Pediatric Ophthalmology

Elhusseiny AM, Traish AS, Saeed HN, Mantagos IS. Topical cenegermin 0.002% for pediatric neurotrophic keratopathy. Eur J Ophthalmol 2022;32(6):3420-3424.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of cenegermin 0.002% ophthalmic drops in the management of pediatric neurotrophic keratopathy (NK). METHODS: Retrospective chart review of children under the age of 18 years diagnosed with NK at Boston Children's Hospital/Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary and treated with topical cenegermin 0.002% ophthalmic solution between June 2018 and June 2021 was performed. Data collection included etiology of NK, age at time of initiation of topical cenegermin, laterality, ethnicity, gender, history of previous ocular therapy, pre- and post-therapy best corrected visual acuity, pre- and post-therapy cornea examination, any adverse events from topical cenegermin, associated ocular conditions, and history of ocular surgeries. RESULTS: The current study includes four eyes of four pediatric patients with a mean age of 4.5 ± 2.0 years at the time of initiation of topical cenegermin therapy. The mean time from NK diagnosis until start of topical cenegermin drops was 5.2 ± 4.3 months and mean follow-up time was 15 ± 9.6 months. In all four patients, marked improvement in epitheliopathy was demonstrated after completion of therapy. Best corrected visual acuity was measurable in 3 eyes of 3 patients, and it improved from a mean of 0.07 ± 0.01 to a mean of 0.29 ± 0.26 (P = 0.3). No adverse events related to cenegermin therapy were noted. CONCLUSION: Topical cenegermin was effective in improving corneal healing for pediatric NK.
Pivodic A, Smith LEH, Hård A-L, Löfqvist C, Almeida AC, Al-Hawasi A, Larsson E, Lundgren P, Sunnqvist B, Tornqvist K, Wallin A, Holmstrom G, Gränse L. Validation of DIGIROP models and decision support tool for prediction of treatment for retinopathy of prematurity on a contemporary Swedish cohort. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is currently diagnosed through repeated eye examinations to find the low percentage of infants that fulfil treatment criteria to reduce vision loss. A prediction model for severe ROP requiring treatment that might sensitively and specifically identify infants that develop severe ROP, DIGIROP-Birth, was developed using birth characteristics. DIGIROP-Screen additionally incorporates first signs of ROP in different models over time. The aim was to validate DIGIROP-Birth, DIGIROP-Screen and their decision support tool on a contemporary Swedish cohort. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the Swedish national registry for ROP (2018-2019) and two Swedish regions (2020), including 1082 infants born at gestational age (GA) 24 to <31 weeks. The predictors were GA at birth, sex, standardised birth weight and age at the first sign of ROP. The outcome was ROP treatment. Sensitivity, specificity and area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) with 95% CI were described. RESULTS: For DIGIROP-Birth, the AUC was 0.93 (95% CI 0.90 to 0.95); for DIGIROP-Screen, it ranged between 0.93 and 0.97. The specificity was 49.9% (95% CI 46.7 to 53.0) and the sensitivity was 96.5% (95% CI 87.9 to 99.6) for the tool applied at birth. For DIGIROP-Screen, the cumulative specificity ranged between 50.0% and 78.7%. One infant with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome who fulfilled criteria for ROP treatment and had no missed/incomplete examinations was incorrectly flagged as not needing screening. CONCLUSIONS: DIGIROP-Birth and DIGIROP-Screen showed high predictive ability in a contemporary Swedish cohort. At birth, 50% of the infants born at 24 to <31 weeks of gestation were predicted to have low risk of severe ROP and could potentially be released from ROP screening examinations. All routinely screened treated infants, excluding those screened for clinical indications of severe illness, were correctly flagged as needing ROP screening.
Morsing E, Lundgren P, Hård A-L, Rakow A, Hellström-Westas L, Jacobson L, Johnson M, Nilsson S, Smith LEH, Sävman K, Hellström A. Neurodevelopmental disorders and somatic diagnoses in a national cohort of children born before 24 weeks of gestation. Acta Paediatr 2022;111(6):1167-1175.Abstract
AIM: This study investigated childhood diagnoses in children born extremely preterm before 24 weeks of gestation. METHODS: Diagnoses of neurodevelopmental disorders and selected somatic diagnoses were retrospectively retrieved from national Swedish registries for children born before 24 weeks from 2007 to 2018. Their individual medical files were also examined. RESULTS: We studied 383 children born at a median of 23.3 (range 21.9-23.9) weeks, with a median birthweight of 565 (range 340-874) grams. Three-quarters (75%) had neurodevelopmental disorders, including speech disorders (52%), intellectual disabilities (40%), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (30%), autism spectrum disorders (24%), visual impairment (22%), cerebral palsy (17%), epilepsy (10%) and hearing impairment (5%). More boys than girls born at 23 weeks had intellectual disabilities (45% vs. 27%, p < 0.01) and visual impairment (25% vs. 14%, p < 0.01). Just over half of the cohort (55%) received habilitation care. The majority (88%) had somatic diagnoses, including asthma (63%) and failure to thrive/short stature (39%). CONCLUSION: Most children born before 24 weeks had neurodevelopmental disorders and/or additional somatic diagnoses in childhood and were referred to habilitation services. Clinicians should be aware of the multiple health and developmental problems affecting these children. Resources are needed to identify their long-term support needs at an early stage.
VanderVeen DK, Oke I, Nihalani BR. Deviations From Age-Adjusted Normative Biometry Measures in Children Undergoing Cataract Surgery: Implications for Postoperative Target Refraction and IOL Power Selection. Am J Ophthalmol 2022;239:190-201.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate whether pediatric eyes that deviate from age-adjusted normative biometry parameters predict variation in myopic shift after cataract surgery. METHODS: This is a single institution longitudinal cohort study combining prospectively collected biometry data from normal eyes of children <10 years old with biometry data from eyes undergoing cataract surgery. Refractive data from patients with a minimum of 5 visits over ≥5 years of follow-up were used to calculate myopic shift and rate of refractive growth. Cataractous eyes that deviated from the middle quartiles of the age-adjusted normative values for axial length and keratometry were studied for variation in myopic shift and rate of refractive growth to 5 years and last follow-up visit. Multivariable analysis was performed to determine the association between myopic shift and rate of refractive growth and factors of age, sex, laterality, keratometry, axial length, intraocular lens power, and follow-up length. RESULTS: Normative values were derived from 100 eyes; there were 162 eyes in the cataract group with a median follow-up of 9.6 years (interquartile range: 7.3-12.2 years). The mean myopic shift ranged from 5.5 D (interquartile range: 6.3-3.5 D) for 0- to 2-year-olds to 1.0 D (interquartile range: 1.5-0.6 D) for 8- to 10-year-olds. Multivariable analysis showed that more myopic shift was associated with younger age (P < .001), lower keratometry (P = .01), and male gender (P = .027); greater rate of refractive growth was only associated with lower keratometry measures (P = .001). CONCLUSIONS: Age-based tables for intraocular lens power selection are useful, and modest adjustments can be considered for eyes with lower keratometry values than expected for age.
Chiou CA, Reshef ER, Yoon MK. Shewanella algae Causing Pediatric Orbital Abscess With Leptomeningitis. Ophthalmic Plast Reconstr Surg 2022;38(4):e101-e104.Abstract
A 13-year-old boy presented with 3 days of left-sided periorbital pain, swelling, mucoid discharge, and fever to 103°F, with onset 1 day after swimming in the ocean. Within 12 hours, he experienced rapid clinical deterioration with formation of a superomedial subperiosteal abscess and an epidural abscess with leptomeningitis despite treatment with broad-spectrum intravenous antibiotics. The patient underwent urgent left orbitotomy with abscess drainage and functional endoscopic sinus surgery. Intraoperative cultures grew Shewanella algae and Escherichia coli . The patient showed marked clinical improvement following surgical intervention and tailored antibiotic therapy. This is the first reported case of orbital abscess with acute bacterial rhinosinusitis due to infection with Shewanella algae .
Guadix SW, Valenti A, Zappi KE, Garton ALA, Yuan M, Buontempo M, Perera I, Souweidane MM, Imahiyerobo T, Hoffman CE. Examining the Role of Early Diagnostic Imaging for Craniosynostosis in the Era of Endoscopic Suturectomy: A Single Institution Experience. J Craniofac Surg 2022;Abstract
ABSTRACT: Endoscopic suturectomy is a minimally invasive surgical treatment for single-suture craniosynostosis in children between 1 and 4 months of age. This study sought to characterize the role played by diagnostic imaging in facilitating early surgical management with endoscopic suturectomy. The authors also characterized the overall diagnostic utility of imaging in patients assessed for abnormal head shape at their institution, regardless of surgical status. A retrospective cohort of children diagnosed with single-suture synostosis undergoing either primary endoscopic suturectomy or open calvarial reconstruction at the authors' institution from 1998 to 2018 was first reviewed. Of 132 surgical patients, 53 underwent endoscopic suturectomy and 79 underwent open repair. There was no difference in the proportion of endoscopic and open surgery patients imaged preoperatively before (24.5% versus 35.4%; P = 0.24) or after (28.3% versus 25.3%; P = 0.84) craniofacial assessment. Stratifying by historical epoch (1998-2010 versus 2011-2018), there was also no difference found between preoperative imaging rates (63.6% versus 56.4%; P = 0.35). In another cohort of 175 patients assessed for abnormal head shape, 26.9% were imaged to rule out craniosynostosis. Positive diagnostic imaging rates were recorded for suspected unicoronal (100%), metopic (87.5%), lambdoidal (75.0%), sagittal (63.5%), multi-suture (50%), and bicoronal (0%) synostosis. The authors conclude that the use of diagnostic imaging at their institution has not increased despite higher utilization of endoscopic suturectomy and need for expedient identification of surgical candidates. However, their results suggest that imaging may play a greater diagnostic role for suspected bicoronal, sagittal, and multi-sutural synostosis among sutural subtypes of synostosis.
Bowe T, Serina A, Armstrong M, Welcher JE, Adebona O, Gore C, Staffa SJ, Zurakowski D, Shah AS. Timing of Ocular Hypertension After Pediatric Closed-Globe Traumatic Hyphema: Implications for Surveillance. Am J Ophthalmol 2022;233:135-143.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the timing of ocular hypertension (OHT) after pediatric closed-globe injury (CGI) and traumatic hyphema. We hypothesize that OHT will occur at different times based on injury characteristics. DESIGN: Retrospective, cohort study. METHODS: Setting: Single-center, tertiary-care, pediatric hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Subjects included patients ≤18 years of age at the time of injury who suffered CGI and traumatic hyphema between 2002 and 2019. Observation Procedure(s): Intraocular pressure and injury demographics were abstracted for every visit after injury. OHT was defined as >21 mm Hg at presentation or after a reading of ≤21 mm Hg at a prior visit. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was the timing of OHT categorized into 4 periods: presentation, acute (days 1-7), subacute (days 8-28), or late (day >28). Secondary outcome measures were identification of risks factors for OHT by multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: OHT occurred in 119 of the 305 (39%) subject eyes. OHT occurred in 35 patients at presentation, 69 times acutely, 35 times subacutely, and 36 times late. Pupil damage predicted acute-period OHT (P = .004). OHT at presentation predicted subacute period OHT (P = .004). Iridodialysis and cataract predicted late-period OHT (P = .007 and P < .001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: OHT after CGI and traumatic hyphema in pediatric patients is common. Injury demographics predict this complication. Integration of these risk factors with current literature allows proposal of a risk-stratification tool to guide efficient surveillance for OHT.
Manny RE, Holmes JM, Kraker RT, Li Z, Waters AL, Kelly KR, Kong L, Crouch ER, Lorenzana IJ, Alkharashi MS, Galvin JA, Rice ML, Melia MB, Cotter SA, Cotter SA. A Randomized Trial of Binocular Dig Rush Game Treatment for Amblyopia in Children Aged 4 to 6 Years of Age. Optom Vis Sci 2022;Abstract
SIGNIFICANCE: Binocular treatment for unilateral amblyopia is an emerging treatment that requires evaluation through a randomized clinical trial. PURPOSE: To compare change in amblyopic eye visual acuity (VA) in children aged 4 to 6 years treated with the dichoptic binocular Dig Rush iPad game plus continued spectacle correction vs. continued spectacle correction alone. METHODS: Children (mean 5.7 years) were randomly assigned to home treatment for 8 weeks with the iPad game (n = 92, prescribed 1 hour/day, 5 days/week or continued spectacle correction alone n = 90) in a multi-center randomized clinical trial. Prior to enrollment, children wearing spectacles were required to have at least 16 weeks of wear or no improvement in amblyopic-eye VA (< 0.1 logMAR) for at least 8 weeks. Outcome was change in amblyopic-eye VA from baseline to 4 weeks (primary) and 8 weeks (secondary) assessed by masked examiner. RESULTS: 182 children with anisometropic (63%), strabismic (16%) (<5[INCREMENT] near, simultaneous prism and cover test), or combined-mechanism (20%) amblyopia (20/40 to 20/200, mean 20/63) were enrolled. After 4 weeks, mean amblyopic VA improved 1.1 logMAR lines with binocular treatment and 0.6 logMAR lines with spectacles alone (adjusted difference = 0.5 lines; 95.1% CI: 0.1 to 0.9). After 8 weeks, results (binocular treatment: mean amblyopic-eye VA improvement = 1.3 logMAR lines vs. 1.0 logMAR lines with spectacles alone, adjusted difference = 0.3 lines; 98.4% CI: -0.2 to 0.8) were inconclusive because the confidence interval included both zero and the pre-defined difference in mean VA change of 0.75 logMAR lines. CONCLUSIONS: In 4- to 6-year-old children with amblyopia, binocular Dig Rush treatment resulted in greater improvement in amblyopic-eye VA over 4 weeks but not 8 weeks. Future work is required to determine if modifications to the contrast increment algorithm or other aspects of the game or its implementation could enhance the treatment effect.
Nwanaji-Enwerem JC, Gateman T, Whitecross S, Whitman MC. First Visit Characteristics Associated with Future Surgery in Intermittent Exotropia. J Binocul Vis Ocul Motil 2022;:1-7.Abstract
PURPOSE: Identify demographic and clinical characteristics at the first presentation associated with later having surgery for intermittent exotropia (IXT). METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of 228 children with IXT and 5+ years of follow-up. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from medical records. A total 97 participants who underwent surgery during follow-up were compared to 131 participants who did not. Best subset regression was used to identify first visit variables associated with later having strabismus surgery. Surgery was then regressed on the selected variables using logistic models. RESULTS: Age and control were the only first visit variables significantly associated with having surgery for IXT. Notably, neither angle of deviation nor stereopsis were associated with later surgery. In an adjusted logistic model, each one-month increase in age at presentation was associated with a 1% decrease in the odds of having surgery (OR = 0.991, 95% CI: 0.982-0.999, P = .04). Children with poor control at initial visit had almost five times greater odds of having surgery than those with good control (OR = 4.95, 95% CI: 2.31-10.98, P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Age and control of IXT are important factors at presentation associated with future surgical intervention for IXT. The magnitude of deviation and stereopsis was not significantly associated with future surgical treatment for IXT.
Xiao S, Angjeli E, Wu HC, Gaier ED, Gomez S, Travers DA, Binenbaum G, Langer R, Hunter DG, Repka MX, Repka MX. Randomized Controlled Trial of a Dichoptic Digital Therapeutic for Amblyopia. Ophthalmology 2022;129(1):77-85.Abstract
PURPOSE: Digital therapeutics are a new class of interventions that are software driven and are intended to treat various conditions. We developed and evaluated a dichoptic digital therapeutic for amblyopia, a neurodevelopmental disorder for which current treatments may be limited by poor adherence and residual vision deficits. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred five children 4 to 7 years of age with amblyopia were enrolled at 21 academic and community sites in the United States. Participants were randomized 1:1 to the treatment or comparison group, stratified by site. METHODS: We conducted a phase 3 randomized controlled trial to evaluate the safety and efficacy of a dichoptic digital therapeutic for amblyopia. Participants in the treatment group used the therapeutic at home for 1 hour per day, 6 days per week and wore glasses full-time. Participants in the comparison group continued wearing glasses full-time alone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary efficacy outcome was change in amblyopic eye visual acuity (VA) from baseline at 12 weeks, and VA was measured by masked examiners. Safety was evaluated using the frequency and severity of study-related adverse events. Primary analyses were conducted using the intention-to-treat population. RESULTS: Between January 16, 2019, and January 15, 2020, 105 participants were enrolled; 51 were randomized to the treatment group and 54 were randomized to the comparison group. At 12 weeks, amblyopic eye VA improved by 1.8 lines (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.4-2.3 lines; n = 45) in the treatment group and by 0.8 lines (95% CI, 0.4-1.3 lines; n = 45) in the comparison group. At the planned interim analysis (adjusted α = 0.0193), the difference between groups was significant (1.0 lines; P = 0.0011; 96.14% CI, 0.33-1.63 lines) and the study was stopped early for success, according to the protocol. No serious adverse events were reported. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the value of the therapeutic in clinical practice as an effective treatment. Future studies should evaluate the therapeutic compared with other methods and in additional patient populations.
Warkad VU, Hunter DG, Dagi AF, MacKinnon S, Kazlas MA, Heidary G, Staffa SJ, Dagi LR. Impact of Adding Augmented Superior Rectus Transpositions to Medial Rectus Muscle Recessions When Treating Esotropic Moebius Syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 2022;237:83-90.Abstract
PURPOSE: To describe outcomes after treatment of Moebius syndrome (MBS) esotropia by adjustable bilateral medial rectus recession (BMR) with and without augmented superior rectus transposition (SRT). DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Patients meeting 2014 diagnostic criteria for MBS and treated at Boston Children's Hospital between 2003 and 2019 were identified via billing records and chart review. Visual acuity, sensorimotor evaluations, strabismus procedures, and other clinical features were recorded. Surgical outcomes for patients treated with strabismus surgery (excluding those with prior surgery elsewhere) were evaluated. The primary outcome measure was postoperative alignment comparing treatment by adjustable BMR vs adjustable BMR+SRT. RESULTS: A total of 20 patients had MBS, and 12 of these (60%) were male. Fifteen patients (75%) had primary position esotropia, and all had bilateral abduction deficit. Eight of 20 patients met inclusion criteria for primary strabismus surgery outcome. Five had undergone adjustable BMR ranging from 4.5 to 6.5 mm. Three had undergone adjustable BMR+SRT, all with 4-mm medial rectus muscle recessions. Mean preoperative esotropia before treatment by BMR was 39.5 PD (± 15 PD) with mean postoperative esotropia 9 PD (± 7.9 PD) at 6 months. Mean preoperative esotropia before treatment by BMR+SRT was 70.8 PD (± 5.9 PD) with mean postoperative esotropia 2.5 PD (± 3.5 PD) at 6 months. Significantly greater reduction in esotropia resulted from BMR+SRT than from BMR (P = .036). CONCLUSIONS: BMR proved sufficient to treat esotropia <50 PD and BMR+SRT for greater esotropia in patients with MBS-associated abduction limitation.
Chinn RN, Raghuram A, Curtiss MK, Gehring AM, De Paula AJ, Roberts TL. Repeatability of the Accommodative Response Measured by the Grand Seiko Autorefractor in Children With and Without Amblyopia and Adults. Am J Ophthalmol 2022;236:221-231.Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess test-retest repeatability of the accommodative response (AR) in children with and without amblyopia and adults using the Grand Seiko autorefractor. DESIGN: Prospective reliability assessment. METHODS: Test-retest of accommodation was obtained while participants viewed 20/150 sized letters at 33 cm using the Grand Seiko autorefractor in children 5 to <11 years with amblyopia (n=24) and without amblyopia (n=36), and adults 18 to <35 years (n=34). Bland-Altman 95% limits of agreement (LOA) and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to assess repeatability and reliability. The AR between the fellow and amblyopic eyes of children with amblyopia and eye 1 and eye 2 of the visually normal participants was assessed using group comparisons. RESULTS: The 95% LOA of the AR was greatest in the amblyopic eyes (-1.25 diopters [D], 1.62 D) of children with amblyopia. The 95% LOA were similar between the fellow eyes (-0.88 D, 0.74 D) of children with amblyopia and both eyes of the children without amblyopia (eye 1: -0.68 D, 0.71 D; eye 2: -0.59 D, 0.70 D) and the adults (eye 1: 95% LOA = -0.49 D, 0.45 D; eye 2: LOA = -0.66 D, 0.67 D). ICCs revealed the Grand Seiko autorefractor as a reliable instrument for measuring AR. CONCLUSIONS: The Grand Seiko autorefractor was more repeatable and reliable when measuring the AR in children and adults without amblyopia than in the amblyopic eye in children with amblyopia. It is recommended that multiple measures of the AR be obtained in amblyopic eyes to improve the precision of measures.

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