Oncology

Jakobiec FA, Rai R, Lefebvre DR. Papillary hidradenoma of the eyelid margin: clinical and immunohistochemical observations further supporting an apocrine rather than an eccrine origin. Surv Ophthalmol 2014;59(5):540-7.Abstract
A 46-year-old woman was evaluated for a "recurring papilloma" of the left medial upper eyelid margin. Beneath the papillary lesion medial to the punctum was a 5-mm diameter cutaneous mass thought to be cystic. After excisional biopsy, histopathologic analysis documented the presence of an epidermal keratinizing squamous papilloma surmounting a circumscribed dermal papillary hidradenoma composed of deeply eosinophilic columnar cells. Additionally, there was intraductal proliferation of tumor extending toward a subclinical poral opening through the epidermis. Immunohistochemistry proved the apocrine nature of the benign, non-cystic lesion by virtue of its nuclear androgen receptor and cytoplasmic gross-cystic disease fluid protein-15 positivity, along with its smooth muscle actin-positive myoepithelial layer. This and prior cases establish that apocrine tumors, both benign and malignant, are strictly localized at or near the eyelid margin where only apocrine glands are found. These tumors are more often papillary than solid adenomas, and most exceptionally can be malignant. We review the differential diagnosis of simulating eccrine eyelid tumors. We recommend wide local excision for benign lesions, in view of possible intraductal extension that can be eccentric to the main tumor and the miniscule potential for malignant transformation.
Ghafouri RH, Allard FD, Migliori ME, Freitag SK. Lower Eyelid Involutional Ectropion Repair With Lateral Tarsal Strip and Internal Retractor Reattachment With Full-Thickness Eyelid Sutures. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg 2014;30(5):424-426.Abstract

PURPOSE: To report a novel surgical technique for lower eyelid involutional ectropion repair using a lateral tarsal strip and internal retractor reattachment procedure involving full-thickness eyelid sutures. METHODS:: A retrospective review was performed of patients who underwent repair of involutional ectropion via lateral tarsal strip and internal retractor reattachment with full-thickness eyelid sutures by 1 surgeon. Patients having concomitant or previous eyelid surgical procedures were excluded. Collected data included patient demographics, surgical outcomes, and length of follow up. RESULTS:: Forty-one lower eyelids of 31 patients with involutional ectropion underwent surgical repair. There were 17 men and 14 women in the age range of 69 to 92 years (mean age 82.2 ± 5.9 years). Surgical sites included 22 right and 19 left lower eyelids. Follow up ranged from 1 to 48 months with an average of 5.9 months. Surgical success with anatomical correction of involutional ectropion was achieved in 39 of 41 eyelids (95.1%). There were no perioperative or postoperative complications. Two of 41 (4.9%) eyelids had recurrence of ectropion 7 and 18 months after the procedure. CONCLUSIONS:: This procedure combining lateral tarsal strip with internal retractor reattachment involving full-thickness eyelid sutures effectively addresses horizontal eyelid laxity and tarsal instability, providing an effective technique to correct involutional ectropion of the lower eyelid.

van der Ent W, Burrello C, Teunisse AFAS, Ksander BR, Van der Velden PA, Jager MJ, Jochemsen AG, Snaar-Jagalska EB. Modelling of human uveal melanoma in Zebrafish xenograft embryos. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2014;Abstract

PURPOSE. Uveal melanoma (UM) is fatal in up to 50% of patients because of liver metastases, that are refractory to therapies currently available. While murine xenograft models for human uveal melanoma are available, they have limited utility for screening large compound libraries in drug discovery studies. Therefore, new robust preclinical models are needed that can efficiently evaluate drug efficacy for treatment of this malignancy. METHODS. UM cell lines generated from primary tumors (92.1, Mel270) and metastases (OMM2.3, OMM2.5, OMM1) were injected into the yolk of two-day-old zebrafish embryos. After six days, proliferation and active migration was quantified via automated confocal image analysis. To determine the suitability of this xenotransplantation model for drug testing, drugs with three different activities (Dasatinib, Quisinostat and MLN-4924) were added to the water of uveal melanoma-engrafted embryos. RESULTS. All tested UM cell lines proliferated and migrated in the embryos; significant differences could be discerned between cell lines: cells derived from metastases showed more migration and proliferation than cells derived from the primary tumors, and provided preclinical models for drug testing. Addition of the Src-inhibitor Dasatinib in the water of engrafted embryos reduced proliferation and migration of high Src-expressing 92.1 cells, but did not affect low Src-expressing metastatic OMM2.3 cells. Two experimental anticancer drugs, Quisinostat (a histone deacetylase inhibitor) and MLN-4924 (neddylation pathway inhibitor), blocked migration and proliferation of 92.1 and OMM2.3. CONCLUSIONS. We established a zebrafish xenograft model of human uveal melanoma with demonstrated applicability for screening large libraries of compounds in drug discovery studies.

Yonekawa Y, Kim IK, Gragoudas ES, Njauw C-NJ, Tsao H, Jakobiec FA, Stacy RC. Aggressive skull base metastasis from uveal melanoma: a clinicopathologic study. Eur J Ophthalmol 2014;24(5):811-3.Abstract
PURPOSE: We present the clinical, pathologic, and genetic findings of the first reported case of choroidal melanoma that developed a late recurrence and aggressive metastasis to the skull base without evidence of hepatic involvement. METHODS: Retrospective chart review and clinicopathologic correlation of ocular and brain tissue, including sequencing of BAP1 for mutations. RESULTS: A 55-year-old woman was diagnosed with choroidal melanoma and treated with proton radiotherapy. Six years later, she developed a rapidly growing local recurrence involving the ciliary body and iris. Upon enucleation, histopathology revealed an iris and ciliary body epithelioid melanoma that was contiguous with the previously treated, regressed spindle cell choroidal melanoma. Imaging was initially negative for brain involvement. Two months later, she developed cranial neuropathies and was found to have a large skull base lesion that required surgical debulking for pain palliation. Histopathology confirmed the lesion to be metastatic melanoma. Both ocular and brain tumor specimens were wild-type for BAP1. Throughout her course, she developed no hepatic metastases. CONCLUSIONS: Uveal melanoma may metastasize to the skull base. The present case was characterized by delayed onset and unusual aggressiveness of the metastatic disease, and lack of BAP1 mutation. The unusual course highlights a unique phenotype that may reflect an alternate molecular mechanism for metastatic disease.
Brodowska K, Theodoropoulou S, Meyer Zu Hörste M, Paschalis EI, Takeuchi K, Scott G, Ramsey DJ, Kiernan E, Hoang M, Cichy J, Miller JW, Gragoudas ES, Vavvas DG. Effects of metformin on retinoblastoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Int J Oncol 2014;45(6):2311-24.Abstract
Recent studies suggest that the anti-diabetic drug metformin may reduce the risk of cancer and have anti-proliferative effects for some but not all cancers. In this study, we examined the effects of metformin on human retinoblastoma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. Two different human retinoblastoma cell lines (Y79, WERI) were treated with metformin in vitro and xenografts of Y79 cells were established in nu/nu immune-deficient mice and used to assess the effects of pharmacological levels of metformin in vivo. Metformin inhibited proliferation of the retinoblastoma cells in vitro. Similar to other studies, high concentrations of metformin (mM) blocked the cell cycle in G0‑G1, indicated by a strong decrease of G1 cyclins, especially cyclin D, cyclin-dependent kinases (4 and 6), and flow cytometry assessment of the cell cycle. This was associated with activation of AMPK, inhibition of the mTOR pathways and autophagy marker LC3B. However, metformin failed to suppress growth of xenografted tumors of Y79 human retinoblastoma cells in nu/nu mice, even when treated with a maximally tolerated dose level achieved in human patients. In conclusion, suprapharmacological levels (mM) of metformin, well above those tolerated in vivo, inhibited the proliferation of retinoblastoma cells in vitro. However, physiological levels of metformin, such as seen in the clinical setting, did not affect the growth of retinoblastoma cells in vitro or in vivo. This suggests that the potential beneficial effects of metformin seen in epidemiological studies may be limited to specific tumor types or be related to indirect effects/mechanisms not observed under acute laboratory conditions.
Aggarwal S, Jakobiec FA, Hamrah P. Bilateral adult epibulbar xanthogranulomas suspicious for Erdheim-Chester disease. Cornea 2014;33(10):1113-7.Abstract

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to report the clinical, imaging, and histopathological findings of bilateral, conjunctival adult-onset xanthogranulomas that raised the prospect of a mild form of Erdheim-Chester disease. METHODS: This is a case report. RESULTS: A 35-year-old white male complaining of ocular irritation, presented with bilateral, nasal and temporal, yellow, elevated conjunctival lumps first noticed 1.5 years back, which were not associated with other ocular findings. The lesions were firm, attached to the underlying episclera, and measured 1.1 × 0.9, 1.1 × 0.8, 1.2 × 0.5, and 0.5 × 0.5 cm in the temporal and nasal right and left eyes, respectively. Each mass was fleshy with vascularity at the peripheral margin. Histopathologic evaluation after excisional biopsy revealed lipidized xanthoma cells, multiple Touton giant cells, and lymphocytes. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for adipophilin (lipid), CD68, CD163 histiocytes, CD3 T cells (with CD8 cytotoxic T cells > CD4 T-helper cells), and virtually no CD20 B cells or IgG4 plasma cells. The patient later acquired similar xanthogranulomatous subcutaneous lesions on the extremities. Positron emission tomography scans showed sclerosis in the medullary cavities of the tibia and the radius of both legs and arms, and an absence of retroperitoneal lesions. A normal serum immunoelectrophoresis and the absence of a BRAF gene mutation were demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: Adult-onset xanthogranuloma can present as a solitary conjunctival mass without periocular or orbital involvement. The clinical, histopathologic, and radiologic findings in this case are suggestive of Erdheim-Chester disease without displaying any life-threatening lesions to date. Histopathologic and imaging studies can help in obtaining a diagnosis. Ophthalmologists should be aware that xanthogranulomatous conditions may have potential systemic implications, and a thorough systemic evaluation is recommended for lesions that initially seemed to be isolated in nature.

Mouw KW, Sethi RV, Yeap BY, MacDonald SM, Chen Y-LE, Tarbell NJ, Yock TI, Munzenrider JE, Adams J, Grabowski E, Mukai S, Shih HA. Proton Radiation Therapy for the Treatment of Retinoblastoma. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 2014;90(4):863-9.Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate long-term disease and toxicity outcomes for pediatric retinoblastoma patients treated with proton radiation therapy (PRT). METHODS AND MATERIALS: This is a retrospective analysis of 49 retinoblastoma patients (60 eyes) treated with PRT between 1986 and 2012. RESULTS: The majority (84%) of patients had bilateral disease, and nearly half (45%) had received prior chemotherapy. At a median follow-up of 8 years (range, 1-24 years), no patients died of retinoblastoma or developed metastatic disease. The post-PRT enucleation rate was low (18%), especially in patients with early-stage disease (11% for patients with International Classification for Intraocular Retinoblastoma [ICIR] stage A-B disease vs 23% for patients with ICIR stage C-D disease). Post-PRT ophthalmologic follow-up was available for 61% of the preserved eyes (30 of 49): 14 of 30 eyes (47%) had 20/40 visual acuity or better, 7 of 30 (23%) had moderate visual acuity (20/40-20/600), and 9 of 30 (30%) had little or no useful vision (worse than 20/600). Twelve of 60 treated eyes (20%) experienced a post-PRT event requiring intervention, with cataracts the most common (4 eyes). No patients developed an in-field second malignancy. CONCLUSIONS: Long-term follow-up of retinoblastoma patients treated with PRT demonstrates that PRT can achieve high local control rates, even in advanced cases, and many patients retain useful vision in the treated eye. Treatment-related ocular side effects were uncommon, and no radiation-associated malignancies were observed.
Mendoza PR, Jakobiec FA, Krane JF. Immunohistochemical features of lacrimal gland epithelial tumors. Am J Ophthalmol 2013;156(6):1147-1158.e1.Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate the immunohistochemical features of ocular adnexal pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. DESIGN: Retrospective clinicopathologic study. METHODS: Clinical records and microscopic slides of 7 cases of each tumor type were reviewed. Immunohistochemical probes for Ki-67 and p53, and newer nuclear markers MYB for adenoid cystic carcinoma and PLAG1 for pleomorphic adenoma, were employed. RESULTS: Pleomorphic adenomas were asymptomatic, whereas adenoid cystic carcinomas were painful. No pleomorphic adenomas recurred; 4 adenoid cystic carcinomas recurred, resulting in 3 deaths. Unusual histopathologic variants for which immunohistochemistry proved useful included a myoepithelioma, an atypical pleomorphic adenoma, tubular and solid/basaloid variants of adenoid cystic carcinoma, and a morphologically heterogeneous adenoid cystic carcinoma of a Wolfring gland. For the pleomorphic adenomas, the average Ki-67 proliferation index was 3.8%; p53 was weakly staining, with an average positivity of 18.5%; PLAG1 was strongly positive in all cases; MYB was negative in 5 cases and weakly focally positive in 2 cases. For the adenoid cystic carcinomas, the average Ki-67 proliferation index was 29.1%; p53 stained positively and strongly with an average of 39%; none stained positively for PLAG1; and 6 out of 7 were MYB positive. CONCLUSIONS: Between pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma, there was no overlap in Ki-67 positivity. Positivity for p53 showed overlap in only one lesion of each type. PLAG1 and MYB positivity were highly discriminating between pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma. Immunohistochemical analysis should be investigated further for its role in the evaluation of pleomorphic adenoma and adenoid cystic carcinoma.
Patel MM, Lefebvre DR, Lee GN, Brachtel E, Rizzo J, Freitag SK. Gaze-evoked amaurosis from orbital breast carcinoma metastasis. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2013;29(4):e98-e101.Abstract
Gaze-evoked amaurosis (GEA) is a transient monocular vision loss provoked by eccentric gaze. Gaze-evoked amaurosis has been associated with a variety of orbital lesions, most commonly optic nerve sheath meningiomas and cavernous hemangiomas. The authors describe the first report in the literature of GEA as the presenting symptom of an orbital metastasis. The patient was a 47-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer with no known history of metastasis or active disease who presented with several weeks of vision loss in the OD upon rightward gaze. She was found to have enophthalmos and optic disc edema of the OD. Imaging revealed an intraorbital lesion, and a biopsy was consistent with a scirrhous metastasis of her breast carcinoma. This case highlights the importance of considering orbital metastases among the differential for gaze-evoked amaurosis.
Patel MM, Jakobiec FA, Zakka FR, Du R, Annino DJ, Borboli-Gerogiannis S, Daniels AB. Intraorbital metastasis from solitary fibrous tumor. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2013;29(3):e76-9.Abstract
Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare spindle cell tumor of mesenchymal origin that usually arises from pleura or pericardium but can also arise from many extraserosal sites. Although more than 50 cases of primary SFT of the orbit have been reported, there are no reports to date of a malignant nonophthalmic SFT metastasizing in the orbital soft tissues (although sphenoid wing bony involvement has been reported). The authors report here the first case of a patient with intraorbital metastasis of a CD34-positive malignant SFT. The patient was a 57-year-old man with a history of malignant pleural SFT and a prior kidney metastasis. He presented with the rapid appearance of proptosis and massive conjunctival chemosis preventing eyelid closure, and he was found to have a well-circumscribed metastasis to his lateral rectus muscle. Surgical excision cured his ocular symptoms, although he died 3 months later from brain and widespread metastases.
Poole Perry LJ, Jakobiec FA, Zakka FR, Reichel E, Herwig MC, Perry A, Brat DJ, Grossniklaus HE. Reactive retinal astrocytic tumors (so-called vasoproliferative tumors): histopathologic, immunohistochemical, and genetic studies of four cases. Am J Ophthalmol 2013;155(3):593-608.e1.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the cellular nature of and diagnostic terminology used in connection with acquired retinal "vasoproliferative tumors." DESIGN: Retrospective clinicopathologic study. METHODS: Clinical records and microscopic slides of 4 enucleated globes were reviewed. Special stains and immunohistochemical probes for CD31, CD34, p53, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), CD163, and Ki67 (cell replication) were employed; ultrastructural and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analyses were performed. RESULTS: Tumors were located inferotemporally in middle-aged patients. They were uniformly composed of compacted elongated, GFAP-positive spindle cells (due to intermediate filaments identified ultrastructurally) with a Ki67 index of less than 1%. Rosenthal fibers and eosinophilic granular bodies were observed. Hyalinized periodic acid-Schiff-positive vessels were widely separated. CD31 and CD34 revealed a sparse microvasculature. Tumor-associated exudate spread predominantly subretinally. The retinal pigment epithelium had undergone extensive placoid fibrous metaplasia with focal ossification. P53 upregulation, BRAF-KIAA gene rearrangement, and IDH1R132H mutation typically associated with low-grade astrocytic neoplasms were absent. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal "vasoproliferative" tumors have been mischaracterized, because they actually display a paucity of microvessels. Proliferating fibrous astrocytes with a very low proliferation index predominate, without immunohistochemical or genetic evidence favoring a neoplasm. Subretinal exudate appeared capable of provoking widespread fibrous metaplasia of the pigment epithelium that was mainly responsible for secondary retinal damage. The term "reactive retinal astrocytic tumor" is proposed as more appropriate for this entity. In carefully selected progressive lesions, consideration should be given to earlier surgical intervention before extensive subretinal exudate accumulates and pigment epithelial proliferation with fibrous metaplasia ensues.
Jakobiec FA, Zakka FR, Perry LP. The cytologic composition of dacryops: an immunohistochemical investigation of 15 lesions compared to the normal lacrimal gland. Am J Ophthalmol 2013;155(2):380-396.e1.Abstract
PURPOSE: To define the cytologic composition of the double-layered epithelial lining of dacryops (lacrimal duct cyst), improve histopathologic diagnosis, and better understand pathogenesis. DESIGN: Clinicopathologic retrospective study with immunohistochemical studies of 15 lesions compared with normal lacrimal gland. METHODS: Clinical data from 14 patients were reviewed and microscopy was performed with routine stains and immunohistochemical probes for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA), gross cystic disease fluid protein-15 (GCDFP-15), cytokeratin 7 (CK7), and smooth muscle actin (SMA). RESULTS: The major lacrimal gland was involved in 13 lesions; 2 lesions arose in an accessory gland of Krause. One case was bilateral; the average age of the patients was 50.7 years. Neither visual acuity nor motility was disturbed. No lesion was discovered to have recurred after excision. Microscopically, in all dacryops specimens goblet cells and luminal pseudoapocrine apical cytoplasmic projections were identified. Lacrimal acinar cells immunoreacted with GCDFP-15 and CK7, whereas the normal ducts and the epithelium of the dacryops lesions reacted diffusely only with CK7. SMA-positive myoepithelial cells were found in the acini but not in the normal ducts or dacryops epithelium. CONCLUSIONS: Negative GCDFP-15 staining ruled out apocrine metaplasia in dacryops. Normal ducts and dacryops showed no immunohistochemical evidence for the presence of myoepithelial cells. Pathogenetic theories of dacryops that implicate a failure of ductular "neuromuscular" contractility must therefore be revised. A dysfunction of the rich neural plexus around the ductules may play a role in the development of dacryops in conjunction with periductular inflammation and induced scarring.
Lee NG, Kim LA, Freitag SK. The role of genetics in the pathogenesis of periocular cutaneous neoplasms: implications for targeted therapy. Semin Ophthalmol 2013;28(5-6):267-74.Abstract
In the past, cutaneous malignancies of the periocular region were primarily treated surgically with few other options. As the genetic bases of these tumors have become elucidated, targeted therapies aimed specifically at pathways that are felt to be responsible for cellular proliferation and uncontrolled growth have emerged with new promise. This review contains a summary of the various genetic implications of cutaneous neoplasms as well as their corresponding targeted systemic therapies.

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