Pediatric Ophthalmology

VanderVeen DK, McClatchey TS, McClatchey SK, Nizam A, Lambert SR, Lambert SR. Effective lens position and pseudophakic refraction prediction error at 10½ years of age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. J AAPOS 2022;Abstract
BACKGROUND: The refraction prediction error (PE) for infants with intraocular lens (IOL) implantation is large, possibly related to an effective lens position (ELP) that is different than in adult eyes. If these eyes still have nonadult ELPs as they age, this could result in persistently large PE. We aimed to determine whether ELP or biometry at age 10½ years correlated with PE in children enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS). METHODS: We compared the measured refraction of eyes randomized to primary IOL implantation to the "predicted refraction" calculated by the Holladay 1 formula, based on biometry at age 10½ years. Eyes with incomplete data or IOL exchange were excluded. The PE (predicted - measured refraction) and absolute PE were calculated. Measured anterior chamber depth (ACD) was used to assess the effect of ELP on PE. Multiple regression analysis was performed on absolute PE versus axial length, corneal power, rate of refractive growth, refractive error, and best-corrected visual acuity. RESULTS: Forty-three eyes were included. The PE was 0.63 ± 1.68 D; median absolute PE, 0.85 D (IQR, 1.83 D). The median absolute PE was greater when the measured ACD was used to calculate predicted refraction instead of the standard A-constant (1.88 D [IQR, 1.72] D vs 0.85 D [IQR, 1.83], resp. [P = 0.03]). Absolute PE was not significantly correlated with any other parameter. CONCLUSIONS: Variations in ELP did not contribute significantly to PE 10 years after infant cataract surgery.
Mercado CL, Froines CP, Gaier ED, Wang Q, Indaram M, Wan MJ, Shah AS, Koo EB. Prevalence and Characteristics of Cytomegalovirus Ocular Disease in Children: A Multi-Center Study. Clin Ophthalmol 2022;16:2209-2217.Abstract
Purpose: The objective of this study was to identify the prevalence of CMV ocular disease in children and to identify associated risk factors for ocular involvement. Design: Retrospective multicenter, cross-sectional study. Methods: Setting: Hospitalized patients screened for CMV viremia by PCR between 2005 and 2018 at four pediatric referral centers. Participants: Seven-hundred and ninety-three children showed CMV viremia (>135 copies/mL by polymerase chain reaction; PCR). Main Outcomes and Measures: (1) Occurrence of ophthalmologic examination. (2) Presence of CMV ocular disease, defined as retinitis, vasculitis, hemorrhage, optic nerve atrophy, or anterior uveitis in the setting of CMV viremia without other identifiable causes. Results: A total of 296/793 (37%) underwent ophthalmologic examination following CMV viremia. A total of23/296 patients (8%) had ocular symptoms prompting evaluation while the rest had eye exams for baseline screening unrelated to CMV viremia. Of these, 13 cases (4% of those with an eye exam) with ocular disease were identified (three congenital CMV, five severe combined immunodeficiency disorder (SCID) status post-stem cell transplantation, three hematologic malignancy status post-stem cell transplantation for two of them, one Evans syndrome status post-stem cell transplantation, and one medulloblastoma status post-bone marrow transplantation). No patients with solid organ transplantation developed CMV ocular disease in our cohort. Conclusion: CMV ocular disease was a rare occurrence in this cohort without an identifiable pattern across sub-groups. Excluding the three congenital CMV cases, nine out of ten patients with CMV ocular disease were status post-stem cell transplantation. We provide integrated screening guidelines based on the best available evidence for this rare condition.
Patel NA, Acaba-Berrocal LA, Hoyek S, Fan KC, Martinez-Castellanos MA, Baumal CR, Harper AC, Berrocal AM, of (ROPIC) RPIC. Practice Patterns and Outcomes of Intravitreal Anti-VEGF Injection for Retinopathy of Prematurity - An International Multicenter Study. Ophthalmology 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To report practice patterns of intravitreal injections of anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) for Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) and outcomes data with a focus on retreatments and complications. DESIGN: Multicenter, international, retrospective, consecutive series. SUBJECTS: Patients with ROP treated with anti-VEGF injections from 2007 to 2021. METHODS: Twenty-three sites (16 Unites States [US] and 7 non-US sites) participated. Data collected included demographics, birth characteristics, exam findings, and methods of injections. Comparisons between US and non-US sites were made. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcomes included number and types of retreatments as well as complications. Secondary outcomes included specifics of the injection protocols including types of medication, doses, distance from limbus, use of antibiotics, and quadrants where injections were delivered. RESULTS: A total of 1677 eyes of 918 patients (43% females, 57% males) were included. Mean gestational age was 25.7 weeks (range 21.2-41.5), and mean birth weight was 787 g (range 300-2,700). Overall, a 30 G needle was most commonly utilized (51%) and the quadrant injected was most frequently the inferior-temporal (51.3%). The distance from the limbus ranged from 0.75 to 2 mm, 1 mm being the most common (65%). Bevacizumab was the most common anti-VEGF (71.4%), with a dose of 0.625 mg in 64% of cases. Overall, 604 (36%) of eyes required retreatment. Of those, 79.8% were retreated with laser alone, 10.6% with anti-VEGF injection alone, and 9.6% with combined laser and injection. Complications following anti-VEGF injections occurred in 15 (0.9%) eyes and no cases of endophthalmitis were reported. Patients in the US had lower birth weights and gestational ages (665.6 g and 24.5 weeks, respectively) compared to non-US patients (912.7 g and 26.9 weeks, respectively) (p<0.0001). Retreatment with reinjection and laser was significantly more common in the US compared to the non-US group (8.5% vs 4.7% [p=0.0016] and 55% vs 7.2% [p<0.001], respectively). There was no difference in the incidence of complications between the two geographical subgroups. CONCLUSION: Anti-VEGF injections for ROP were safe and well tolerated despite a variance in practice patterns. Infants with ROP receiving injections in the United States tended to be younger, smaller, and were treated earlier with more re-treatments than non-United States neonates with ROP.
Bothun ED, Shainberg MJ, Christiansen SP, VanderVeen DK, Neely DE, Kruger SJ, Cotsonis G, Lambert SR, Lambert SR. Long-term strabismus outcomes after unilateral infantile cataract surgery in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. J AAPOS 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To characterize long-term strabismus outcomes in children in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS). METHODS: This study was a secondary data analysis of long-term ocular alignment characteristics of children aged 10.5 years who had previously been enrolled in a randomized clinical trial evaluating aphakic management after unilateral cataract surgery between 1 and 6 months of age. RESULTS: In the IATS study, 96 of 109 children (88%) developed strabismus through age 10.5 years. Half of the 20 children who were orthophoric at distance through age 5 years maintained orthophoria at distance fixation at 10.5 years. Esotropia was the most common type of strabismus prior to age 5 years (56/109 [51%]), whereas exotropia (49/109 [45%]) was the most common type of strabismus at 10.5 years (esotropia, 21%; isolated hypertropia, 17%). Strabismus surgery had been performed on 52 children (48%), with 18 of these (35%) achieving microtropia <10Δ. Strabismus was equally prevalent in children randomized to contact lens care compared with those randomized to primary intraocular lens implantation (45/54 [83%] vs 45/55 [82%]; P = 0.8). Median visual acuity in the study eye was 0.56 logMAR (20/72) for children with orthotropia or microtropia <10Δ versus 1.30 logMAR (20/400) for strabismus ≥10Δ (P = 0.0003). CONCLUSIONS: Strabismus-in particular, exotropia-is common irrespective of aphakia management 10 years following infant monocular cataract surgery. The delayed emergence of exotropia with longer follow-up indicates a need for caution in managing early esotropia in these children. Children with better visual acuity at 10 years of age are more likely to have better ocular alignment.
Alnahdi MA, Alkharashi M. Ocular manifestations of COVID-19 in the pediatric age group. Eur J Ophthalmol 2022;:11206721221116210.Abstract
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now known to be associated with several ocular manifestations. The literature thoroughly discussed those that affect adults, with a lesser focus in the pediatric age group. We aim to outline the various pediatric ocular manifestations described in the literature. The manifestations may be divided into isolated events attributed to COVID-19 or occurring in the new multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C), a novel entity associated by COVID-19 infection. Ocular manifestations have virtually affected all ages. They manifested in neonates, infants, children, and adolescents. Episcleritis, conjunctivitis, optic neuritis, cranial nerve palsies, retinal vein occlusion, retinal vasculitis, retinal changes, orbital myositis, orbital cellulitis were reported in the literature with this emerging viral illness. Conjunctivitis was the most common ocular manifestation in MIS-C in nearly half of the patients. Other ocular manifestations in MIS-C were anterior uveitis, corneal epitheliopathy, optic neuritis, idiopathic intracranial hypertension, and retinitis. The clinical outcome was favorable, and children regain their visual ability with minimal or no deficits in most of the cases. Further follow-up may be warranted to better understand the long-term effects and visual prognosis.
Elhusseiny AM, Saeed HN. Posterior Polymorphous Corneal Dystrophy in a Pediatric Population. Cornea 2022;41(6):734-739.Abstract
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and topographic features of posterior polymorphous corneal dystrophy (PPCD) in children aged 15 years or younger with a long-term follow-up. Retrospective case series. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients who were diagnosed with PPCD at Boston Children's Hospital from 1999 to 2020 was performed. Data collected included age at the time of diagnosis, slit lamp findings, cycloplegic refraction, best-corrected visual acuity, central corneal thickness, specular microscopy, and corneal topography findings whenever available. RESULTS: Twenty-seven eyes of 19 patients were included (11 unilateral and 8 bilateral cases). Ten patients were girls (52.6%). Left eye was affected in 14 eyes. The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 8.5 ± 3.3 years, with a mean follow-up of 5.3 years. In unilateral cases, there was a statistically significant difference in the endothelial cell density (P = 0.01), coefficient variation (P = 0.03), and hexagonality (P = 0.01) between the affected and the contralateral unaffected eyes. The mean best-corrected visual acuity at initial presentation was 0.8 ± 0.2 compared with 0.9 ± 0.08 in unaffected eyes (P = 0.04). The mean astigmatism was higher in the affected eye (+1.7 diopters) compared with (+1.00) the unaffected eye (P = 0.07). At initial presentation, 7 of 27 eyes had amblyopia, which resolved, either partially or completely, in 5 eyes after treatment. CONCLUSIONS: PPCD can present early in children with astigmatism and anisometropic amblyopia. A careful slit lamp examination for children presenting with anisoastigmatism is necessary to diagnose PPCD. Contrary to adults, presentation is often unilateral. Such patients should be followed up regularly with cycloplegic retinoscopy to prevent and treat refractive amblyopia if present.
Huynh E, Elhusseiny AM, Nihalani BR. Paediatric anterior uveitis management in the USA: a single-centre, 10-year retrospective chart review exploring the efficacy and safety of systemic immunomodulatory therapy. Eye (Lond) 2022;Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of immunomodulatory therapy (IMT) in paediatric anterior uveitis. METHODS: Chart review of all patients ≤ 18 years treated for anterior uveitis using a stepladder approach during a 10-year period. The type and duration of IMT were noted. The data were analysed depending on chronicity, aetiology, and type of IMT using appropriate statistical tests. The outcome measures included ocular complications, the need for surgical intervention, and visual outcomes. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty-four patients (191 eyes) were analyzed. The median age at diagnosis was 7 years (interquartile range (IQR): 7.5 years). The median follow-up was 4 years (IQR: 6 years). The most common causes of anterior uveitis were Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (64 patients, 47.8%) and undifferentiated (33 patients, 24.6%). All patients were started on topical steroids and cycloplegics. 94 (70%) patients required IMT. 92 (68.6%) were started on Methotrexate as the first agent, of which 21 (22%) were switched to a different agent owing to side effects. Biologic agent was added in 55 (41%) patients. 21 (16%) required switch to a second biologic agent, 5 (3.7%) to third, and 1 (0.8%) to fourth biologic agent. At the last exam, 11 (8%) had persistent inflammation. 55 (41%) had ocular complications, and 113 (84%) had a best corrected visual acuity ≥ 20/40. CONCLUSION: Early introduction of IMT and switch to different agents may be required to control anterior uveitis and reduce the complications in children. IMT is safe and effective in treating paediatric anterior uveitis.
Oke I, VanderVeen DK, McClatchey TS, Lambert SR, McClatchey SK, McClatchey SK. The accuracy of intraocular lens calculation varies by age in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. J AAPOS 2022;Abstract
Refraction predictions from intraocular lens (IOL) calculation formulae are inaccurate in children. We sought to quantify the relationship between age and prediction error using a model derived from the biometry measurements of children enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) when they were ≤7 months of age. We calculated theoretical predicted refractions in diopters (D) using axial length, average keratometry, and IOL powers at each measurement time point using the Holladay 1 formula. We compared the predicted refraction to the actual refraction and calculated the absolute prediction error (APE). We found that the median APE was 1.60 D (IQR, 0.73-3.11 D) at a mean age (corrected for estimated gestational age) of 0.20 ± 0.14 years and decreased to 1.11 D (IQR, 0.42-2.20 D) at 10.60 ± 0.27 years. We analyzed the association of age with APE using linear mixed-effects models adjusting for axial length, average keratometry, and IOL power and found that as age doubled, APE decreased by 0.25 D (95% CI, 0.09-0.40 D). The accuracy of IOL calculations increases with age, independent of biometry measurements and IOL power.
for the Group WCPEDI, Hartnett EM, Wallace DK, Dean TW, Li Z, Boente CS, Dosunmu EO, Freedman SF, Golden RP, Kong L, Prakalapakorn GS, Repka MX, Smith LE, Wang H, Kraker RT, Cotter SA, Holmes JM. Plasma Levels of Bevacizumab and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor After Low-Dose Bevacizumab Treatment for Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants. JAMA Ophthalmol 2022;140(4):337-344.Abstract
Importance: Intravitreal bevacizumab effectively treats severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), but it enters the bloodstream and may reduce serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), potentially causing detrimental effects on developing organs in the premature infant. Objective: To evaluate the association of intravitreal bevacizumab with plasma bevacizumab and VEGF concentrations at 2 and 4 weeks after predefined, de-escalating doses of intravitreal bevacizumab were administered to infants with severe ROP. Design, Setting, and Participants: This phase 1 dose de-escalation case series study was conducted at 10 US hospitals of ophthalmology institutions from May 21, 2015, to May 7, 2019. Blood samples were collected 2 and 4 weeks after intravitreal bevacizumab injection. Participants included 83 premature infants with type 1 ROP in 1 or both eyes and no previous ROP treatment. Data were analyzed from April 2017 to August 2021. Interventions: Study eyes received a single bevacizumab injection of 0.250 mg, 0.125 mg, 0.063 mg, 0.031 mg, 0.016 mg, 0.008 mg, 0.004 mg, or 0.002 mg. When the fellow eye required treatment, one dose higher was administered. Total dose administered at baseline was defined as the sum of doses given to each eye within 3 days of initial study-eye injection. Main Outcomes and Measures: Plasma bevacizumab concentration at 2 and 4 weeks after injection and the percentage change in plasma VEGF concentrations from pretreatment levels. Results: A total of 83 infants (mean [SD] age, 25 [2] weeks; 48 boys [58%]) were included in this study. Higher doses of bevacizumab administered at baseline were associated with higher plasma bevacizumab concentrations at 2 weeks (ρ, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.31-0.70) and 4 weeks (ρ, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.18-0.64). Plasma VEGF concentrations decreased by 50% or more from pretreatment levels in 40 of 66 infants (61%) at 2 weeks and 31 of 61 infants (51%) at 4 weeks, but no association was observed between the total dose of bevacizumab administered at baseline and percentage change in plasma VEGF concentrations 2 weeks (ρ, -0.04; 95% CI, -0.28 to 0.20) or 4 weeks (ρ, -0.17; 95% CI, -0.41 to 0.08) after injection. Conclusions and Relevance: Results of this phase 1 dose de-escalation case series study revealed that bevacizumab doses as low as 0.002 mg were associated with reduced plasma VEGF levels for most infants at 2 and 4 weeks after intravitreal administration; however, no association was observed between total bevacizumab dose administered and reductions in plasma VEGF levels from preinjection to 2 weeks or 4 weeks. Additional studies are needed to evaluate the long-term effects of low-dose bevacizumab on neurodevelopment and retinal structure.
Tam EK, Elhusseiny AM, Shah AS, Mantagos IS, VanderVeen DK. Etiology and outcomes of childhood glaucoma at a tertiary referral center. J AAPOS 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To describe the etiology, clinical features, and outcomes for a large contemporary cohort of children presenting with glaucoma at a tertiary referral center. METHODS: The medical records of patients presenting to Boston Children's Hospital from January 2014 to July 2019 with a diagnosis of childhood glaucoma were retrospectively reviewed. Data regarding etiology, treatment, and visual and anatomic outcomes were collected; visual acuity outcomes were analyzed by laterality and diagnosis categories, using the Childhood Glaucoma Research Network (CGRN) classifications. RESULTS: A total of 373 eyes of 246 patients (51% males) diagnosed with glaucoma before 18 years of age were identified. Mean follow-up was 7.04 ± 5.61 years; 137 cases were bilateral. The mean age at diagnosis was 4.55 ± 5.20 years. The most common diagnoses were glaucoma following cataract surgery (GFCS, 36.5%) and primary congenital glaucoma (PCG, 29.0%). Overall, 164 eyes (44.0%) underwent at least one glaucoma surgery. Intraocular pressure (IOP) was ≤21 mm Hg with or without glaucoma medications in 300 eyes (80.4%) at the last follow-up visit. Poor final best-corrected visual acuity (≤20/200) was found in 110 eyes; patients with poor final visual acuity tended to have poor visual acuity at presentation. The most common reason for poor vision was amblyopia. Uncontrolled IOP was an uncommon cause for vision loss. CONCLUSIONS: Childhood glaucoma can be challenging to manage, but poor vision usually results from amblyopia or presence of other ocular abnormalities or syndromes rather than glaucomatous optic neuropathy.
Lundgren P, Morsing E, Hård A-L, Rakow A, Hellström-Westas L, Jacobson L, Johnson M, Holmström G, Nilsson S, Smith LE, Sävman K, Hellström A. National cohort of infants born before 24 gestational weeks showed increased survival rates but no improvement in neonatal morbidity. Acta Paediatr 2022;Abstract
AIM: To describe survival and neonatal morbidities in infants born before 24 weeks of gestation during a 12-year period. METHODS: Data were retrieved from national registries and validated in medical files of infants born before 24 weeks of gestation 2007-2018 in Sweden. Temporal changes were evaluated. RESULTS: In 2007-2018, 282 live births were recorded at 22 weeks and 460 at 23 weeks of gestation. Survival to discharge from hospital of infants born alive at 22 and 23 weeks increased from 20% to 38% (p = 0.006) and from 45% to 67% (p < 0.001) respectively. Caesarean section increased from 12% to 22% (p = 0.038) for infants born at 22 weeks. Neonatal morbidity rates in infants alive at 40 weeks of postmenstrual age (n = 399) were unchanged except for an increase in necrotising enterocolitis from 0 to 33% (p = 0.017) in infants born at 22 weeks of gestation. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia was more common in boys than girls, 90% versus 82% (p = 0.044). The number of infants surviving to 40 weeks doubled over time. CONCLUSION: Increased survival of infants born before 24 weeks of gestation resulted in increasing numbers of very immature infants with severe neonatal morbidities likely to have a negative impact on long-term outcome.
Gotti G, Stevenson K, Kay-Green S, Blonquist TM, Mantagos JS, Silverman LB, Place AE. Ocular abnormalities at diagnosis and after the completion of treatment in children and adolescents with newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2022;69(4):e29542.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Ocular abnormalities (OA) in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are common findings both at diagnosis and later in follow-up. The frequency, predictors, and prognostic impact of OA in the context of recent ALL protocols are not well characterized. PROCEDURE: Single-center retrospective analysis of the medical records of 224 patients with ALL enrolled on Dana-Farber Cancer Institute (DFCI) ALL Consortium Protocol 05-001. RESULTS: Overall, 217 (98%) patients had at least one ophthalmic exam. Retinal hemorrhages were the most frequent abnormalities at diagnosis (11%) and cataracts at later time points (13%). OA at diagnosis were associated with age ≥10 years and with the severity of anemia and thrombocytopenia; they were also univariately associated with lower 5-year event-free survival (EFS) (high risk [HR] = 3.09 [95% CI: 1.38-6.94]; p = .006), but not in a disease-free survival (DFS) model adjusted for end-induction minimal residual disease (p = .82). The cumulative incidence of cataract was 13.1% ± 2.8% at 43 months from diagnosis; its development was associated with high presenting white blood cell count (≥50,000/μl) (p = .010), male sex (p = .036), higher risk group (p = .025), and cranial radiation (p = .004). Cataract was associated with decreased visual acuity. CONCLUSIONS: OA at diagnosis, present in 12% of patients, were associated with older age, anemia, and thrombocytopenia and did not carry a significant prognostic impact. Cataracts were detected in over 10% of patients and were associated with decreased visual acuity, thus supporting routine screening after completion of therapy, especially for those treated with high-risk protocols.

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