Pediatric Ophthalmology

Syed ZA, Chen TC. New Ultrasound Biomicroscopy Iris Findings in Juvenile Xanthogranuloma. J Glaucoma 2016;25(8):e759-60.Abstract

We report a case of juvenile xanthogranuloma in a 12-month-old girl presenting with heterochromia, hyphema, and elevated intraocular pressure. This case demonstrates new ultrasound biomicroscopy iris findings of a generalized bumpy iris contour, suggesting diffuse heterogeneous involvement. This imaging finding has not been previously described. Untreated, iris juvenile xanthogranuloma may lead to corneal blood staining, glaucoma, and amblyopia. An understanding of the full range of ultrasound features of juvenile xanthogranuloma expands our appreciation for the clinical findings in this condition.

Ebrahimiadib N, Roohipour R, Karkhaneh R, Farahani A, Riazi Esfahani M, Khodabande A, Zarei M, Taheri A, Imani Fouladi M, Yaseri M, Modjtahedi BS. Internet-based versus Conventional Referral System for Retinopathy of Prematurity Screening in Iran. Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2016;23(5):292-7.Abstract

PURPOSE: To compare the efficacy of an internet-based versus traditional referral system for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) screening in Iran. METHODS: Two referral screening systems were compared in this prospective observational study. Group A (internet-based) comprised premature babies who were registered into an online system for screening. Their appointments were scheduled automatically based on standardized criteria. Group B (conventional) comprised premature babies whose referrals were based on oral or written recommendations. Babies were referred based on standard criteria (gestational age, GA, <37 weeks or birth weight < 3000 g). RESULTS: A total of 2115 neonates were screened between October 2011 and October 2012. From these 1896 met the inclusion criteria (group A n = 856, group B n = 1040). Time of first examination for neonates with GA≤27 weeks was 30.07± 2.72 weeks postmenstrual age in group A and 38.52± 7.03 weeks in group B (p = 0.049), and for neonates with GA>27 weeks was 4.86 ±1.77 and 8.16 ±4.93 weeks after birth in groups A and B, respectively (p < 0.001). All registered babies in group A attended their first screening exam. One case (0.1%) of advanced ROP developed in group A (in a patient with poor follow-up compliance), whereas advanced stages of ROP were seen in 26 cases (2.5%) in group B (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: An internet-based registration system for ROP screening resulted in fewer cases of delayed first examination and resulted in fewer babies with advanced ROP.

Wan MJ, Ullrich NJ, Manley PE, Kieran MW, Goumnerova LC, Heidary G. Long-term visual outcomes of optic pathway gliomas in pediatric patients without neurofibromatosis type 1. J Neurooncol 2016;129(1):173-8.Abstract

Sporadic optic pathway gliomas (OPGs) have been reported to cause more vision loss than OPGs associated with neurofibromatosis type-1, but long-term visual outcome data are limited. The purpose of this study was to report the visual outcomes of a cohort of pediatric patients with sporadic OPGs. This was a retrospective, cohort study at a tertiary care pediatric hospital and cancer institute. The study included all patients with sporadic OPGs evaluated from 1990 to 2014. The primary outcome was visual acuity at final follow-up. Secondary outcomes were risk factors for a poor visual outcome and the rate of progression. There were 59 pediatric patients included in the study. Median age at presentation was 2.5 years old and median follow-up was 5.2 years. In the worse eye at final follow-up, 16 patients (27 %) were 20/30 or better, 9 patients (15 %) were between 20/40 and 20/80, and 34 patients (58 %) were 20/100 or worse. In the better eye at final follow-up, 33 patients (56 %) were 20/30 or better, 11 patients (19 %) were between 20/40 and 20/80, and 15 patients (25 %) were 20/100 or worse. Risk factors for a poor visual outcome included younger age at presentation, optic nerve pallor, and tumor extent. Of the 54 patients (92 %) who received treatment, 40 (74 %) experienced disease progression during or after treatment. A majority of pediatric patients with sporadic OPGs had significant long-term visual impairment. In spite of treatment, tumor progression is common. Serial ophthalmic examinations with quantitative vision measurements are essential in the management of sporadic OPGs.

Yonekawa Y, Wu W-C, Kusaka S, Robinson J, Tsujioka D, Kang KB, Shapiro MJ, Padhi TR, Jain L, Sears JE, Kuriyan AE, Berrocal AM, Quiram PA, Gerber AE, Paul Chan RV, Jonas KE, Wong SC, Patel CK, Abbey AM, Spencer R, Blair MP, Chang EY, Papakostas TD, Vavvas DG, Sisk RA, Ferrone PJ, Henderson RH, Olsen KR, Hartnett EM, Chau FY, Mukai S, Murray TG, Thomas BJ, Meza AP, Drenser KA, Trese MT, Capone A. Immediate Sequential Bilateral Pediatric Vitreoretinal Surgery: An International Multicenter Study. Ophthalmology 2016;123(8):1802-8.Abstract

PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility and safety of bilateral simultaneous vitreoretinal surgery in pediatric patients. DESIGN: International, multicenter, interventional, retrospective case series. PARTICIPANTS: Patients 17 years of age or younger from 24 centers worldwide who underwent immediate sequential bilateral vitreoretinal surgery (ISBVS)-defined as vitrectomy, scleral buckle, or lensectomy using the vitreous cutter-performed in both eyes sequentially during the same anesthesia session. METHODS: Clinical history, surgical details and indications, time under anesthesia, and intraoperative and postoperative ophthalmic and systemic adverse events were reviewed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Ocular and systemic adverse events. RESULTS: A total of 344 surgeries from 172 ISBVS procedures in 167 patients were included in the study. The mean age of the cohort was 1.3±2.6 years. Nonexclusive indications for ISBVS were rapidly progressive disease (74.6%), systemic morbidity placing the child at high anesthesia risk (76.0%), and residence remote from surgery location (30.2%). The most common diagnoses were retinopathy of prematurity (ROP; 72.7% [P < 0.01]; stage 3, 4.8%; stage 4A, 44.4%; stage 4B, 22.4%; stage 5, 26.4%), familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (7.0%), abusive head trauma (4.1%), persistent fetal vasculature (3.5%), congenital cataract (1.7%), posterior capsular opacification (1.7%), rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (1.7%), congenital X-linked retinoschisis (1.2%), Norrie disease (2.3%), and viral retinitis (1.2%). Mean surgical time was 143±59 minutes for both eyes. Higher ROP stage correlated with longer surgical time (P = 0.02). There were no reported intraoperative ocular complications. During the immediate postoperative period, 2 eyes from different patients demonstrated unilateral vitreous hemorrhage (0.6%). No cases of endophthalmitis, choroidal hemorrhage, or hypotony occurred. Mean total anesthesia time was 203±87 minutes. There were no cases of anesthesia-related death, malignant hyperthermia, anaphylaxis, or cardiac event. There was 1 case of reintubation (0.6%) and 1 case of prolonged oxygen desaturation (0.6%). Mean follow-up after surgery was 103 weeks, and anatomic success and globe salvage rates were 89.8% and 98.0%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This study found ISBVS to be a feasible and safe treatment paradigm for pediatric patients with bilateral vitreoretinal pathologic features when repeated general anesthesia is undesirable or impractical.

Hoguet A, Grajewski A, Hodapp E, Chang TCP. A retrospective survey of childhood glaucoma prevalence according to Childhood Glaucoma Research Network classification. Indian J Ophthalmol 2016;64(2):118-23.Abstract

PURPOSE: To evaluate the Childhood Glaucoma Research Network (CGRN) classification system and describe the prevalence of each subtype according to this classification. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Retrospectively, the medical records of 205 consecutive childhood glaucoma and glaucoma suspect patients at an urban tertiary care center were reviewed. The initial diagnosis and new diagnosis according to CGRN classification were recorded. RESULTS: All patients fit one of the seven categories of the new classification. Seventy-one percent of diagnoses were changed upon reclassification. Twenty-three percent of patients had primary glaucoma (juvenile open-angle glaucoma and primary congenital glaucoma [PCG]); 36% had secondary glaucoma (glaucoma associated with nonacquired ocular anomalies; glaucoma associated with nonacquired systemic disease or syndrome; glaucoma associated with acquired condition; and glaucoma following cataract surgery); and 39% were glaucoma suspect. Of the patients diagnosed with glaucoma, PCG was the most common diagnosis, seen in 32% of patients. CONCLUSION: The CGRN classification provides a useful method of classifying childhood glaucoma.

Roohipoor R, Karkhaneh R, Farahani A, Ebrahimiadib N, Modjtahedi B, Fotouhi A, Yaseri M, Khodabande A, Zarei M, Imani Fuladi M, Taheri A, Riazi Esfahani M, Loewenstein J. Retinopathy of prematurity screening criteria in Iran: new screening guidelines. Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2016;101(4):F288-93.Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To test the applicability of existing retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) guidelines on Iranian patients and to develop novel ROP screening criteria in Iran. METHODS: Both eyes of 1932 infants born ≤37 weeks of gestation and/or weighting ≤3000 g were included in this prospective cohort study that was conducted across nine neonatal intensive care units and a tertiary eye hospital ROP clinic. The patients were examined for ROP and the need for treatment (type 1 ROP or worse). All the patients were screened 4 weeks after birth or at 31 weeks of postmenstrual age, whichever was later. The patients were followed until retinal vascularisation was completed or the patients reached 50 weeks of gestational age (GA) without prethreshold ROP. A receiver operating characteristic curve was used to determine the best screening criteria for ROP. Screening criteria from other countries were applied to our patient data to determine their ability to appropriately detect ROP. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Patients with ROP requiring treatment. RESULTS: The mean GA±SD and birth weight (BW)±SD of the screened patients were 32±2.7 weeks and 1713±516 g, respectively. Using criteria of GA≤32 weeks or BW ≤2000 yielded sensitivity and specificity of 100% and 26.7%, respectively, for treatment requiring ROP regardless of clinical comorbidities. Using screening recommendations of American Academy of Pediatrics would miss 25.4% of ROP and 8.4%ROP requiring treatment in our cohort. CONCLUSIONS: Other countries screening recommendations would result in a significant amount of missed cases of treatment requiring ROP when applied to Iran. As a result, we have proposed new guidelines for premature babies in Iran.

Hutchinson AK, Melia M, Yang MB, VanderVeen DK, Wilson LB, Lambert SR. Clinical Models and Algorithms for the Prediction of Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2016;123(4):804-16.Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy with which available retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) predictive models detect clinically significant ROP and to what extent and at what risk these models allow for the reduction of screening examinations for ROP. METHODS: A literature search of the PubMed and Cochrane Library databases was conducted last on May 1, 2015, and yielded 305 citations. After screening the abstracts of all 305 citations and reviewing the full text of 30 potentially eligible articles, the panel members determined that 22 met the inclusion criteria. One article included 2 studies, for a total of 23 studies reviewed. The panel extracted information about study design, study population, the screening algorithm tested, interventions, outcomes, and study quality. The methodologist divided the studies into 2 categories-model development and model validation-and assigned a level of evidence rating to each study. One study was rated level I evidence, 3 studies were rated level II evidence, and 19 studies were rated level III evidence. RESULTS: In some cohorts, some models would have allowed reductions in the number of infants screened for ROP without failing to identify infants requiring treatment. However, the small sample size and limited generalizability of the ROP predictive models included in this review preclude their widespread use to make all-or-none decisions about whether to screen individual infants for ROP. As an alternative, some studies proposed approaches to apply the models to reduce the number of examinations performed in low-risk infants. CONCLUSIONS: Additional research is needed to optimize ROP predictive model development, validation, and application before such models can be used widely to reduce the burdensome number of ROP screening examinations.

VanderVeen DK, Allred EN, Wallace DK, Leviton A, Leviton A. Strabismus at Age 2 Years in Children Born Before 28 Weeks' Gestation: Antecedents and Correlates. J Child Neurol 2016;31(4):451-60.Abstract

Children born very preterm are at greater risk of ophthalmic morbidities, including strabismus, than children born at term. We evaluated perinatal factors associated with strabismus at age 2 years in a large population of infants delivered before 28 weeks' gestation. A total of 996 infants in the multicenter ELGAN (Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborn) study who had a retinal exam in infancy and a developmental assessment at 2 years corrected age are included. Their mothers were interviewed about the pregnancy, and both mother and newborn charts were reviewed. Certified examiners administered the Bayley Scales of Infant Development-II and performed an examination of ocular alignment. Time-oriented logistic regression risk models were created to evaluate the associations of characteristics and exposures with the development of strabismus. Overall, 14% (n = 141) of the children had strabismus at 2 years, and 80% of strabismic children had esotropia. Characteristics associated with strabismus were birth before 26 weeks' gestation, severe fetal growth restriction, and maternal history of aspirin ingestion. Associated postnatal factors included a SNAP-II (Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology) illness severity value ≥30, brain ventriculomegaly, type I retinopathy of prematurity, and ventilator-dependent severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Strabismus in very preterm populations is associated with a number of antenatal and postnatal antecedents as well as clinical and imaging correlates indicative of brain damage in these children. Routine ophthalmologic assessments in the early years can allow appropriate and timely interventions.

Hellström A, Ley D, Hansen-Pupp I, Hallberg B, Löfqvist C, van Marter L, van Weissenbruch M, Ramenghi LA, Beardsall K, Dunger D, Hård A-L, Smith LEH. Insulin-like growth factor 1 has multisystem effects on foetal and preterm infant development. Acta Paediatr 2016;105(6):576-86.Abstract

UNLABELLED: Poor postnatal growth after preterm birth does not match the normal rapid growth in utero and is associated with preterm morbidities. Insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis is the major hormonal mediator of growth in utero, and levels of IGF-1 are often very low after preterm birth. We reviewed the role of IGF-1 in foetal development and the corresponding preterm perinatal period to highlight the potential clinical importance of IGF-1 deficiency in preterm morbidities. CONCLUSION: There is a rationale for clinical trials to evaluate the potential benefits of IGF-1 replacement in very preterm infants.

Whitman MC, MacNeill K, Hunter DG. Bifocals Fail to Improve Stereopsis Outcomes in High AC/A Accommodative Esotropia. Ophthalmology 2016;123(4):690-6.Abstract

PURPOSE: To assess whether stereopsis outcomes of patients with accommodative esotropia with high accommodative convergence/accommodation relationship (AC/A) were improved after treatment with bifocal glasses compared with single-vision lenses. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with high AC/A accommodative esotropia; evidence of stereopsis, binocularity (on Worth 4-dot testing), or improvement in near angle with +3.00 D lenses; and at least 4 years of records available for review, who were seen in the Department of Ophthalmology at Boston Children's Hospital between 2006 and 2014. METHODS: Use of bifocal or single-vision glasses. Charts were reviewed retrospectively. Stereopsis was log transformed for statistical analysis. Linear (for stereopsis) or logistic (for surgery) regression was used to control for confounders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stereopsis at final follow-up, difference in stereopsis between final and initial visits, and progression to strabismus surgery. Secondary outcomes included final near and distance deviations. RESULTS: Of the 180 patients who met inclusion criteria, 77 used bifocals and 103 used single-vision lenses. Bifocals did not improve stereopsis outcomes compared with single-vision lenses. In both groups, stereopsis was similar at the initial and final visits, with similar improvement in both groups. Children in the bifocal group had a 3.6-fold higher rate of strabismus surgery than children in the single-lens group (P = 0.04.) Additionally, children in the bifocal group had near deviations 4 PD larger than those with single lenses at final follow-up, even after controlling for age and initial deviation (P = 0.02). These results did not change if surgical patients were eliminated or in the subgroup with initial distance deviation of 0 PD in full hyperopic correction. CONCLUSIONS: Despite their widespread use, there is no evidence that bifocals improve outcomes in children with accommodative esotropia with high AC/A. In our retrospective review, children with bifocals had higher surgical rates and a smaller improvement in near deviation over time. Although our results suggest that eliminating bifocals could reduce the cost and complexity of care while potentially improving quality, prospective, randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether a change in practice is warranted.

Tiedemann LM, Manley P, Smith ER, Dagi LR. Visual Field Loss in a Case of Recurrent Cystic Craniopharyngioma During Concomitant Treatment With Pegylated Interferon α-2b. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2015;Abstract

A 13-year-old male with suprasellar cystic craniopharyngioma initially controlled with sequential subtotal resections and proton-beam irradiation was later treated with intracystic pegylated interferon α-2b due to progression and a lack of further surgical options. After initial successful control of recurrent cyst enlargement and stabilization of the ophthalmic examination, progressive and irreversible visual field loss ensued. Imaging revealed intracranial leakage from the intracystic catheter, and direct administration of interferon α-2b was discontinued. Given the recent interest in interferon α-2b, oncologists are advised to vigilantly monitor patients for signs of local toxicity that may result from unintended leakage during intracystic delivery.

Hellgren G, Löfqvist C, Hård A-L, Hansen-Pupp I, Gram M, Ley D, Smith LE, Hellström A. Serum concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor in relation to retinopathy of prematurity. Pediatr Res 2015;Abstract

BACKGROUND: The role of VEGF in the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) has been clearly established. However, little is known about temporal changes in circulating VEGF concentrations in the preterm infant. The objective was to determine the longitudinal serum concentrations of VEGF in relation to ROP. METHODS: This study included 52 infants born at <31 weeks gestational age (non-ROP n=33, non-proliferative ROP n=10, treated for ROP n=9). VEGF concentrations were analyzed in blood samples collected at birth, at 3 days postnatal age, and then weekly until at least a gestational age of 35 weeks. RESULTS: VEGF concentrations at birth did not differ between groups, independent of later ROP status. In contrast, VEGF serum concentrations were significantly higher at first detection of ROP in infants who were later treated for ROP compared to infants without ROP. At the time of laser therapy, serum VEGF concentrations did not differ between groups. CONCLUSION: Circulatory concentrations of VEGF, in infants who later developed severe ROP, were elevated at the time when ROP first was detected but not at the time when current treatment most often occurred. This supports the need for further studies of circulating VEGF in relation to the timing of ROP treatment.Pediatric Research (2015); doi:10.1038/pr.2015.181.

Kothari S, Foster SC, Pistilli M, Liesegang TL, Daniel E, Sen NH, Suhler EB, Thorne JE, Jabs DA, Levy-Clarke GA, Nussenblatt RB, Rosenbaum JT, Lawrence SD, Kempen JH, for Eye Diseases Group SITR. The Risk of Intraocular Pressure Elevation inPediatric Noninfectious Uveitis. Ophthalmology 2015;122(10):1987-2001.Abstract

PURPOSE: To characterize the risk and risk factors for intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in pediatric noninfectious uveitis. DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Nine hundred sixteen children (1593 eyes) younger than 18 years at presentation with noninfectious uveitis followed up between January 1978 and December 2007 at 5 academic uveitis centers in the United States. METHODS: Medical records review by trained, certified experts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence and incidence of IOP of 21 mmHg or more and 30 mmHg or more and incidence of a rise in IOP by 10 mmHg or more. To avoid underascertainment, outcomes were counted as present when IOP-lowering therapies were in use. RESULTS: Initially, 251 (15.8%) and 46 eyes (2.9%) had IOP ≥21 mmHg and ≥30 mmHg, respectively. Factors significantly associated with presenting IOP elevation included age of 6 to 12 years (versus other pediatric ages), prior cataract surgery, pars plana vitrectomy, duration of uveitis ≥6 months, contralateral IOP elevation, presenting visual acuity worse than 20/40, and topical corticosteroid use (in a dose-response relationship). The median follow-up was 1.25 years (interquartile range, 0.4-3.66). The estimated incidence of any observed IOP elevation to ≥21 mmHg, to ≥30 mmHg, and increase in IOP by ≥10 mmHg was 33.4%, 14.8%, and 24.4%, respectively, within 2 years. Factors associated with IOP elevation included pars plana vitrectomy, contralateral IOP elevation (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], up to 9.54; P < 0.001), and the use of topical (aHR, up to 8.77 that followed a dose-response relationship; P < 0.001), periocular (aHR, up to 7.96; P < 0.001), and intraocular (aHR, up to 19.7; P < 0.001) corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: Intraocular pressure elevation affects a large minority of children with noninfectious uveitis. Statistically significant risk factors include IOP elevation or use of IOP-lowering treatment in the contralateral eye and local corticosteroid use that demonstrated a dose-and route of administration-dependent relationship. In contrast, use of immunosuppressive drug therapy did not increase such risk. Pediatric eyes with noninfectious uveitis should be followed up closely for IOP elevation, especially when strong risk factors such as the use of local corticosteroids and contralateral IOP elevation are present.

Munro RJ, Fulton AB, Chui TYP, Moskowitz A, Ramamirtham R, Hansen RM, Prabhu SP, Akula JD. Eye growth in term- and preterm-born eyes modeled from magnetic resonance images. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56(5):3121-31.Abstract

PURPOSE: We generated a model of eye growth and tested it against an eye known to develop abnormally, one with a history of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS: We reviewed extant magnetic resonance images (MRIs) from term and preterm-born patients for suitable images (n = 129). We binned subjects for analysis based upon postmenstrual age at birth (in weeks) and ROP history ("Term" ≥ 37, "Premature" ≤ 32 with no ROP, "ROP" ≤ 32 with ROP). We measured the axial positions and curvatures of the cornea, anterior and posterior lens, and inner retinal surface. We fit anterior chamber depth (ACD), posterior segment depth (PSD), axial length (AL), and corneal and lenticular curvatures with logistic growth curves that we then evaluated for significant differences. We also measured the length of rays from the centroid to the surface of the eye at 5° intervals, and described the length versus age relationship of each ray, Lray(x), using the same logistic growth curve. We determined the rate of ray elongation, Eray(x), from Lraydy/dx. Then, we estimated the scleral growth that accounted for Eray(x), G(x), at every age and position. RESULTS: Relative to Term, development of ACD, PSD, AL, and corneal and lenticular curvatures was delayed in ROP eyes, but not Premature eyes. In Term infants, G(x) was fast and predominantly equatorial; in age-matched ROP eyes, maximal G(x) was offset by approximately 90°. CONCLUSIONS: We produced a model of normal eye growth in term-born subjects. Relative to normal, the ROP eye is characterized by delayed, abnormal growth.

Hansen RM, Tavormina JL, Moskowitz A, Fulton AB. Effect of retinopathy of prematurity on scotopic spatial summation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2014;55(5):3311-3.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate scotopic retinal organization in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) through a study of spatial summation. METHODS: Thresholds for a range of stimulus diameters (0.4°-10°) were measured using a two alternative, spatial, forced choice psychophysical procedure. The critical diameter (DCRIT) for complete summation was estimated in subjects with a history of severe ROP (N = 7) and mild ROP (N = 17). Subjects who were born preterm and never had ROP (N = 16) and term-born subjects (N = 7) were also tested. The subjects ranged in age from 9 to 17 (median 13.5) years. RESULTS: Critical diameter for complete spatial summation was significantly larger in ROP subjects than in subjects who never had ROP and in term-born control subjects. Critical diameter varied significantly with severity of ROP. CONCLUSIONS: The larger DCRIT values in ROP are consistent with altered organization of the post receptor retina. This may offer the ROP retina a strategy for achieving noise reduction and good dark-adapted visual sensitivity.