Retina

Veronese C, Maiolo C, Morara M, Armstrong GW, Ciardella AP. Bilateral multiple evanescent white dot syndrome. Int Ophthalmol 2018;38(5):2153-2158.Abstract
PURPOSE: To present a single case of bilateral multiple evanescent white dot syndrome (MEWDS). METHODS: A single case with three months of follow-up using imaging studies including fundus color photography (FP), fluorescein angiography (FA), indocyanine green angiography (ICGA), fundus autofluorescence (FAF), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), en face SD-OCT and optical coherence tomography angiography (OCTA) is presented. RESULTS: The patient presented with bilateral MEWDS, ultimately with complete resolution of symptoms. FP revealed foveal granularity and white punctate deep retinal spots, FA found early wreath-like hyperfluorescence, while ICGA showed hypofluorescent dots and spots in the early and late stages. FAF showed areas of hyperautofluorescence. SD-OCT revealed disruption of the ellipsoid zone (EZ) and accumulation of hyperreflective material of variable size and shape. En face SD-OCT demonstrated hyporeflective areas corresponding to areas of EZ disruption as well as hyperreflective dots in the outer nuclear layer. OCTA showed areas of photoreceptor slab black-out corresponding to areas of EZ disruption and light areas of flow void or flow disturbance in the choriocapillaris slab. CONCLUSIONS: This case represents an unusual case of bilateral MEWDS with complete resolution within three months.
Yonekawa Y, Wu W-C, Nitulescu CE, Chan PRV, Thanos A, Thomas BJ, Todorich B, Drenser KA, Trese MT, Capone A. PROGRESSIVE RETINAL DETACHMENT IN INFANTS WITH RETINOPATHY OF PREMATURITY TREATED WITH INTRAVITREAL BEVACIZUMAB OR RANIBIZUMAB. Retina 2018;38(6):1079-1083.Abstract
PURPOSE: Fibrovascular contraction and tractional retinal detachment (TRD) are recognized complications associated with the use of anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents in vasoproliferative vitreoretinopathies. The authors characterize TRDs that developed after intravitreal bevacizumab or ranibizumab therapy for vascularly active retinopathy of prematurity. METHODS: This is an international, multicenter, interventional, retrospective, case series. Thirty-five eyes from 23 infants were included. Inclusion required anti-vascular endothelial growth factor treatment of Type 1 retinopathy of prematurity with progression to TRD. RESULTS: Mean gestational age was 26 ± 2 weeks, and mean birth weight was 873 ± 341 g. Mean postmenstrual age on the day of injection was 35 ± 2 weeks. Retinal detachment was noted a mean of 70 days (median, 34; range, 4-335) after injection. Eleven percent detached within 1 week, 23% within 2 weeks, and 49% within 4 weeks. The highest stage of retinopathy of prematurity noted was 4A in 29%, 4B in 37%, and 5 in 34% of eyes. Time to RD negatively correlated with postmenstrual age at the time of injection (Rho = -0.54; P < 0.01). Three TRD configurations were observed: 1) conventional peripheral elevated ridge or volcano-shaped Stage 5 detachment, 2) midperipheral detachment with tight circumferential vectors, and 3) very posterior detachment with prepapillary contraction. Full or partial reattachment was achieved with surgical intervention in 86% of eyes. CONCLUSION: Progressive atypical TRD may occur after anti-vascular endothelial growth factor injections for retinopathy of prematurity. The configuration of the detachment varies with the extent of primary retinal vascularization present at the time of treatment.
Costela FM, Kajtezovic S, Woods RL. The Preferred Retinal Locus Used to Watch Videos. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2017;58(14):6073-6081.Abstract
Purpose: Eccentric viewing is a common strategy used by people with central vision loss (CVL) to direct the eye such that the image falls onto functioning peripheral retina, known as the preferred retinal locus (PRL). It has been long acknowledged that we do not know whether the PRL used in a fixation test is also used when performing tasks. We present an innovative method to determine whether the same PRL observed during a fixation task was used to watch videos and whether poor resolution affects gaze location. Methods: The gaze of a group of 60 normal vision (NV) observers was used to define a democratic center of interest (COI) of video clips from movies and television. For each CVL participant (N = 20), we computed the gaze offsets from the COI across the video clips. The distribution of gaze offsets of the NV participants was used to define the limits of NV behavior. If the gaze offset was within this 95% degree confidence interval, we presumed that the same PRL was used for fixation and video watching. Another 15 NV participants watched the video clips with various levels of defocus blur. Results: CVL participants had wider gaze-offset distributions than NV participants (P < 0.001). Gaze offsets of 18/20 CVL participants were outside the NV confidence interval. Further, none of the 15 NV participants watching the same videos with spherical defocus blur had a gaze offset that was decentered (outside the NV confidence interval), suggesting that resolution was not the problem. Conclusions: This indicates that many CVL participants were using a PRL to view videos that differed from that found with a fixation task and that it was not caused by poor resolution alone. The relationship between these locations needs further investigation.
Roh M, Lee NG, Miller JB. Complications Assoicated with MIRAgel for Treatment of Retinal Detachment. Semin Ophthalmol 2017;:1-6.Abstract
MIRAgel (MIRA, Waltham, MA) is a hydrogel buckle that was introduced in 1979 as a new scleral implant for the treatment of retinal detachment. Long-term follow-up of more than 10 years revealed that the hydrolysis of the synthetic hydrophilic material leads to marked expansion of the substance, causing complications such as buckle extrusion and intrusion, eye motility disorder, cosmetic deformities, and periocular infections. Removal of the implant is the treatment of choice in cases with complications, but it is technically difficult due to the friability of the implant, severe scleral ectasia, and relatively high rate of redetachment after removal.
Bakthavatchalam M, Lai FHP, Rong SS, Ng DS, Brelen ME. Treatment of cystoid macular edema secondary to retinitis pigmentosa: A systematic review. Surv Ophthalmol 2017;Abstract
There are various treatments for cystoid macular edema (CME) secondary to retinitis pigmentosa (RP); however, the evidence for these treatments has not been previously systematically reviewed. Our review that includes 23 studies shows that oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAI) (including acetazolamide, methazolamide) and topical CAI (dorzolamide and brinzolamide) are effective first line treatments. In patients unresponsive to CAI treatment, intravitreal steroids (triamcinolone acetonide and sustained-release dexamethasone implant), oral corticosteroid (Deflazacort), intravitreal anti-vascular endothelial growth factor agents (ranibizumab and bevacizumab), grid laser photocoagulation, pars plana vitrectomy, or ketorolac were also effective in improving CME secondary to RP. Oral acetazolamide has the strongest clinical basis for treatment and was superior to topical dorzolamide. Rebound of CME was commonly seen in the long term, regardless of the choice of treatment. Oral acetazolamide should be the first line treatment in CME secondary to RP. Topical dorzolamide is an appropriate alternative in patients intolerant to adverse effects of oral acetazolamide. More studies are required to investigate the management of rebound CME.
Chou J, Daly MK. Reply. Retina 2017;37(10):e118.
Poon LY-C, Solá-Del Valle D, Turalba AV, Falkenstein IA, Horsley M, Kim JH, Song BJ, Takusagawa HL, Wang K, Chen TC. The ISNT Rule: How Often Does It Apply to Disc Photographs and Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Measurements in the Normal Population?. Am J Ophthalmol 2017;184:19-27.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine what percentage of normal eyes follow the ISNT rule, and whether ISNT rule variants may be more generalizable to the normal population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Setting: Institutional setting. STUDY POPULATION: Total of 110 normal subjects. OBSERVATION PROCEDURES: Neuroretinal rim assessments from disc photographs and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness measurements from spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The percentages of subjects that obeyed the ISNT rule and its variants. RESULTS: The ISNT rule is only valid for 37.0% of disc photograph rim assessments and 43.8% of RNFL measurements. Deviation of the nasal sector from the expected ISNT pattern was a major cause for the ISNT rule not being obeyed for both rim and RNFL assessments. Specifically, 10.9% of subjects had wider nasal rims than the inferior rims, 29.4% had wider nasal rims than the superior rims, 14.7% had narrower nasal rims than the temporal rims, and 42.9% had thinner nasal RNFLs compared to the temporal quadrant. Exclusion of the nasal quadrant from the ISNT rule significantly increased the validity of ISNT variant rules, with 70.9% and 76.4% of disc photographs following the IST rule and the IS rule, respectively. Similarly, for RNFL thickness, 70.9% and 71.8% of patients followed the IST and IS rule, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The ISNT rule is only valid for about a third of disc photographs and less than half of RNFL measurements in normal patients. ISNT rule variants, such as the IST and IS rule, may be considered, as they are valid in more than 70% of patients.
Wang JC, Finn AP, Grotting LA, Sobrin L. Acute Zonal Occult Outer Retinopathy Associated With Retrobulbar Optic Neuritis. J Neuroophthalmol 2017;37(3):287-290.Abstract
A 17-year-old girl presented with unilateral retrobulbar optic neuritis as well as bilateral funduscopic findings and outer retinal dysfunction suggestive of acute zonal occult outer retinopathy (AZOOR). Fundus autofluorescence abnormalities, visual field loss, and electroretinographic changes were supportive of bilateral AZOOR. MRI was consistent with the diagnosis of clinically isolated syndrome (CIS), which is defined as a central nervous system demyelinating event that may herald the onset of multiple sclerosis (MS). While AZOOR previously has been linked to MS and demyelinating white matter lesions in the brain, our case seems unique due to concurrent development of AZOOR and retrobulbar optic neuritis as a CIS.
Tsikata E, Vercellin Verticchio AC, Falkenstein I, Poon LY-C, Brauner S, Khoueir Z, Miller JB, Chen TC. Volumetric Measurement of Optic Nerve Head Drusen Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography. J Glaucoma 2017;26(9):798-804.Abstract
PURPOSE: To describe new software tools for quantifying optic nerve head drusen volume using 3-dimensional (3D) swept-source optical coherence tomography (SS-OCT) volumetric scans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SS-OCT was used to acquire raster volume scans of 8 eyes of 4 patients with bilateral optic nerve head drusen. The scans were manually segmented by 3 graders to identify the drusen borders, and thereafter total drusen volumes were calculated. Linear regression was performed to study the relationships between drusen volume, retinal nerve fiber layer thickness, and Humphrey visual field mean deviation. RESULTS: In the 8 study eyes, drusen volumes ranged between 0.24 to 1.05 mm. Visual field mean deviation decreased by ∼20 dB per cubic millimeter increase in drusen volume, and the coefficient of correlation of the linear regression was 0.92. In this small patient series, visual field defects were detected when drusen volume was larger than about 0.2 mm. CONCLUSIONS: Software tools have been developed to quantify the size of OHND using SS-OCT volume scans.
Au ED, Fernandez-Godino R, Kaczynksi TJ, Sousa ME, Farkas MH. Characterization of lincRNA expression in the human retinal pigment epithelium and differentiated induced pluripotent stem cells. PLoS One 2017;12(8):e0183939.Abstract
Long intervening non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs) are increasingly being implicated as important factors in many aspects of cellular development, function, and disease, but remain poorly understood. In this study, we examine the human retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) lincRNA transcriptome using RNA-Seq data generated from human fetal RPE (fRPE), RPE derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS-RPE), and undifferentiated iPS (iPS). In addition, we determine the suitability of iPS-RPE, from a transcriptome standpoint, as a model for use in future studies of lincRNA structure and function. A comparison of gene and isoform expression across the whole transcriptome shows only minimal differences between all sample types, though fRPE and iPS-RPE show higher concordance than either shows with iPS. Notably, RPE signature genes show the highest degree of fRPE to iPS-RPE concordance, indicating that iPS-RPE cells provide a suitable model for use in future studies. An analysis of lincRNAs demonstrates high concordance between fRPE and iPS-RPE, but low concordance between either RPE and iPS. While most lincRNAs are expressed at low levels (RPKM < 10), there is a high degree of concordance among replicates within each sample type, suggesting the expression is consistent, even at levels subject to high variability. Finally, we identified and annotated 180 putative novel genes in the fRPE samples, a majority of which are also expressed in the iPS-RPE. Overall, this study represents the first characterization of lincRNA expression in the human RPE, and provides a model for studying the role lincRNAs play in RPE development, function, and disease.
Norsworthy MW, Bei F, Kawaguchi R, Wang Q, Tran NM, Li Y, Brommer B, Zhang Y, Wang C, Sanes JR, Coppola G, He Z. Sox11 Expression Promotes Regeneration of Some Retinal Ganglion Cell Types but Kills Others. Neuron 2017;94(6):1112-1120.e4.Abstract
At least 30 types of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) send distinct messages through the optic nerve to the brain. Available strategies of promoting axon regeneration act on only some of these types. Here we tested the hypothesis that overexpressing developmentally important transcription factors in adult RGCs could reprogram them to a "youthful" growth-competent state and promote regeneration of other types. From a screen of transcription factors, we identified Sox11 as one that could induce substantial axon regeneration. Transcriptome profiling indicated that Sox11 activates genes involved in cytoskeletal remodeling and axon growth. Remarkably, α-RGCs, which preferentially regenerate following treatments such as Pten deletion, were killed by Sox11 overexpression. Thus, Sox11 promotes regeneration of non-α-RGCs, which are refractory to Pten deletion-induced regeneration. We conclude that Sox11 can reprogram adult RGCs to a growth-competent state, suggesting that different growth-promoting interventions promote regeneration in distinct neuronal types.
Silva PS, Gupta A, Ajlan RS, Schlossman DK, Tolson AM, Cavallerano JD, Aiello LP. Ultrawide field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy imaging of lipemia retinalis. Acta Ophthalmol 2017;Abstract
OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristic retinal features of lipemia retinalis when using ultrawide field scanning laser ophthalmoscopy. MAIN POINTS: We report a case series of three subjects with ultrawide field retinal images showing cream discoloration of the fundus, light salmon-coloured posterior retinal vessels and greyish pink peripheral vasculature. On green-only imaging, many of the vessels appear light rather than typically dark. CONCLUSION: Lipemia retinalis is readily apparent on ultrawide field imaging and illustrates the alterations that systemic diseases may induce in the posterior and peripheral retinal vasculature. Ultrawide field imaging highlights the disparate vascular appearance of the posterior pole and retinal periphery in this condition.

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