Pediatric Ophthalmology

Whitman MC, MacNeill K, Hunter DG. Bifocals Fail to Improve Stereopsis Outcomes in High AC/A Accommodative Esotropia. Ophthalmology 2016;123(4):690-6.Abstract

PURPOSE: To assess whether stereopsis outcomes of patients with accommodative esotropia with high accommodative convergence/accommodation relationship (AC/A) were improved after treatment with bifocal glasses compared with single-vision lenses. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with high AC/A accommodative esotropia; evidence of stereopsis, binocularity (on Worth 4-dot testing), or improvement in near angle with +3.00 D lenses; and at least 4 years of records available for review, who were seen in the Department of Ophthalmology at Boston Children's Hospital between 2006 and 2014. METHODS: Use of bifocal or single-vision glasses. Charts were reviewed retrospectively. Stereopsis was log transformed for statistical analysis. Linear (for stereopsis) or logistic (for surgery) regression was used to control for confounders. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Stereopsis at final follow-up, difference in stereopsis between final and initial visits, and progression to strabismus surgery. Secondary outcomes included final near and distance deviations. RESULTS: Of the 180 patients who met inclusion criteria, 77 used bifocals and 103 used single-vision lenses. Bifocals did not improve stereopsis outcomes compared with single-vision lenses. In both groups, stereopsis was similar at the initial and final visits, with similar improvement in both groups. Children in the bifocal group had a 3.6-fold higher rate of strabismus surgery than children in the single-lens group (P = 0.04.) Additionally, children in the bifocal group had near deviations 4 PD larger than those with single lenses at final follow-up, even after controlling for age and initial deviation (P = 0.02). These results did not change if surgical patients were eliminated or in the subgroup with initial distance deviation of 0 PD in full hyperopic correction. CONCLUSIONS: Despite their widespread use, there is no evidence that bifocals improve outcomes in children with accommodative esotropia with high AC/A. In our retrospective review, children with bifocals had higher surgical rates and a smaller improvement in near deviation over time. Although our results suggest that eliminating bifocals could reduce the cost and complexity of care while potentially improving quality, prospective, randomized controlled trials are needed to determine whether a change in practice is warranted.

Tiedemann LM, Manley P, Smith ER, Dagi LR. Visual Field Loss in a Case of Recurrent Cystic Craniopharyngioma During Concomitant Treatment With Pegylated Interferon α-2b. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol 2015;Abstract

A 13-year-old male with suprasellar cystic craniopharyngioma initially controlled with sequential subtotal resections and proton-beam irradiation was later treated with intracystic pegylated interferon α-2b due to progression and a lack of further surgical options. After initial successful control of recurrent cyst enlargement and stabilization of the ophthalmic examination, progressive and irreversible visual field loss ensued. Imaging revealed intracranial leakage from the intracystic catheter, and direct administration of interferon α-2b was discontinued. Given the recent interest in interferon α-2b, oncologists are advised to vigilantly monitor patients for signs of local toxicity that may result from unintended leakage during intracystic delivery.

Hellgren G, Löfqvist C, Hård A-L, Hansen-Pupp I, Gram M, Ley D, Smith LE, Hellström A. Serum concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor in relation to retinopathy of prematurity. Pediatr Res 2015;Abstract

BACKGROUND: The role of VEGF in the pathogenesis of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) has been clearly established. However, little is known about temporal changes in circulating VEGF concentrations in the preterm infant. The objective was to determine the longitudinal serum concentrations of VEGF in relation to ROP. METHODS: This study included 52 infants born at <31 weeks gestational age (non-ROP n=33, non-proliferative ROP n=10, treated for ROP n=9). VEGF concentrations were analyzed in blood samples collected at birth, at 3 days postnatal age, and then weekly until at least a gestational age of 35 weeks. RESULTS: VEGF concentrations at birth did not differ between groups, independent of later ROP status. In contrast, VEGF serum concentrations were significantly higher at first detection of ROP in infants who were later treated for ROP compared to infants without ROP. At the time of laser therapy, serum VEGF concentrations did not differ between groups. CONCLUSION: Circulatory concentrations of VEGF, in infants who later developed severe ROP, were elevated at the time when ROP first was detected but not at the time when current treatment most often occurred. This supports the need for further studies of circulating VEGF in relation to the timing of ROP treatment.Pediatric Research (2015); doi:10.1038/pr.2015.181.

Kothari S, Foster SC, Pistilli M, Liesegang TL, Daniel E, Sen NH, Suhler EB, Thorne JE, Jabs DA, Levy-Clarke GA, Nussenblatt RB, Rosenbaum JT, Lawrence SD, Kempen JH, for Eye Diseases Group SITR. The Risk of Intraocular Pressure Elevation inPediatric Noninfectious Uveitis. Ophthalmology 2015;122(10):1987-2001.Abstract

PURPOSE: To characterize the risk and risk factors for intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation in pediatric noninfectious uveitis. DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Nine hundred sixteen children (1593 eyes) younger than 18 years at presentation with noninfectious uveitis followed up between January 1978 and December 2007 at 5 academic uveitis centers in the United States. METHODS: Medical records review by trained, certified experts. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence and incidence of IOP of 21 mmHg or more and 30 mmHg or more and incidence of a rise in IOP by 10 mmHg or more. To avoid underascertainment, outcomes were counted as present when IOP-lowering therapies were in use. RESULTS: Initially, 251 (15.8%) and 46 eyes (2.9%) had IOP ≥21 mmHg and ≥30 mmHg, respectively. Factors significantly associated with presenting IOP elevation included age of 6 to 12 years (versus other pediatric ages), prior cataract surgery, pars plana vitrectomy, duration of uveitis ≥6 months, contralateral IOP elevation, presenting visual acuity worse than 20/40, and topical corticosteroid use (in a dose-response relationship). The median follow-up was 1.25 years (interquartile range, 0.4-3.66). The estimated incidence of any observed IOP elevation to ≥21 mmHg, to ≥30 mmHg, and increase in IOP by ≥10 mmHg was 33.4%, 14.8%, and 24.4%, respectively, within 2 years. Factors associated with IOP elevation included pars plana vitrectomy, contralateral IOP elevation (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], up to 9.54; P < 0.001), and the use of topical (aHR, up to 8.77 that followed a dose-response relationship; P < 0.001), periocular (aHR, up to 7.96; P < 0.001), and intraocular (aHR, up to 19.7; P < 0.001) corticosteroids. CONCLUSIONS: Intraocular pressure elevation affects a large minority of children with noninfectious uveitis. Statistically significant risk factors include IOP elevation or use of IOP-lowering treatment in the contralateral eye and local corticosteroid use that demonstrated a dose-and route of administration-dependent relationship. In contrast, use of immunosuppressive drug therapy did not increase such risk. Pediatric eyes with noninfectious uveitis should be followed up closely for IOP elevation, especially when strong risk factors such as the use of local corticosteroids and contralateral IOP elevation are present.

Munro RJ, Fulton AB, Chui TYP, Moskowitz A, Ramamirtham R, Hansen RM, Prabhu SP, Akula JD. Eye growth in term- and preterm-born eyes modeled from magnetic resonance images. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2015;56(5):3121-31.Abstract

PURPOSE: We generated a model of eye growth and tested it against an eye known to develop abnormally, one with a history of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). METHODS: We reviewed extant magnetic resonance images (MRIs) from term and preterm-born patients for suitable images (n = 129). We binned subjects for analysis based upon postmenstrual age at birth (in weeks) and ROP history ("Term" ≥ 37, "Premature" ≤ 32 with no ROP, "ROP" ≤ 32 with ROP). We measured the axial positions and curvatures of the cornea, anterior and posterior lens, and inner retinal surface. We fit anterior chamber depth (ACD), posterior segment depth (PSD), axial length (AL), and corneal and lenticular curvatures with logistic growth curves that we then evaluated for significant differences. We also measured the length of rays from the centroid to the surface of the eye at 5° intervals, and described the length versus age relationship of each ray, Lray(x), using the same logistic growth curve. We determined the rate of ray elongation, Eray(x), from Lraydy/dx. Then, we estimated the scleral growth that accounted for Eray(x), G(x), at every age and position. RESULTS: Relative to Term, development of ACD, PSD, AL, and corneal and lenticular curvatures was delayed in ROP eyes, but not Premature eyes. In Term infants, G(x) was fast and predominantly equatorial; in age-matched ROP eyes, maximal G(x) was offset by approximately 90°. CONCLUSIONS: We produced a model of normal eye growth in term-born subjects. Relative to normal, the ROP eye is characterized by delayed, abnormal growth.

Hansen RM, Tavormina JL, Moskowitz A, Fulton AB. Effect of retinopathy of prematurity on scotopic spatial summation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2014;55(5):3311-3.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate scotopic retinal organization in retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) through a study of spatial summation. METHODS: Thresholds for a range of stimulus diameters (0.4°-10°) were measured using a two alternative, spatial, forced choice psychophysical procedure. The critical diameter (DCRIT) for complete summation was estimated in subjects with a history of severe ROP (N = 7) and mild ROP (N = 17). Subjects who were born preterm and never had ROP (N = 16) and term-born subjects (N = 7) were also tested. The subjects ranged in age from 9 to 17 (median 13.5) years. RESULTS: Critical diameter for complete spatial summation was significantly larger in ROP subjects than in subjects who never had ROP and in term-born control subjects. Critical diameter varied significantly with severity of ROP. CONCLUSIONS: The larger DCRIT values in ROP are consistent with altered organization of the post receptor retina. This may offer the ROP retina a strategy for achieving noise reduction and good dark-adapted visual sensitivity.
Engel MJ, Guyton DL, Hunter DG. Adjustable sutures in children. J AAPOS 2014;18(3):278-84.Abstract
Although adjustable sutures are considered a standard technique in adult strabismus surgery, most surgeons are hesitant to attempt the technique in children, who are believed to be unlikely to cooperate for postoperative assessment and adjustment. Interest in using adjustable sutures in pediatric patients has increased with the development of surgical techniques specific to infants and children. This workshop briefly reviews the literature supporting the use of adjustable sutures in children and presents the approaches currently used by three experienced strabismus surgeons.
West CE, Hunter DG. Displacement of optical centers in over-the-counter readers: a potential cause of diplopia. J AAPOS 2014;18(3):293-4.Abstract
Induced prism in spectacle lenses, which may result from inadvertent displacement of optical centers, may worsen an existing heterophoria or even cause diplopia, yet over-the-counter reading glasses (OTC readers) are not always assessed by clinicians when evaluating patients with diplopia or asthenopia. To gauge the magnitude of this potential problem, we used a focimeter and prescription aligner to assess the frequency and extent of clinically significant manufacturing variations in a random selection of 160 OTC readers. The optical centers were vertically displaced by ≥3 mm in 11%, with a maximum displacement of 7 mm in 1 pair. Average interpupillary distance was 64 mm (range, 58-74.5 mm), with interpupillary distance outside the normal range of 60-70 mm in 5%. Monocular pupillary distance was asymmetric by ≥5 mm in 4%. A 0.75 D power difference between lenses was measured in one pair of OTC readers. Some OTC readers have misaligned optical centers and other manufacturing defects that are of a magnitude sufficient to exacerbate a heterophoria and cause asthenopia or diplopia.
Wentworth BA, Freitas-Neto CA, Foster SC. Management of pediatric uveitis. F1000Prime Rep 2014;6:41.Abstract
Pediatric uveitis is a topic of special interest not only because of the unique diagnostic and therapeutic challenges but also because of the lifetime burden of vision loss if the problem is not adequately treated, as well as the economic and psychological toll on the family. Often, uveitis in children is discovered as part of a routine eye exam; this silent, insidious inflammation can be difficult to treat and can lead to further complications if not handled skillfully. Corticosteroids have long been the mainstay of therapy; however, the significant associated side effects mandate a corticosteroid-sparing therapeutic regimen in pursuit of remission. In this review, we cover the therapeutic options for pediatric uveitis, specifically focusing on the most common non-infectious varieties, juvenile idiopathic arthritis-associated uveitis and pars planitis.
Lundgren P, Kistner A, Andersson EM, Hansen Pupp I, Holmström G, Ley D, Niklasson A, Smith LEH, Wu C, Hellström A, Löfqvist C. Low birth weight is a risk factor for severe retinopathy of prematurity depending on gestational age. PLoS One 2014;9(10):e109460.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of low birth weight as a risk factor for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) that will require treatment in correlation with gestational age at birth (GA). STUDY DESIGN: In total, 2941 infants born <32 weeks GA were eligible from five cohorts of preterm infants previously collected for analysis in WINROP (Weight IGF-I Neonatal ROP) from the following locations: Sweden (EXPRESS) (n = 426), North America (n = 1772), Boston (n = 338), Lund (n = 52), and Gothenburg (n = 353). Data regarding GA at birth, birth weight (BW), gender, and need for ROP treatment were retrieved. Birth weight standard deviation scores (BWSDS) were calculated with Swedish as well as Canadian reference models. Small for gestational age (SGA) was defined as BWSDS less than -2.0 SDS using the Swedish reference and as BW below the 10th percentile using the Canadian reference charts. RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed that low GA (p<0.001), low BW (p<0.001), male gender (p<0.05), low BWSDSCanada (p<0.001), and SGACanada (p<0.01) were risk factors for ROP that will require treatment. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, low GA (p<0.0001), male gender (p<0.01 and p<0.05), and an interaction term of BWSDS*GA group (p<0.001), regardless of reference chart, were risk factors. Low BWSDS was less important as a risk factor in infants born at GA <26 weeks compared with infants born at GA ≥26 weeks calculated with both reference charts (BWSDSSweden, OR = 0.80 vs 0.56; and BWSDSCanada, OR = 0.72 vs 0.41). CONCLUSIONS: Low BWSDS as a risk factor for vision-threatening ROP is dependent on the infant's degree of immaturity. In more mature infants (GA ≥26 weeks), low BWSDS becomes a major risk factor for developing ROP that will require treatment. These results persist even when calculating BW deficit with different well-established approaches.
Yang S, MacKinnon S, Dagi LR, Hunter DG. Superior rectus transposition vs medial rectus recession for treatment of esotropic Duane syndrome. JAMA Ophthalmol 2014;132(6):669-75.Abstract
IMPORTANCE: Superior rectus transposition (SRT) with or without medial rectus recession (MRc) has been introduced as an alternative to MRc alone for treatment of esotropic Duane syndrome; however, the effectiveness of these procedures has not been compared previously. OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and efficacy of MRc and SRT in treatment of Duane syndrome. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Retrospective medical record review of all patients with esotropic Duane syndrome who underwent surgical treatment from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2012, in a multispecialty, hospital-based pediatric ophthalmology/adult strabismus practice at Boston Children's Hospital. Patients in the SRT group underwent SRT with or without MRc; those in the non-SRT group underwent unilateral or bilateral MRc. EXPOSURES: Surgical treatment of esotropic Duane syndrome. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Binocular alignment, ocular ductions, head position, stereopsis, and fundus torsion were recorded before surgery and at the 2-month and final postoperative visits. We also evaluated postoperative drift. RESULTS: The medical record review identified 36 patients who underwent 37 procedures, including 19 in the SRT group (13 SRT + MRc and 6 SRT alone) and 18 in the non-SRT group (11 unilateral MRc and 7 bilateral medial rectus resession). Mean MRc was smaller when performed with SRT (3.3 vs 5.3 mm; P = .004). Although the initial deviation was larger in the SRT group, both groups had a similar improvement in esotropia and head turn. Abduction improved by at least 1 unit in 15 of 19 patients in the SRT group (79%) vs 5 of 18 in the non-SRT group (28%). In 24 patients followed up for more than 6 months, mean esotropia decreased from 8.2 to 6.1 prism diopters (Δ) in the SRT group (n = 12) but increased from 7.2 to 10.9Δ in the non-SRT group (n = 12). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The combination of SRT and MRc was more effective than MRc or bilateral medial rectus resession at improving abduction while allowing for a smaller recession to align the eyes and eliminate a compensatory head posture. Although any surgery on the vertical rectus muscles should in theory increase the risk for vertical or torsional complications, to date this theory has not been borne out in our patients. Patients treated with SRT appear to have a reduced likelihood of long-term undercorrection. We therefore recommend SRT with adjustable MRc for treatment of Duane syndrome in patients with larger amounts of esotropia.
Wan MJ, Adebona O, Benson LA, Gorman MP, Heidary G. Visual outcomes in pediatric optic neuritis. Am J Ophthalmol 2014;158(3):503-7.e2.Abstract
PURPOSE: To describe the visual outcomes of a large cohort of pediatric patients presenting to a tertiary care pediatric hospital with first-episode optic neuritis. DESIGN: Retrospective, observational cohort study. METHODS: In a tertiary care pediatric hospital, patients with first-episode optic neuritis and at least 3 months of follow-up over a 10-year period were assessed and followed-up in the ophthalmology department. The main outcome measures were visual acuity at 3 months and 1 year of follow-up, with analysis of risk factors for poor visual outcomes and the time course of visual recovery. RESULTS: Of the 59 pediatric patients with first-episode optic neuritis, 46 had at least 3 months of follow-up and 36 had at least 1 year of follow-up. The mean age was 12.6 years old; 72% were female, 41% had bilateral involvement, 52% had or developed an underlying diagnosis (39% multiple sclerosis, 7% acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, 7% neuromyelitis optica), and 91% received treatment (85% steroids, 7% multimodal). At 1 year, 81% were at least 20/20 and 89% were at least 20/40. A poor visual outcome at 1 year (<20/40) was associated with vision of <20/20 at 3 months (P = 0.041). Other clinical characteristics, including visual acuity at presentation, sex, bilateral involvement, optic nerve edema, and underlying diagnoses were not significantly associated with poor visual outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of pediatric patients with optic neuritis, the majority of patients regained normal visual acuity at 1 year, regardless of baseline clinical characteristics.
Kwon MY, Lu Z-L, Miller A, Kazlas M, Hunter DG, Bex PJ. Assessing binocular interaction in amblyopia and its clinical feasibility. PLoS One 2014;9(6):e100156.Abstract
PURPOSE: To measure binocular interaction in amblyopes using a rapid and patient-friendly computer-based method, and to test the feasibility of the assessment in the clinic. METHODS: Binocular interaction was assessed in subjects with strabismic amblyopia (n = 7), anisometropic amblyopia (n = 6), strabismus without amblyopia (n = 15) and normal vision (n = 40). Binocular interaction was measured with a dichoptic phase matching task in which subjects matched the position of a binocular probe to the cyclopean perceived phase of a dichoptic pair of gratings whose contrast ratios were systematically varied. The resulting effective contrast ratio of the weak eye was taken as an indicator of interocular imbalance. Testing was performed in an ophthalmology clinic under 8 mins. We examined the relationships between our binocular interaction measure and standard clinical measures indicating abnormal binocularity such as interocular acuity difference and stereoacuity. The test-retest reliability of the testing method was also evaluated. RESULTS: Compared to normally-sighted controls, amblyopes exhibited significantly reduced effective contrast (∼20%) of the weak eye, suggesting a higher contrast requirement for the amblyopic eye compared to the fellow eye. We found that the effective contrast ratio of the weak eye covaried with standard clincal measures of binocular vision. Our results showed that there was a high correlation between the 1st and 2nd measurements (r = 0.94, p<0.001) but without any significant bias between the two. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that abnormal binocular interaction can be reliably captured by measuring the effective contrast ratio of the weak eye and quantitative assessment of binocular interaction is a quick and simple test that can be performed in the clinic. We believe that reliable and timely assessment of deficits in a binocular interaction may improve detection and treatment of amblyopia.
VanderVeen DK, Martin CR, Mehendale R, Allred EN, Dammann O, Leviton A, Leviton A. Early nutrition and weight gain in preterm newborns and the risk of retinopathy of prematurity. PLoS One 2013;8(5):e64325.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To identify nutritional and weight gain limitations associated with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) severity among very preterm newborns. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 1180 infants <28 weeks GA at birth with ROP examination results were grouped and analyzed by quartile of weekly total calorie, carbohydrate, protein, and lipid intake, as well as growth velocity between postnatal days 7 and 28 (adjusted for GA and birth weight Z-score). ROP was categorized by development of no, mild (