Accurately Assessing Visual Deficits in Children With Developmental Dyslexia-Reply. JAMA Ophthalmol 2019;.
Intraocular Lens Techniques in Pediatric Eyes with Insufficient Capsular Support: Complications and Outcomes. Semin Ophthalmol 2019;:1-10.Abstract.
Intraocular lens (IOL) implantation in pediatric eyes with insufficient capsular support is challenging and there are multiple IOL options. These include placement of an IOL within the capsular bag with a capsular tension ring, a scleral-fixated posterior-chamber IOL (PCIOL) with or without capsular tension segment or ring, an intra-scleral fixated IOL, an iris-sutured PCIOL, or an anterior chamber iris-fixated IOL. We reviewed 48 articles and 1 published abstract describing the surgical techniques, complications and visual outcomes of different IOL options in the management of aphakic pediatric eyes with insufficient capsular support. The present review found that the visual acuity outcomes of various IOLs are comparable. Furthermore, each .
Post-Concussion: Receded Near Point of Convergence is Not Diagnostic of Convergence Insufficiency. Am J Ophthalmol 2019;Abstract.
PURPOSE: To determine the frequency of receded near point of convergence (NPC) in patients with chronic concussion-related symptoms, and among those with receded NPC to enumerate the frequency of convergence insufficiency and other oculomotor disorders. STUDY: Design: Retrospective cross-sectional study METHODS: Clinic charts were retrospectively reviewed for the prior 3.5 years to identify all patients <21 years old who were >28 days post-concussion, had chronic concussion-related symptoms, had normal visual acuity, and received a comprehensive sensorimotor examination. The frequency of receded NPC and oculomotor diagnoses were determined. RESULTS: Of the 83 eligible patients, 74 (89%) had receded NPC. Of these, 70 (95%) had oculomotor disorders; 30 (41%) had disorders of accommodation only, 21 (28%) had convergence insufficiency and accommodation deficits, and 6 (8%) had convergence insufficiency only. Six (8%) had a convergence deficit other than convergence insufficiency (all with concurrent accommodative disorders), 4 (5%) had both a non-specific vergence dysfunction and accommodation deficits, 2 (3%) had convergence excess only, and 1 (1%) had both convergence excess and accommodative deficits. CONCLUSION: A receded NPC was present in the majority of young patients with chronic post-concussion symptoms. Associated with numerous underlying oculomotor dysfunctions, the clinical finding of a receded NPC is not synonymous with the diagnosis of convergence insufficiency. Because treatment options for the various oculomotor dysfunctions differ, it is prudent that these patients undergo a thorough examination of their vergence and accommodative systems so that an accurate diagnosis can be made and appropriate treatment prescribed.
Outcomes of Unilateral Cataracts in Infants and Toddlers 7 to 24 Months of Age: Toddler Aphakia and Pseudophakia Study (TAPS). Ophthalmology 2019;126(8):1189-1195.Abstract.
PURPOSE: To evaluate outcomes of unilateral cataract surgery in children 7 to 24 months of age. DESIGN: Retrospective case series at 10 Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) sites. PARTICIPANTS: The Toddler Aphakia and Pseudophakia Study is a registry of children treated by surgeons who participated in the IATS. METHODS: Children underwent unilateral cataract surgery with or without intraocular lens (IOL) placement during the IATS enrollment years of 2004 and 2010. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Intraoperative complications, adverse events (AEs), visual acuity, and strabismus. RESULTS: Fifty-six children were included with a mean postoperative follow-up of 47.6 months. Median age at cataract surgery was 13.9 months (range, 7.2-22.9). Ninety-two percent received a primary IOL. Intraoperative complications occurred in 4 patients (7%). At 5 years of age, visual acuity of treated eyes was very good (≥20/40) in 11% and poor (≤20/200) in 44%. Adverse events were identified in 24%, with a 4% incidence of glaucoma suspect. An additional unplanned intraocular surgery occurred in 14% of children. Neither AEs nor intraocular reoperations were more common for children with surgery at 7 to 12 months of age than for those who underwent surgery at 13 to 24 months of age (AE rate, 21% vs. 25% [P = 0.60]; reoperation rate, 13% vs. 16% [P = 1.00]). CONCLUSIONS: Although most children underwent IOL implantation concurrent with unilateral cataract removal, the incidence of complications, reoperations, and glaucoma was low when surgery was performed between 7 and 24 months of age and compared favorably with same-site IATS data for infants undergoing surgery before 7 months of age. Our study showed that IOL implantation is relatively safe in children older than 6 months and younger than 2 years.
Evaluation of computer-based retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) education for ophthalmology residents: a randomized, controlled, multicenter study. J AAPOS 2019;Abstract.
PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of a computer-based training program-Massachusetts Eye & Ear ROP Trainer-on residents' knowledge of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) management. METHODS: In this prospective, randomized study, ophthalmology residents from nine different training programs consented to participate. Those who completed the study were randomly assigned to either the Trainer or the control group. The ROP Trainer was created using clinical cases encompassing the stages of ROP in digital pictures and videos. It includes sections on screening decisions, examination techniques, and diagnosis, and a reference section with the expert video clips and a searchable image library. Subjects in the control group were asked to study standard print material on ROP. A pre- and post-test, consisting of theoretical and practical (diagnosis) questions, and a post-intervention satisfaction test were administered. Accuracy of ROP diagnosis was assessed. RESULTS: A total of 180 residents agreed to participate, of whom 60 completed the study. Residents in the Trainer group had statistically significant improvements (P = 0.003) in ROP knowledge and diagnostic ability (P = 0.005). Residents randomized to the Trainer group were more satisfied with the training materials than were those in the control group. There was no significant difference in improving knowledge by year of training, sex, or country. Considering all training levels, a statistically significant increase was observed in sensitivity for the diagnosis of preplus or worse, zone I or II, ROP stage, category, and aggressive posterior ROP in the Trainer group. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the Trainer was shown to significantly improve ROP knowledge and diagnostic skills of residents, regardless of sex, year, of training, or country.
Leucocytosis is associated with retinopathy of prematurity in extremely preterm infants. Acta Paediatr 2019;108(7):1357-1358..
Tailored vs Static Oxygen Saturation Targets to Prevent Retinopathy of Prematurity. JAMA Ophthalmol 2019;.
Predictors of Primary Intracranial Hypertension in Children Using a Newly Suggested Opening Pressure Cutoff of 280 mm HO. Pediatr Neurol 2019;91:27-33.Abstract.
OBJECTIVES: We assessed the clinical characteristics of primary intracranial hypertension (PIH) in children using a newly recommended threshold for cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure (280 mm HO). METHOD: Cross-sectional study of patients age ≤21 years who had a lumbar puncture done for evaluation of PIH. Patients were excluded if lumbar puncture was done for a suspected infection, seizure, mental status changes, multiple sclerosis, or Guillain-Barre syndrome. Cases were identified using a text-search module followed by manual review. We performed χ2 analysis for categorical data and Mann-Whitney U test for continuous data, followed by a binary logistic regression. RESULTS: We identified 374 patients of whom 67% were female, median age was 13 years interquartile range (11 to 16 years), and admission rate was 24%. Using an opening pressure cutoff of 250 mm HO, 127 patients (34%) were identified as having PIH, whereas using the new cutoff 105 patients (28%) met PIH criteria. Predictors for PIH included optic disc edema or sixth nerve palsy using both old, odds ratio (OR) 7.6 (4.3, 13.5), and new cutoffs, OR 9.7 (95% confidence interval 5.1, 18.5). Headache duration ≤61 days is predictive of PIH using the new cutoff OR 4.1 (95% confidence interval 1.3, 12.8). A model is presented which stratifies patients into groups with low (7%), medium (18%), and high (greater than 42%) risk of PIH. CONCLUSIONS: A higher cerebrospinal fluid opening pressure threshold in the criteria of PIH is associated with PIH patients with a different symptom profile. Children with optic disc edema, bulging fontanel or sixth nerve palsy, are at increased risk for PIH.
Early Postnatal IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 Blood Levels in Extremely Preterm Infants: Relationships with Indicators of Placental Insufficiency and with Systemic Inflammation. Am J Perinatol 2019;36(14):1442-1452.Abstract.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate to what extent indicators of placenta insufficiency are associated with low concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) and IGF-1-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) in neonatal blood, and to what extent the concentrations of these growth factors are associated with concentrations of proteins with inflammatory, neurotrophic, or angiogenic properties. STUDY DESIGN: Using multiplex immunoassays, we measured the concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-1, as well as 25 other proteins in blood spots collected weekly from ≥ 880 infants born before the 28th week of gestation, and sought correlates of concentrations in the top and bottom quartiles for gestational age and day the specimen was collected. RESULTS: Medically indicated delivery and severe fetal growth restriction (sFGR) were associated with low concentrations of IGF-1 on the first postnatal day and with high concentrations of IGFBP-1 on almost all days. Elevated concentrations of IGF-1 and IGFBP-1 were accompanied by elevated concentrations of many other proteins with inflammatory, neurotrophic, or angiogenic properties. CONCLUSION: Disorders associated with impaired placenta implantation and sFGR appear to account for a relative paucity of IGF-1 on the first postnatal day. Elevated concentrations of IGF-1 and especially IGFBP-1 were associated with same-day elevated concentrations of inflammatory, neurotrophic, and angiogenic proteins.
Prosthetic Replacement of the Ocular Surface Ecosystem Treatment for Ocular Surface Disease in Pediatric Patients With Stevens-Johnson Syndrome. Am J Ophthalmol 2019;201:1-8.Abstract.
PURPOSE: To report the outcomes of prosthetic replacement of the ocular surface ecosystem (PROSE) treatment in pediatric patients with chronic ocular surface disease associated with Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis (SJS/TEN). DESIGN: Retrospective, interventional case series. METHODS: Patients aged 18 years or younger seen in consultation for PROSE treatment at a single center between January 1992 and December 2016 with a history of SJS/TEN were reviewed. Demographics, etiology of SJS/TEN, age at treatment milestones, best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) at treatment milestones, and treatment failures were recorded. BCVA at the initial presentation visit was compared to BCVA at the time of PROSE device dispense and at the last recorded visit. RESULTS: Twenty-seven female and 22 male patients were reviewed. Reported etiology was antibiotic (n = 19), antiepileptic (n = 9), antipyretic (n = 9), other (n = 3), and unknown (n = 9). The mean age was 6.4 years at disease onset and 9.3 years at time of initial presentation. The mean duration of follow-up was 5.45 years. The median BCVA at the initial presentation was 0.6 logMAR (20/80 Snellen), and was significantly improved to 0.18 logMAR (20/30 Snellen) at the time a PROSE device was dispensed (P < .0001). The median BCVA at the last recorded visit was significantly improved to 0.18 logMAR (20/30 Snellen, P = .0004). There were 15 patients who failed PROSE treatment (30.6%). CONCLUSIONS: PROSE treatment is feasible in over two thirds of pediatric patients with chronic ocular surface disease related to SJS/TEN and results in significant improvement in vision that is durable over a period of many years.
Self-reported visual symptoms in children with developmental dyslexia. Vision Res 2019;155:11-16.Abstract.
Although there are many anecdotal reports of children with developmental dyslexia complaining of vision symptoms when reading, empirical studies are lacking. The primary aim of the present study was to document self-reported vision-related symptoms in children with developmental dyslexia and typically reading peers. We also explored whether vision symptoms were correlated with sensorimotor measures of vergence, accommodation and ocular motor tracking skills. Using a prospective group comparison observational design, we assessed 28 children with developmental dyslexia (DD) and 33 typically reading children (TR) 7-11 years of age. Participants completed psychoeducational testing, a comprehensive sensorimotor eye examination, and the Convergence Insufficiency Symptom Survey (CISS), which includes 9 items pertaining to vision-related symptoms (CISS-V) and 6 that could have cognitive influence (CISS-C). CISS-V were significantly greater in DD than TR children. Ocular motor tracking, assessed by an infra-red limbal eye tracker while reading text, was most clearly associated with the visual symptoms, but only within the DD group. Vision-related symptom surveys followed by a comprehensive eye examination with detailed evaluation of sensorimotor functioning for those who report a high prevalence of symptoms may be clinically relevant for children with DD.
Review shows that donor milk does not promote the growth and development of preterm infants as well as maternal milk. Acta Paediatr 2019;108(6):998-1007.Abstract.
AIM: This nonsystematic review examined differences in the composition of raw maternal breastmilk and pasteurised donor milk and possible health effects on preterm infants. METHODS: We searched PubMed up to July 2018 for studies published in English that focused on four comparisons as follows: raw maternal milk versus donor milk, human milk before and after Holder pasteurisation, milk from mothers who delivered preterm and at term and milk collected during early and late lactation. We also searched for possible effects of the milk components, as well as the effects of maternal and donor milk on preterm infants' health. RESULTS: Raw maternal milk contained factors involved in antioxidant and anti-inflammatory defence, gut microbiome establishment and the maturation of immune defences, food tolerability and metabolism. Many of these factors were reduced or abolished in processed donor milk. Both maternal milk and donor milk have been associated with a reduced incidence of necrotising enterocolitis. High-dose feeding with maternal milk during the neonatal period reportedly reduced the risk of other morbidities and promoted growth and neurodevelopment. CONCLUSION: Many of the components in raw maternal breastmilk were lacking in pasteurised donor milk, which was inferior in promoting the growth and development of very preterm infants.
Use of Orthokeratology for the Prevention of Myopic Progression in Children: A Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology 2019;126(4):623-636.Abstract.
PURPOSE: To review the published evidence to evaluate the ability of orthokeratology (Ortho-K) treatment to reduce myopic progression in children and adolescents compared with the use of spectacles or daytime contact lenses for standard refractive correction. METHODS: Literature searches of the PubMed database, the Cochrane Library, and the databases of clinical trials were last conducted on August 21, 2018, with no date restrictions but limited to articles published in English. These searches yielded 162 citations, of which 13 were deemed clinically relevant for full-text review and inclusion in this assessment. The panel methodologist then assigned a level of evidence rating to the selected studies. RESULTS: The 13 articles selected for inclusion include 3 prospective, randomized clinical trials; 7 nonrandomized, prospective comparative studies; and 3 retrospective case series. One study provided level I evidence, 11 studies provided level II evidence, and 1 study provided level III evidence. Most studies were performed in populations of Asian ethnicity. Change in axial length was the primary outcome for 10 of 13 studies and change in refraction was the primary outcome for 3 of 13 studies. In these studies, Ortho-K typically reduced axial elongation by approximately 50% over a 2-year study period. This corresponds to average axial length change values of approximately 0.3 mm for Ortho-K patients compared with 0.6 mm for control patients, which corresponds to a typical difference in refraction of approximately 0.5 diopters (D). Younger age groups and individuals with larger than average pupil size may have a greater effect with Ortho-K. Rebound can occur after discontinuation or change to alternative refractive treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Orthokeratology may be effective in slowing myopic progression for children and adolescents, with a potentially greater effect when initiated at an early age (6-8 years). Safety remains a concern because of the risk of potentially blinding microbial keratitis from contact lens wear.
rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 in Preterm Infants: A Phase 2 Randomized Controlled Trial. J Pediatr 2019;206:56-65.e8.Abstract.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate recombinant human insulin-like growth factor 1 complexed with its binding protein (rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3) for the prevention of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and other complications of prematurity among extremely preterm infants. STUDY DESIGN: This phase 2 trial was conducted from September 2014 to March 2016. Infants born at a gestational age of 23 weeks to 27 weeks were randomly allocated to rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 (250 µg/kg/ 24 hours, continuous intravenous infusion from <24 hours of birth to postmenstrual age 29 weeks) or standard neonatal care, with follow-up to a postmenstrual age of 40 weeks. Target exposure was ≥70% IGF-1 measurements within 28-109 µg/L and ≥70% intended therapy duration. The primary endpoint was maximum severity of ROP. Secondary endpoints included time to discharge from neonatal care, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, intraventricular hemorrhage, and growth measures. RESULTS: Overall, 61 infants were allocated to rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3, 60 to standard care (full analysis set); 24 of 61 treated infants achieved target exposure (evaluable set). rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 did not decrease ROP severity or ROP occurrence. There was, however, a 53% decrease in severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia in the full analysis set (21.3% treated vs 44.9% standard care), and an 89% decrease in the evaluable set (4.8% vs 44.9%; P = .04 and P = .02, respectively) for severity distribution between groups. There was also a nonsignificant trend toward decrease in grades 3-4 intraventricular hemorrhage in the full analysis set (13.1% vs 23.3%) and in the evaluable set (8.3% vs 23.3%). Fatal serious adverse events were reported in 19.7% of treated infants (12/61) and 11.7% of control infants (7/60). No effect was observed on time to discharge from neonatal care/growth measures. CONCLUSIONS: rhIGF-1/rhIGFBP-3 did not affect development of ROP, but decreased the occurrence of severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia, with a nonsignificant decrease in grades 3-4 intraventricular hemorrhage. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01096784.
A Randomized Trial of Binocular Dig Rush Game Treatment for Amblyopia in Children Aged 7 to 12 Years. Ophthalmology 2019;126(3):456-466.Abstract.
PURPOSE: To compare visual acuity (VA) improvement in children aged 7 to 12 years with amblyopia treated with a binocular iPad game plus continued spectacle correction vs. continued spectacle correction alone. DESIGN: Multicenter randomized clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred thirty-eight participants aged 7 to 12 years with amblyopia (33-72 letters, i.e., approximately 20/200 to 20/40) resulting from strabismus, anisometropia, or both. Participants were required to have at least 16 weeks of optical treatment in spectacles if needed or demonstrate no improvement in amblyopic-eye visual acuity (VA) for at least 8 weeks prior to enrollment. METHODS: Eligible participants (mean age 9.6 years, mean baseline VA of 59.6 letters, history of prior amblyopia treatment other than spectacles in 96%) were randomly assigned to treatment for 8 weeks with the dichoptic binocular Dig Rush iPad game (prescribed for 1 hour per day 5 days per week) plus spectacle wear if needed (n = 69) or continued spectacle correction alone if needed (n = 69). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Change in amblyopic-eye VA from baseline to 4 weeks, assessed by a masked examiner. RESULTS: At 4 weeks, mean amblyopic-eye VA letter score improved from baseline by 1.3 (2-sided 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.1-2.6; 0.026 logMAR) with binocular treatment and by 1.7 (2-sided 95% CI: 0.4-3.0; 0.034 logMAR) with continued spectacle correction alone. After adjusment for baseline VA, the letter score difference between groups (binocular minus control) was -0.3 (95% CI: -2.2 to 1.5, P = 0.71, difference of -0.006 logMAR). No difference in letter scores was observed between groups when the analysis was repeated after 8 weeks of treatment (adjusted mean: -0.1, 98.3% CI: -2.4 to 2.1). For the binocular group, adherence data from the iPad indicated that slightly more than half of the participants (58% and 56%) completed >75% of prescribed treatment by the 4- and 8-week visits, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In children aged 7 to 12 years who have received previous treatment for amblyopia other than spectacles, there was no benefit to VA or stereoacuity from 4 or 8 weeks of treatment with the dichoptic binocular Dig Rush iPad game.