, and superior rectus-levator involvement in 1 case. Two patients' symptoms resolved spontaneously within 2 weeks, and 3 responded rapidly and completely to corticosteroid therapy. The 1 patient on oral bisphosphonate had a slower but complete response to corticosteroid treatment. CONCLUSION: Clinicians should be aware of the association between acute orbital inflammation and recent treatment with systemic bisphosphonate medication.
MacIntosh PW, Jakobiec FA, Stagner A, Rashid A, Sutula FC, Yoon MK, Fay AM. Failed Cartilaginous Grafts in the Eyelid: A Retrospective Clinicopathological Analysis of 5 Cases. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;32(5):347-53.Abstract

PURPOSE: To analyze the clinical and histopathologic features of 5 failed autologous cartilaginous grafts to the lower eyelids and to analyze the reasons for these failures. METHODS: In this retrospective case series, the data collected included patient ages, reasons for and duration of cartilaginous graft implants, sources of cartilaginous grafts, and clinical and histopathologic findings at time of graft removal using hematoxylin and eosin, elastic, Alcian blue, and Masson trichrome staining for analysis of tissue alterations. RESULTS: Five cartilaginous, posterior lamellar lower eyelid grafts were complicated by eyelid thickening or retraction, graft extrusion, and entropion. Histopathologic findings included segmentation of the original single implant, stripped of its perichondrium, due to "kerfing," sometimes with overlapping of the segments and scar formation between the segments. In place of the perichondrium that had been removed during the preparation the graft implants, a fibrous pseudoperichondrial capsule had formed. Pyknotic nuclei in varying degrees were typically found in the center of the grafts, despite a high degree of preservation of the extracellular matrix (collagenous, elastic, and proteoglycan components). No evidence of inflammation, cartilaginous vascularization, or necrosis was identified in any graft. CONCLUSION: Despite minimal reactive processes, kerfing (partial thickness cuts made in the graft to increase its pliancy) may be partially responsible for graft migration, deformation, and surgical failure. The consequences were graft fragmentation and overlapping of the multiple fragments. Graft migration can be exacerbated if a posterior lamellar graft is used to correct an anterior lamellar deficiency. Interference with the overall architectural integrity of the graft and its extracellular matrix appears to play no role in failure, despite removal of the perichondrium. Mild to moderate degrees of chondrocytic dropout in the absence of necrosis and inflammation are probably attributable to the thick and coarsely textured collagen of the fibrous pseudoperichondrial capsule that may impede diffusion of nutrients into the center of the graft.

Trief D, Gray ST, Jakobiec FA, Durand ML, Fay A, Freitag SK, Lee GN, Lefebvre DR, Holbrook E, Bleier B, Sadow P, Rashid A, Chhabra N, Yoon MK. Invasive fungal disease of the sinus and orbit: a comparison between mucormycosis and Aspergillus. Br J Ophthalmol 2016;100(2):184-8.Abstract

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Invasive fungal infections of the head and neck are rare life-threatening infections where prompt diagnosis and intervention is critical for survival. The aim of this study is to determine the clinical characteristics and outcomes of invasive fungal disease of the sinus and orbit, and to compare mucormycosis and Aspergillus infection. METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted from a single tertiary care eye and ear hospital over 20 years (1994-2014). Twenty-four patients with a confirmed pathological diagnosis of invasive fungal disease of the sinus and/or orbit were identified and their medical records were reviewed. The main outcome measures were type of fungus, location of disease, mortality and visual outcome. RESULTS: Patients with orbital involvement had a higher mortality and higher likelihood of mucormycosis infection compared with those with sinus-only disease (78.6% vs 20%, p=0.01; 86% vs 30%, p=0.01, respectively). Patients with mucormycosis had a higher mortality (71%) than patients with Aspergillus (29%); however, this was not statistically significant (p=0.16). All patients with orbital involvement and/or mucormycosis infections were immunosuppressed or had inadequately controlled diabetes, and had a cranial neuropathy or ocular motility dysfunction. All five post-transplant patients with orbital infections died, while the two transplant patients with sinus infections survived. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with orbital fungal infections are more likely to be infected with mucormycosis compared with Aspergillus and have a higher mortality compared with infections sparing the orbit. History of transplant portends a dismal prognosis in orbital infections. Invasive fungal disease should be considered in any immunocompromised patient presenting with a new cranial neuropathy or ocular motility abnormality.

Teo L, Lagler CP, Mannor G, Glass LD, Freitag SK. Mullers Muscle Conjunctival Resection for Treatment of Contact Lens-Associated Ptosis. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;32(4):257-60.Abstract

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to look at the surgical outcomes of posterior approach Mullers muscle conjunctival resection surgery for contact lens-related ptosis. METHODS: This was a retrospective, comparative interventional case series. All patients and controls underwent phenylephrine 10% testing and had a positive response prior to surgical intervention. RESULTS: Thirty-one eyelids with ptosis were identified in 20 contact lens wearing patients, which were matched with 27 eyelids in 15 controls. The contact lens wearing patients wore contact lenses for a mean of 20.6 ± 12.1 years. More than half (60%) wore soft contact lenses, as opposed to rigid gas-permeable contact lenses. Preoperative margin-to-reflex distance-1 was lower in patients who wore rigid contact lenses (0.8 ± 0.7 mm) as compared with patients with soft contact lenses (1.7 ± 1.1 mm) (p = 0.01). Surgical success, as defined by margin-to-reflex distance-1 ≥3 mm or symmetry of upper eyelid height (within 1 mm), was achieved in 93.5% in the contact lens group and 92.6% of controls. Postoperative margin-to-reflex distance-1 was significantly higher in the contact lens wearers (3.9 ± 1.3 mm) compared with the controls (3.2 ± 1.1 mm; p = 0.01). There was a significant correlation between the amount of tissue resected intraoperatively and the improvement in margin-to-reflex distance-1 (Pearsons correlation coefficient, r =0.36; p = 0.006). There were no surgical complications of any patients in the study. CONCLUSION: Mullers muscle conjunctival resection surgery is an effective surgical correction for contact lens-associated ptosis. Patients can achieve excellent results with minimal risk of residual ptosis or asymmetry.

Papavasileiou E, Prasad S, Freitag SK, Sobrin L, Lobo A-M. Ipilimumab-induced Ocular and Orbital Inflammation-A Case Series and Review of the Literature. Ocul Immunol Inflamm 2016;24(2):140-6.Abstract

PURPOSE: Ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody directed against the immune protein cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), characteristically induces side effects called "immune-related adverse events" (IRAE). Although ophthalmic involvement is rare, we report 7 cases of eye and orbit complications related to ipilimumab therapy. METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of patients with metastatic melanoma who developed ipilimumab-related ocular or orbital inflammation who were seen at our institutions. RESULTS: Seven patients were identified: 4 patients had orbital inflammation, 2 had uveitis, and 1 had peripheral ulcerative keratitis. Four patients developed inflammation after the second ipilimumab infusion, 2 after the third infusion and 1 after the first infusion. All 4 patients with orbital inflammation were treated with systemic corticosteroids. Two patients with uveitis were treated with topical steroids, but were also treated with systemic corticosteroids for other IRAE, including colitis and hypophysitis. The patient with keratitis was treated with topical corticosteroids alone with resolution of inflammation. All 7 patients discontinued ipilimumab therapy, 5 due to systemic IRAE and 2 due to tumor progression. Five of 7 patients had tumor progression on ipilimumab therapy. CONCLUSIONS: Ocular and orbital inflammation may occur in patients with metastatic melanoma receiving ipilimumab, is frequently accompanied by other IRAEs, and resolves with corticosteroid treatment, often leaving no long-term sequelae.

Choi CJ, Chou JC, Lefebvre DR, Yoon MK. Margin Reflex Distance: Differences Based on Camera and Flash Positions. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;32(3):199-203.Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of camera flash position on the measurement of photographic margin reflex distances (MRD). METHODS: Subjects without any ophthalmic disease were prospectively enrolled after institutional review board approval. Clinical measurements of MRD1 and interpalpebral fissure were obtained. Photographs were then taken with a digital single lens reflex with built-in pop-up flash (dSLR-pop), a dSLR with lens-mounted ring flash (dSLR-ring), a point-and-shoot camera, and a smartphone, each in 4 positions: with the camera upright, rotated 90°, 180°, and 270°. The images were analyzed using ImageJ software to measure MRD1, interpalpebral fissure, horizontal white-to-white, and distance from nasal limbus to the corneal light reflex. RESULTS: Thirty-two eyes of 16 subjects were included (ages 27-65). When using the dSLR-ring, point-and-shoot, and smartphone, the difference between clinical and photographic MRD1 did not reach statistical significance. There was, however, a statistically significant difference in the upright position with dSLR-pop (mean difference 0.703 mm, σ = 0.984 mm, p = 0.0008). For dSLR-pop, photographic MRD1 in upright versus inverted position differed significantly (mean difference -0.562 mm, σ =0.348 mm, p < 0.0001). Photographic MRD1 between dSLR-pop and dSLR-ring showed significant difference in upright position (mean difference -0.572 mm, σ = 0.701 mm, p = 0.0002). There were no statistically significant differences between clinical and photographic interpalpebral fissure, and among white-to-white and nasal limbus to light reflex measurements in any position in all 4 cameras. CONCLUSIONS: When using photographs for measurement of MRD1, cameras with a near-coaxial light source and aperture have values that are most similar to clinical measurements.

Rai R, Yoon MK, Stacy RC. Tick Infestation of the Eyelid With Histopathologic Characterization. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;32(3):e55-8.Abstract

Ocular tick infestation is a rare occurrence. The authors report a case that is unique for being the first published example from New England, for its chronic presentation, and for the inclusion of histopathologic analysis in its diagnostic workup. A 75-year-old man was evaluated for a persistent eyelid growth secondary to an incompletely removed tick that had attached 6 months earlier. The lesion was completely excised, and a partially destroyed arthropod was observed embedded within the tissue. Light microscopy demonstrated a mixed granulomatous reaction. Given the disruption of the tick's anatomy, speciation could not be performed. The patient had an uneventful recovery. A corresponding review of tick bites to the eye is provided.

Talcott KE, Lee NG, Freitag SK. Vascular Engorgement of Lacrimal Gland Associated With Port-Wine Stain. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;32(4):e92-4.Abstract

Port-wine stains are congenital dermal capillary malformations that typically involve the head and neck. While most of them are isolated malformations, they have been associated with other vascular findings, including conjunctival, episcleral, and choroidal hemangiomas. They have also been associated with the phakomatosis Sturge-Weber syndrome, characterized by parieto-occipital, leptomeningeal, and ocular choroidal vascular malformations. However, vascular engorgement of the lacrimal gland has not been previously reported in association with port-wine stains. The authors present a case of a 52-year-old man with a long-standing and isolated right periorbital port-wine stain referred for lacrimal gland enlargement on CT scan. He was found to have asymptomatic right lacrimal gland vascular engorgement, which was radiographically stable over a period of 5 years.

Campbell AA, Jakobiec FA, Rashid A, Dana R, Yoon MK. Bilateral Sequential Dacryocystitis in a Patient With Graft-Versus-Host Disease. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2016;32(4):e89-92.Abstract

A 29-year-old woman with a history of 2 bone marrow transplants for acute myelogenous leukemia developed bilateral sequential dacryocystitis in the context of known ocular graft-versus-host disease. With each infection, the patient underwent uneventful dacryocystorhinostomy. Postoperatively, she developed severe dry eye disease requiring replacement of punctal plugs and use of a prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem lens. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical examination of the lacrimal sac showed a dense diffuse nonfollicular lymphocytic subepithelial infiltrate in the lacrimal sac that contained moderately more T-cells than B-cells. This is the first report of acute dacryocystitis associated with graft-versus-host disease. The authors caution that similar patients may develop worsening of ocular surface dryness due to restoration of normal lacrimal outflow.

Bleier BS, Castelnuovo P, Battaglia P, Turri-Zanoni M, Dallan I, Metson R, Sedaghat AR, Stefko TS, Gardner PA, Snyderman CH, Nogueira JF, Ramakrishnan VR, Muscatello L, Lenzi R, Freitag S. Endoscopic endonasal orbital cavernous hemangioma resection: global experience in techniques and outcomes. Int Forum Allergy Rhinol 2015;Abstract

BACKGROUND: Endoscopic orbital surgery represents the next frontier in endonasal surgery. The current literature is largely composed of small, heterogeneous, case series with little consensus regarding optimal techniques. The purpose of this study was to combine the experience of multiple international centers to create a composite of the global experience on the endoscopic management of a single type of tumor, the orbital cavernous hemangioma (OCH). METHODS: This was a retrospective study of techniques for endoscopic OCH resection from 6 centers on 3 continents. Only primary data from strictly endoscopic resection of OCHs were included. Responses were analyzed to qualitatively identify points of both consensus and variability among the different groups. RESULTS: Data for a total of 23 patients, 10 (43.5%) male and 13 (56.5%) female were collected. The majority of lesions were intraconal (60.9%). The mean ± standard deviation (SD) surgical time was 150.7 ± 75.0 minutes with a mean blood loss of 82.7 ± 49.6 mL. Binarial approaches (26.1%) were used exclusively in the setting of intraconal lesions, which were associated with a higher rate of incomplete resection (31.3%), postoperative diplopia (25.0%), and the need for reconstruction (37.5%) than extraconal lesions. Orthotropia and symmetric orbital appearance were achieved in 60.9% and 78.3% of cases, respectively. CONCLUSION: Extraconal lesions were managed similarly; however, greater variability was evident for intraconal lesions. These included the laterality and number of hands in the approach, methods of medial rectus retraction, and the need for reconstruction. The increased technical complexity and disparity of techniques in addressing intraconal OCHs suggests that continued research into the optimal management of this subclass of lesions is of significant priority.

Rao R, MacIntosh PW, Yoon MK, Lefebvre DR. Current trends in the management of thyroid eye disease. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2015;26(6):484-90.Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The present review summarizes the body of literature concerning the medical and surgical treatment of thyroid eye disease (TED) from 1 January 2014 through 30 March 2015. RECENT FINDINGS: Corticosteroids continue to be the primary medical therapy for TED. Recent research has offered insight into potential differences between oral corticosteroid and intravenous corticosteroid treatment regimens in terms of efficacy and side-effect profiles. Steroid-sparing medications, for example, rituximab and others, are an area of active study. There has been renewed interest in the role of radiation therapy as a nonmedical treatment for TED with some promising data. The use of balanced orbital decompression techniques have become popular, although the data regarding postoperative diplopia are mixed, and 'fat decompression' offers an alternative or an augmentation to bony decompression. Stereotactic image guidance is a useful adjunct to orbital decompression surgery. SUMMARY: TED continues to be a difficult condition for the patient to cope with and for the clinician to treat, and recent research builds on the present foundation of knowledge and treatments, but unfortunately does not offer paradigm-shifting information at the present time.

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