Retina

Patel NA, Acaba-Berrocal LA, Hoyek S, Fan KC, Martinez-Castellanos MA, Baumal CR, Harper AC, Berrocal AM, of (ROPIC) RPIC. Comparison in Retreatments between Bevacizumab and Ranibizumab Intravitreal Injections for Retinopathy of Prematurity- A Multicenter Study. Ophthalmology 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To compare the types and dosages of anti-VEGFs to ascertain whether specific dosages or types of injection were associated with retreatment in clinical practice in the US. DESIGN: Multicenter, retrospective, consecutive series. SUBJECTS: Patients with ROP treated with anti-VEGF injections from 2007 to 2021. METHODS: Sixteen sites from the US participated. Data collected included demographics, birth characteristics, examination findings, type and dose of anti-VEGF treatment, retreatment rates, and time to retreatment. Comparisons of retreatment rates between bevacizumab and ranibizumab intravitreal injections were made. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Relative rate of retreatment between varying types of anti-VEGF therapy, including bevacizumab and ranibizumab, and the various dosages used for each. RESULTS: Data from 873 eyes of 661 patients (61% males and 39% females) were collected. After exclusion of 40 eyes treated with laser prior to anti-VEGF injection and 266 eyes retreated with laser at or beyond 8 weeks after the initial anti-VEGF treatment, 567 eyes of 307 patients (63% males and 37% females) remained and were included in the primary analysis. There was no difference between the no-retreatment and retreatment groups in terms of birthweight, gestational age, age at first injection, ROP stages, or number of involved clock hours. The retreatment group had a larger percentage of A-ROP (34 vs 18%, P < .001), and greater percentage of Zone 1 ROP (49 vs 34%, P = .001) than the no retreatment group. Ranibizumab use was associated with a higher rate of retreatment than bevacizumab use (58% vs 37%, P < .001), while the rate of retreatment was not associated with a specific dose of ranibizumab (R2 = .67, P = .32). Meanwhile, lower doses of bevacizumab were associated with higher rates of retreatment compared to the higher doses (R2 = .84, P = .01). There was a dose specific trend with higher doses trending towards lower retreatments for bevacizumab. CONCLUSIONS: In a multicenter study of ROP patients initially treated with anti-VEGF therapy, ranibizumab and lower dose bevacizumab use were associated with an increased rate of retreatment when compared to higher dose bevacizumab.
Girach A, Audo I, Birch DG, Huckfeldt RM, Lam BL, Leroy BP, Michaelides M, Russell SR, Sallum JMF, Stingl K, Tsang SH, Yang P. RNA-based therapies in inherited retinal diseases. Ther Adv Ophthalmol 2022;14:25158414221134602.Abstract
Inherited retinal diseases (IRDs) are a genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous group of genetic eye disorders. There are more than 300 disease entities, and together this group of disorders affects millions of people globally and is a frequent cause of blindness or low-vision certification. However, each type is rare or ultra-rare. Characteristically, the impaired vision in IRDs is due to retinal photoreceptor dysfunction and loss resulting from mutation in a gene that codes for a retinal protein. Historically, IRDs have been considered incurable and individuals living with these blinding conditions could be offered only supportive care. However, the treatment landscape for IRDs is beginning to evolve. Progress is being made, driven by improvements in understanding of genotype-phenotype relationships, through advances in molecular genetic testing and retinal imaging. Alongside this expanding knowledge of IRDs, the current era of precision medicine is fueling a growth in targeted therapies. This has resulted in the first treatment for an IRD being approved. Several other therapies are currently in development in the IRD space, including RNA-based therapies, gene-based therapies (such as augmentation therapy and gene editing), cell therapy, visual prosthetics, and optogenetics. RNA-based therapies are a novel approach within precision medicine that have demonstrated success, particularly in rare diseases. Three antisense oligonucleotides (AONs) are currently in development for the treatment of specific IRD subtypes. These RNA-based therapies bring several key advantages in the setting of IRDs, and the potential to bring meaningful vision benefit to individuals living with inherited blinding disorders. This review will examine the increasing breadth and relevance of RNA-based therapies in clinical medicine, explore the key features that make AONs suitable for treating genetic eye diseases, and provide an overview of the three-leading investigational AONs in clinical trials.
Farhat W, Yeung V, Kahale F, Parekh M, Cortinas J, Chen L, Ross AE, Ciolino JB. Doxorubicin-Loaded Extracellular Vesicles Enhance Tumor Cell Death in Retinoblastoma. Bioengineering (Basel) 2022;9(11)Abstract
Chemotherapy is often used to treat retinoblastoma; however, this treatment method has severe systemic adverse effects and inadequate therapeutic effectiveness. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are important biological information carriers that mediate local and systemic cell-to-cell communication under healthy and pathological settings. These endogenous vesicles have been identified as important drug delivery vehicles for a variety of therapeutic payloads, including doxorubicin (Dox), with significant benefits over traditional techniques. In this work, EVs were employed as natural drug delivery nanoparticles to load Dox for targeted delivery to retinoblastoma human cell lines (Y-79). Two sub-types of EVs were produced from distinct breast cancer cell lines (4T1 and SKBR3) that express a marker that selectively interacts with retinoblastoma cells and were loaded with Dox, utilizing the cells' endogenous loading machinery. In vitro, we observed that delivering Dox with both EVs increased cytotoxicity while dramatically lowering the dosage of the drug. Dox-loaded EVs, on the other hand, inhibited cancer cell growth by activating caspase-3/7. Direct interaction of EV membrane moieties with retinoblastoma cell surface receptors resulted in an effective drug delivery to cancer cells. Our findings emphasize the intriguing potential of EVs as optimum methods for delivering Dox to retinoblastoma.
Moon JY, Wai KM, Patel NS, Katz R, Dahrouj M, Miller JB. Visualization of retinal breaks on ultra-widefield fundus imaging using a digital green filter. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2022;:1-6.Abstract
PURPOSE: We compare the ability of resident physicians to identify retinal breaks on ultra-widefield color fundus photos using the traditional image compared to an image with a green filter overlay. METHODS: Residents were shown fundus photos of 10 eyes with either a retinal tear or hole. Participants were shown each photo twice-once with traditional color settings and once with a green filter overlay. Participants were scored on whether the break was correctly identified and timed on how long it took to identify the pathology. RESULTS: Residents were able to correctly identify more retinal breaks on fundus photos with a green filter overlay compared to photos with traditional settings (P = 0.02). Residents were also able to identify breaks on fundus photos more quickly on images with a green filter overlay compared to the traditional images (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The application of a green filter overlay may help in identifying retinal breaks.
Silpa-Archa S, Sapthanakorn W, Foster SC. ISOLATED RETINAL VASCULITIS: Prognostic Factors and Expanding the Role of Immunosuppressive Treatment in Retinal Vasculitis Associated With Positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold Test. Retina 2022;42(10):1897-1908.Abstract
PURPOSE: To identify prognostic factors for poor visual outcomes in patients with isolated retinal vasculitis and to elucidate the outcome of immunosuppressive treatment without the use of antituberculosis drugs for patients with retinal vasculitis associated with a positive QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) test. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was performed of patients presenting with retinal vasculitis. After the diagnosis of active retinal vasculitis had been confirmed by fluorescein angiography and other possible causes of retinal vasculitis had been excluded, patients were categorized into two groups by their QFT result. Potential associated factors between the poor and good visual outcome groups were statistically analyzed by the chi-square test and logistic regression model with generalized estimating equations. RESULTS: Seventy-three eyes (48 patients) were enrolled in this study. After univariate analysis, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed and revealed that logMAR visual acuity at the initial visit ( P = 0.01) and outer retinal disruption ( P = 0.03) were the two factors significantly associated with poor visual outcomes. Systemic corticosteroids were administered without the use of antituberculosis drugs to all 16 cases of presumed tuberculous retinal vasculitis associated with positive QFT (26 eyes), 10 (63%) of whom were given nonsteroidal immunosuppressive drugs and achieved inflammatory control and treatment success. CONCLUSION: Risk factors leading to poor visual outcome in patients with isolated retinal vasculitis have been identified. Immunosuppressive treatment without antituberculosis drugs seems to be a promising regimen for selected patients with presumed tuberculous retinal vasculitis under vigilant care.
Huang T, Liang R-B, Zhang L-J, Shu H-Y, Ge Q-M, Liao X-L, Wu J-L, Su T, Pan Y-C, Zhou Q, Shao Y. Retinal microvasculature alteration in patients with systemic sclerosis and chloroquine treatment. Quant Imaging Med Surg 2022;12(10):4885-4899.Abstract
Background: Retinal vascular abnormality is an important part of ocular systemic sclerosis (SSc), and long-term use of chloroquine can lead to retinal toxicity. This study was conducted to evaluate retinal microvascular changes using optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) in patients with SSc and SSc patients on long-term chloroquine treatment. Methods: Fifteen SSc patients without chloroquine (30 eyes), 15 SSc patients taking long-term chloroquine (30 eyes) and 15 healthy controls (30 eyes) were recruited to this cross-sectional study. OCTA was used to examine the superficial and deep retinal capillary plexus in the macular retina of each eye. The densities of microvessels (MIR), macrovessels (MAR) and total microvessels (TMI) in the superficial and deep retina of the three groups were calculated and compared. We used the hemisphere segmentation method [superior right (SR), superior left (SL), inferior left (IL), and inferior right (IR)] and Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) method [right (R), superior (S), left (L), and inferior (I)] to analyze changes in retinal microvascular density. Results: The superficial and deep retinal MIR density in SSc patients decreased (P<0.05) compared with the healthy control group. This significant difference was found in both superficial and deep layers in S, L, SR, SL and IL regions (P<0.05), and additionally in the R and I regions in the superficial layer (P<0.05). Similarly, compared with SSc patients who did not take chloroquine, the superficial and deep retinal MIR density of SSc patients on long-term chloroquine also decreased (P<0.05). This significant difference was found in both superficial and deep layers in R, I and IL regions (P<0.05), and additionally in the IR region in the superficial layer (P<0.05). Conclusions: The OCTA results suggest that retinal MIR density is decreased in SSc patients, and that long-term use of chloroquine will aggravate this damage, resulting in a further decrease in retinal MIR density.
Noro T, Shah SH, Yin Y, Kawaguchi R, Yokota S, Chang K-C, Madaan A, Sun C, Coppola G, Geschwind D, Benowitz LI, Goldberg JL. Elk-1 regulates retinal ganglion cell axon regeneration after injury. Sci Rep 2022;12(1):17446.Abstract
Adult central nervous system (CNS) axons fail to regenerate after injury, and master regulators of the regenerative program remain to be identified. We analyzed the transcriptomes of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) at 1 and 5 days after optic nerve injury with and without a cocktail of strongly pro-regenerative factors to discover genes that regulate survival and regeneration. We used advanced bioinformatic analysis to identify the top transcriptional regulators of upstream genes and cross-referenced these with the regulators upstream of genes differentially expressed between embryonic RGCs that exhibit robust axon growth vs. postnatal RGCs where this potential has been lost. We established the transcriptional activator Elk-1 as the top regulator of RGC gene expression associated with axon outgrowth in both models. We demonstrate that Elk-1 is necessary and sufficient to promote RGC neuroprotection and regeneration in vivo, and is enhanced by manipulating specific phosphorylation sites. Finally, we co-manipulated Elk-1, PTEN, and REST, another transcription factor discovered in our analysis, and found Elk-1 to be downstream of PTEN and inhibited by REST in the survival and axon regenerative pathway in RGCs. These results uncover the basic mechanisms of regulation of survival and axon growth and reveal a novel, potent therapeutic strategy to promote neuroprotection and regeneration in the adult CNS.
Freedman SF, Hercinovic A, Wallace DK, Kraker RT, Li Z, Bhatt AR, Boente CS, Crouch ER, Hubbard BG, Rogers DL, Vanderveen D, Yang MB, Cheung NL, Cotter SA, Holmes JM, Holmes JM. Low- and Very Low-Dose Bevacizumab for Retinopathy of Prematurity: Reactivations, Additional Treatments, and 12-Month Outcomes. Ophthalmology 2022;129(10):1120-1128.Abstract
PURPOSE: Low-dose and very low-dose intravitreal bevacizumab (IVB) have been reported to be successful in short-term treatment of type 1 retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), down to an initial dose of 0.004 mg. We now report 12-month outcomes for these infants. DESIGN: Masked, multicenter, dose de-escalation study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred twenty prematurely born infants with type 1 ROP. METHODS: A cohort of 120 infants with type 1 ROP in at least 1 eye from 2 sequential dose de-escalation studies of low-dose IVB (0.25 mg, 0.125 mg, 0.063 mg, and 0.031 mg) or very low-dose IVB (0.016 mg, 0.008 mg, 0.004 mg, and 0.002 mg) to the study eye; the fellow eye (if also type 1) received 1 dose level higher of IVB. After primary success or failure at 4 weeks, clinical management was at investigator discretion, including all additional treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Reactivation of severe ROP by 6 months corrected age, additional treatments, retinal and other ocular structural outcomes, and refractive error at 12 months corrected age. RESULTS: Sixty-two of 113 study eyes (55%) and 55 of 98 fellow eyes (56%) received additional treatment. Of the study eyes, 31 (27%) received additional ROP treatment, and 31 (27%) received prophylactic laser therapy for persistent avascular retina. No trend toward a higher risk of additional ROP treatment related to initial IVB doses was found. However, time to reactivation among study eyes was shorter in eyes that received very low-dose IVB (mean, 76.4 days) than in those that received low-dose IVB (mean, 85.7 days). At 12 months, poor retinal outcomes and anterior segment abnormalities both were uncommon (3% and 5%, respectively), optic atrophy was noted in 10%, median refraction was mildly myopic (-0.31 diopter), and strabismus was present in 29% of infants. CONCLUSIONS: Retinal structural outcomes were very good after low- and very low-dose IVB as initial treatment for type 1 ROP, although many eyes received additional treatment. The rate of reactivation of severe ROP was not associated with dose; however, a post hoc data-driven analysis suggested that reactivation was sooner with very low doses.
Hoyek S, Peacker BL, Acaba-Berrocal LA, Al-Khersan H, Zhao Y, Hartnett ME, Berrocal AM, Patel NA. The Male to Female Ratio in Treatment-Warranted Retinopathy of Prematurity: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA Ophthalmol 2022;140(11):1110-1120.Abstract
IMPORTANCE: Literature and anecdotal evidence suggest a relationship between male sex and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). It is not known whether a difference, if present, is sex-related pathophysiologic predisposition or sex difference in meeting ROP screening criteria. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of sex with the development of treatment-warranted ROP. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases were searched from 2000 to 2022. The search strategy used keywords including retinopathy of prematurity or ROP or retrolental fibroplasia and treatment or anti-VEGF or bevacizumab or ranibizumab or aflibercept or conbercept or laser or cryotherapy and gender or sex or male or female and medical subject headings terms. STUDY SELECTION: All studies reporting on treatment with anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, laser photocoagulation, and/or cryotherapy for ROP were identified. Studies reporting sex distribution in the treatment group were included in the meta-analysis. Exclusion criteria included case reports, case series of fewer than 10 treated patients, systematic reviews, conference abstracts, letters to the editor, animal studies, and non-English records. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Two reviewers independently screened and extracted the data following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The proportions of treated male and female infants were combined using random-effects meta-analysis. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Numbers and percentages of male and female infants treated for ROP. RESULTS: Of 11 368 identified studies, 316 met inclusion criteria, yielding a total of 31 026 treated patients. A higher percentage of male infants were treated for ROP (55% [95% CI, 0.54%-0.55%]), with low heterogeneity between studies (I2 = 34%; P < .001). Thirty-eight studies reported sex distribution in the screened population (170 053 patients; 92 612 [53%] male vs 77 441 [47%] female). There was no significant difference in the odds of receiving treatment between screened male and female infants (pooled odds ratio, 1.04 [95% CI, 0.91-1.18]; P = .67). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: More male infants are treated for ROP than female infants. This could be due to a known relative pathophysiological fragility of preterm male infants in addition to a difference in ROP screening rates, with more male infants meeting the criteria than female infants. These findings have implications for future studies and may prompt more careful clinical monitoring of male neonates.
Sanjurjo-Soriano C, Erkilic N, Damodar K, Boukhaddaoui H, Diakatou M, Garita-Hernandez M, Mamaeva D, Dubois G, Jazouli Z, Jimenez-Medina C, Goureau O, Meunier I, Kalatzis V. Retinoic acid delays initial photoreceptor differentiation and results in a highly structured mature retinal organoid. Stem Cell Res Ther 2022;13(1):478.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived retinal organoids are a valuable tool for disease modelling and therapeutic development. Many efforts have been made over the last decade to optimise protocols for the generation of organoids that correctly mimic the human retina. Most protocols use common media supplements; however, protocol-dependent variability impacts data interpretation. To date, the lack of a systematic comparison of a given protocol with or without supplements makes it difficult to determine how they influence the differentiation process and morphology of the retinal organoids. METHODS: A 2D-3D differentiation method was used to generate retinal organoids, which were cultured with or without the most commonly used media supplements, notably retinoic acid. Gene expression was assayed using qPCR analysis, protein expression using immunofluorescence studies, ultrastructure using electron microscopy and 3D morphology using confocal and biphoton microscopy of whole organoids. RESULTS: Retinoic acid delayed the initial stages of differentiation by modulating photoreceptor gene expression. At later stages, the presence of retinoic acid led to the generation of mature retinal organoids with a well-structured stratified photoreceptor layer containing a predominant rod population. By contrast, the absence of retinoic acid led to cone-rich organoids with a less organised and non-stratified photoreceptor layer. CONCLUSIONS: This study proves the importance of supplemented media for culturing retinal organoids. More importantly, we demonstrate for the first time that the role of retinoic acid goes beyond inducing a rod cell fate to enhancing the organisation of the photoreceptor layer of the mature organoid.
Baldwin G, Sokol JT, Ludwig CA, Miller JB. A Comparative Study of Traditional Scleral Buckling to a New Technique: Guarded Light Pipe with Heads-Up Three-Dimensional Visualization. Clin Ophthalmol 2022;16:3079-3088.Abstract
Purpose: The guarded light pipe is a recently described alternative endoillumination technique to chandelier illumination. We sought to compare the outcomes of scleral buckling (SB) under indirect ophthalmoscopy (ID) to heads-up three-dimensional visualization with a guarded light pipe (3DGLP). Methods: A retrospective comparative study was performed, including 47 eyes that underwent SB for rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) repair with either traditional ID (n = 31) or 3DGLP (n = 16). Results: The single surgery anatomic success rate was 87.0% in the ID group and 87.5% in the 3DGLP group. The final anatomic success rate was 100% in both groups. The median (interquartile range) post-operative logMAR was 0.10 (0.0-0.20) in the ID group and 0.08 (0.02-0.69) in the 3DGLP group (p = 0.51). The median operative time was 107 (94-123) minutes in the ID group and 100 (90-111) minutes in the 3DGLP group (p = 0.25). Among eyes that underwent subretinal fluid drainage, the operative time was significantly longer in the ID group compared to the 3DGLP group, 113 (100-135) minutes vs 93 (85-111) minutes (p = 0.035). There were no post-operative complications in the ID group and one complication of self-resolving vitreous hemorrhage associated with a malfunctioning cryoprobe in the 3DGLP group (p = 0.34). There were no cases of post-operative cataract progression in either group. Conclusion: Compared to traditional SB, 3DGLP improves ergonomics and educational value with similar anatomical, visual, intra and post-operative outcomes and may result in shorter operative time in cases requiring subretinal fluid drainage.
Chapman JJ, Heidary G, Gise R. An overview of peripapillary hyperreflective ovoid mass-like structures. Curr Opin Ophthalmol 2022;33(6):494-500.Abstract
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to provide an overview of the ophthalmic findings associated with peripapillary hyperreflective ovoid mass-like structures (PHOMS) in both adult and pediatric patients. RECENT FINDINGS: PHOMS have recently been identified in a number of different ophthalmic disease entities ranging from nonpathologic to pathologic, including but not limited to anatomic abnormalities (tilting in myopia), optic nerve head drusen, optic disc edema from inflammation (optic neuritis, white dot syndromes), vascular insults (ischemic optic neuropathy, retinal vascular occlusion), and papilledema. The mechanism underlying the formation of PHOMS has not been fully elucidated although it has been hypothesized that PHOMS occur secondary to axoplasmic stasis from crowding at the optic nerve head. SUMMARY: Although the clinical significance of the presence of PHOMS remains unclear, PHOMS are associated with several disease processes. Understanding the mechanism behind their formation and their impact on optic nerve head structure and visual function may be relevant in patients with optic nerve head pathology. The presence of PHOMS may also correlate with disease severity and duration. Future studies to evaluate whether the formation of PHOMS may be useful as an early indicator of disease or a prognostic tool are warranted.
Lennikov A, Yang M, Chang K, Pan L, Saddala MS, Lee C, Ashok A, Cho K-S, Utheim TP, Chen DF. Direct modulation of microglial function by electrical field. Front Cell Dev Biol 2022;10:980775.Abstract
Non-invasive electric stimulation (ES) employing a low-intensity electric current presents a potential therapeutic modality that can be applied for treating retinal and brain neurodegenerative disorders. As neurons are known to respond directly to ES, the effects of ES on glia cells are poorly studied. A key question is if ES directly mediates microglial function or modulates their activity merely via neuron-glial signaling. Here, we demonstrated the direct effects of ES on microglia in the BV-2 cells-an immortalized murine microglial cell line. The low current ES in a biphasic ramp waveform, but not that of rectangular or sine waveforms, significantly suppressed the motility and migration of BV-2 microglia in culture without causing cytotoxicity. This was associated with diminished cytoskeleton reorganization and microvilli formation in BV-2 cultures, as demonstrated by immunostaining of cytoskeletal proteins, F-actin and β-tubulin, and scanning electron microscopy. Moreover, ES of a ramp waveform reduced microglial phagocytosis of fluorescent zymosan particles and suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in BV-2 cells as shown by Proteome Profiler Mouse Cytokine Array. The results of quantitative PCR and immunostaining for cyclooxygenase-2, Interleukin 6, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α corroborated the direct suppression of LPS-induced microglial responses by a ramp ES. Transcriptome profiling further demonstrated that ramp ES effectively suppressed nearly half of the LPS-induced genes, primarily relating to cellular motility, energy metabolism, and calcium signaling. Our results reveal a direct modulatory effect of ES on previously thought electrically "non-responsive" microglia and suggest a new avenue of employing ES for anti-inflammatory therapy.
Zeng R, Vingopoulos F, Wang M, Bannerman A, Wescott HE, Baldwin G, Katz R, Koch T, Elze T, Kim LA, Vavvas DG, Husain D, Miller JB. Structure-function association between contrast sensitivity and retinal thickness (total, regional, and individual retinal layer) in patients with idiopathic epiretinal membrane. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To investigate structure-function associations between retinal thickness, visual acuity (VA), and contrast sensitivity (CS), using the quantitative contrast sensitivity function (qCSF) method in patients with idiopathic epiretinal membrane (ERM). METHODS: Retrospective, cross-sectional observational study. Patients with a diagnosis of idiopathic ERM were included. Patients underwent complete ophthalmic examination, spectral-domain optical coherence tomography imaging (SD-OCT) (SPECTRALIS® Heidelberg), and CS testing using the qCSF method. Outcomes included area under the log CSF (AULCSF), contrast acuity (CA), and CS thresholds at 1, 1.5, 3, 6, 12, and 18 cycles per degree (cpd). RESULTS: A total of 102 eyes of 79 patients were included. Comparing standardized regression coefficients, retinal thickness in most ETDRS sectors was associated with larger reductions in AULCSF, CA, and CS thresholds at 3 and 6 cpd than those in logMAR VA. These differences in effect on VA and CS metrics were more pronounced in the central subfield and inner ETDRS sectors. Among the retinal layers, increased INL thickness had the most detrimental effect on visual function, being significantly associated with reductions in logMAR VA, AULCSF, CA, and CS thresholds at 3 and 6 cpd (all p < .01), as well as at 1.5 and 12 cpd (p < .05). CONCLUSION: Retinal thickness seems to be associated with larger reductions in contrast sensitivity than VA in patients with ERM. Measured with the qCSF method, contrast sensitivity may serve as a valuable adjunct visual function metric for patients with ERM.

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