Retina

Dong L, Han H, Huang X, Ma G, Fang D, Qi H, Han Z, Wang L, Tian J, Vanhaesebroeck B, Zhang G, Zhang S, Lei H. Idelalisib inhibits experimental proliferative vitroretinopathy. Lab Invest 2022;Abstract
Proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) is a fibrotic eye disease that develops after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment surgery and open-globe traumatic injury. Idelalisib is a specific inhibitor of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) δ. While PI3Kδ is primarily expressed in leukocytes, its expression is also considerably high in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, which play a crucial part in the PVR pathogenesis. Herein we show that GeoMx Digital Spatial Profiling uncovered strong expression of fibronectin in RPE cells within epiretinal membranes from patients with PVR, and that idelalisib (10 μM) inhibited Akt activation, fibronectin expression and collagen gel contraction induced by transforming growth factor (TGF)-β2 in human RPE cells. Furthermore, we discovered that idelalisib at a vitreal concentration of 10 μM, a non-toxic dose to the retina, prevented experimental PVR induced by intravitreally injected RPE cells in rabbits assessed by experienced ophthalmologists using an indirect ophthalmoscope plus a + 30 D fundus lens, electroretinography, optical coherence tomography and histological analysis. These data suggested idelalisib could be harnessed for preventing patients from PVR.
Hoyek S, Wang M, Berrocal AM, Wong A, Place EM, Mason-Suares H, Lin AE, Mukai S, Patel NA. Combined X-linked familial exudative vitreoretinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity phenotype in an infant with mosaic turner syndrome with ring X chromosome. Ophthalmic Genet 2022;:1-6.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) are two distinct pathologies of retinal angiogenesis with overlapping clinical features. METHODS: Examination, multimodal imaging, and genetic testing were used to guide diagnosis and treatment. RESULTS: We report a combined phenotype of X-linked FEVR and ROP in a 4-month-old girl with mosaic Turner syndrome with ring X chromosome born at 26 weeks gestational age. She was initially diagnosed with atypical ROP with a vitreous band causing a localized traction retinal detachment, inferotemporal to the macula in the right eye, vessels to posterior zone 2 with no clear ridge temporally in the left eye, and fluorescein leakage in both eyes. Due to the suspicion of concurrent FEVR, genetic testing using a vitreoretinopathy panel was performed which revealed a mosaic Turner syndrome associated with 45,X/46,X,r(X), subsequently confirmed by chromosome analysis. The deleted region in the ring X chromosome included the NDP and RS1 genes. The patient was treated with laser photocoagulation of the peripheral avascular retina and sub-Tenon's triamcinolone injection in both eyes, intravitreal injection of bevacizumab in the left eye, and pars plicata vitrectomy in the right eye. CONCLUSIONS: In premature neonates with atypical ROP, a clinical suspicion of concurrent FEVR or similar vasculopathy is important and genetic testing may elucidate a genetic etiology, which could influence management and prognosis. Turner syndrome can be connected with co-occurring Mendelian gene disorders, particularly in individuals with mosaicism. The concurrence of FEVR and ROP appears to result in atypical and possibly more severe phenotypes.
Patel NA, Acaba-Berrocal LA, Hoyek S, Fan KC, Martinez-Castellanos MA, Baumal CR, Harper AC, Berrocal AM, of (ROPIC) RPIC. Practice Patterns and Outcomes of Intravitreal Anti-VEGF Injection for Retinopathy of Prematurity - An International Multicenter Study. Ophthalmology 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To report practice patterns of intravitreal injections of anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) for Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) and outcomes data with a focus on retreatments and complications. DESIGN: Multicenter, international, retrospective, consecutive series. SUBJECTS: Patients with ROP treated with anti-VEGF injections from 2007 to 2021. METHODS: Twenty-three sites (16 Unites States [US] and 7 non-US sites) participated. Data collected included demographics, birth characteristics, exam findings, and methods of injections. Comparisons between US and non-US sites were made. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcomes included number and types of retreatments as well as complications. Secondary outcomes included specifics of the injection protocols including types of medication, doses, distance from limbus, use of antibiotics, and quadrants where injections were delivered. RESULTS: A total of 1677 eyes of 918 patients (43% females, 57% males) were included. Mean gestational age was 25.7 weeks (range 21.2-41.5), and mean birth weight was 787 g (range 300-2,700). Overall, a 30 G needle was most commonly utilized (51%) and the quadrant injected was most frequently the inferior-temporal (51.3%). The distance from the limbus ranged from 0.75 to 2 mm, 1 mm being the most common (65%). Bevacizumab was the most common anti-VEGF (71.4%), with a dose of 0.625 mg in 64% of cases. Overall, 604 (36%) of eyes required retreatment. Of those, 79.8% were retreated with laser alone, 10.6% with anti-VEGF injection alone, and 9.6% with combined laser and injection. Complications following anti-VEGF injections occurred in 15 (0.9%) eyes and no cases of endophthalmitis were reported. Patients in the US had lower birth weights and gestational ages (665.6 g and 24.5 weeks, respectively) compared to non-US patients (912.7 g and 26.9 weeks, respectively) (p<0.0001). Retreatment with reinjection and laser was significantly more common in the US compared to the non-US group (8.5% vs 4.7% [p=0.0016] and 55% vs 7.2% [p<0.001], respectively). There was no difference in the incidence of complications between the two geographical subgroups. CONCLUSION: Anti-VEGF injections for ROP were safe and well tolerated despite a variance in practice patterns. Infants with ROP receiving injections in the United States tended to be younger, smaller, and were treated earlier with more re-treatments than non-United States neonates with ROP.
Zeng R, Garg I, Bannai D, Kasetty M, Katz R, Park J, Lizano P, Miller JB. Retinal microvasculature and vasoreactivity changes in hypertension using optical coherence tomography-angiography. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol 2022;260(11):3505-3515.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the retinal vasculature and vasoreactivity of patients with hypertension (HTN) using spectral domain optical coherence tomography angiography (SD-OCTA). METHODS: Patients with and without a diagnosis of HTN were included in this cross-sectional observational study. All eyes were imaged with SD-OCTA using 3 mm × 3 mm and 6 mm × 6 mm centered on both the fovea and optic disk. A second 6 mm × 6 mm scan was taken after a 30 s breath-hold. Vessel density (VD), vessel skeletonized density (VSD), and fractal dimension (FD) were calculated using customized MATLAB scripts. Vessel diameter index (VDI) was obtained by taking the ratio of VD to VSD. Vasoreactivity was measured by subtracting the VD or VSD before and after breath-hold (∆VD, ∆VSD). RESULTS: Twenty-three eyes with HTN (17 patients) and 17 control eyes (15 patients) were included. In the 6 mm × 6 mm angiogram centered on fovea, the superficial capillary plexus (SCP) VD (ß =  - 0.029, p = 0.012), VSD (ß =  - 0.004, p = 0.043) and the choriocapillaris VD (ß =  - 0.021, p = 0.030) were significantly decreased in HTN compared to control eyes. Similarly, FD was decreased in both the SCP (ß =  - 0.012, p = 0.013) and choriocapillaris (ß =  - 0.009, p = 0.030). In the 3 mm × 3 mm angiogram centered on optic disk, SCP VDI (ß =  - 0.364, p = 0.034) was decreased. ∆VD and ∆VSD were both reduced in the DCP (ß =  - 0.034, p = 0.032; ß =  - 0.013, p = 0.043) and ∆VSD was elevated in the choriocapillaris of HTN eyes (ß = 0.004, p = 0.032). CONCLUSIONS: The study used SD-OCTA to show significant differences in the retinal vasculature of hypertensive patients. It was also the first to demonstrate the potential of OCT-A to investigate retinal vascular reactivity in patients with HTN.
Wang F, Liu LQ, Liang RB, Zhang LJ, Shu HY, Liao XL, Pan YC, Wu J, Su T, Shao Y. Decreased Macular Retinal Thickness in Patients With Pterygium. Front Neurol 2022;13:881190.Abstract
Purpose: To explore alterations in macular retinal thickness (RT) and analyze correlation between macular RT and pterygium area, length in pterygium patients. Methods: Totally 13 patients with pterygium (left eye) and 13 healthy controls (left eye) were recruited. OCTA was applied to scan each eye to generate three-dimensional images. Based on the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study (ETDRS) method, each image was divided into nine subregions for the ETDRS: central (C); inner superior (IS); outer superior (OS); inner nasal (IN); outer nasal (ON); inner inferior (II); outer inferior (OI); inner temporal (IT); and outer temporal (OT). The macular RT in each subregion was measured. Furthermore, the correlation between RT and the area, length of pterygium was analyzed. Results: The visual acuity of pterygium patient was different from that of the control (P < 0.05). Besides, decreased intraretinal thickness of the IN and ON, increased intraretinal thickness of OT, decreased extraretinal thickness of OT, IN, ON, OS, and decreased retinal full layer thickness of medial superior, OS, IN, ON, and II subregions in pterygium group were observed. There was a negative correlation between RT of the IN and ON subregions and the length of pterygium (r = -0.5803 and r = -0.6013, P = 0.0376 and P = 0.0297). The RT of IN subregion was negatively correlated with pterygium area (r = -0.5844, P = 0.0359). According to the receiver operating characteristic analysis, in the ON subregion, the areas under the curve of the inner retinal thickness, outer retinal thickness and the whole retinal thickness were 1.0 (95% CI: 1.0), 0.882 (95% CI: 0.715 and 0.963), and 1.0 (95% CI: 1.0). The smallest area under the curve of retinal thickness in OT subregion was 0.018 (95% CI: 0-0.059). Conclusion: RT of pterygium patients was significantly decreased, and the main alterations occurred in the temporal side suggesting there might exist retinal structural alterations in pterygium.
Danford ID, Scruggs BA, Capone A, Trese MT, Drenser KA, Thanos A, Nudleman E, Amphornphruet A, Tipsuriyaporn B, Hubbard BG, Ells A, Harper AC, Goldstein J, Calvo C, Wallace-Carrete C, Berry D, Chang E, Leishman L, Shapiro M, Blair M, Mikhail M, Shields CL, Schwendeman R, Yonekawa Y, Gupta MP, Orlin A, Prakhunhungsit S, Mukai S, Berrocal A, Hartnett EM, Campbell PJ. The Prevalence of Retinal Disease and Associated Central Nervous System Disease in Young Patients with Incontinentia Pigmenti. Ophthalmol Retina 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of retinal disease on fluorescein angiography (FA) in patients with incontinentia pigmenti (IP) and to compare the severity of retinal disease in those with and without known central nervous system (CNS) disease. DESIGN: Multi-institutional consecutive retrospective case series SUBJECTS: New patients with a diagnosis of IP seen at the Casey Eye Institute, Oregon Health and Science University, Moran Eye Center, University of Utah, Wills Eye Hospital, or Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami from December 2011 to September 2018. METHODS: Detailed ophthalmoscopic examination and FA were recommended to all new patients and performed on every patient who had parental consent. Ophthalmoscopic findings and FA images were graded for severity by two masked graders on a 3-point scale: 0 = no disease, 1 = vascular abnormalities without leakage, 2 = leakage or neovascularization, 3 = retinal detachment. Presence of known CNS disease was documented. Additional cases were obtained from a pediatric retina listserv for examples of phenotypic variation. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of eyes noted to have disease on ophthalmoscopy compared with FA. Severity of retinal disease in those with and without known CNS disease. RESULTS: Retinal pathology was detected in 18/35 (51%) by indirect ophthalmoscopy and 26/35 (74%) by FA (p=0.048) in a predominantly pediatric population (median age = 9 months). Ten patients (29%) had known CNS disease at the time of the eye exam. A Wilcoxon ranked sums test indicated that the retinal severity scores for patients with CNS disease (median = 2) were significantly higher than the retinal severity scores for patients without CNS disease (median = 1), z = -2.12, p = 0.034. CONCLUSION: Retinal disease is present in the majority of patients with IP, and the ophthalmoscopic examination is less sensitive than FA for detection of disease. There may be a correlation between the severity of retinal and CNS disease.
Glonek T, Snogren T, Schmidt SY, Hearn SL, Isreb MA, Greiner JV. Phosphatic metabolism in dark- and light-adapted rat retinas. Exp Eye Res 2022;221:109141.Abstract
This study defines retinal phosphatic metabolites and their adjustment to illumination in rat retinas under conditions that preserve retinal function. Metabolic data are measured using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and 31P nuclear magnetic resonance (31P NMR) spectroscopy after 10 min of light exposure in vivo compared with retinas from dark-adapted rats. Multiple high-energy and low-energy phosphatic metabolites of intermediary metabolism were quantified. The concentration of the high-energy phosphate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) remained unchanged from dark- to light-adaptation. Under the same conditions the concentrations of the high-energy phosphates guanosine triphosphate (GTP) and creatine phosphate increased, whereas the inorganic phosphate decreased. Comparing dark-adapted controls with retinas light-adapted either in vitro or in vivo, the evidence is consistent with a light-dependent increase in GTP and a decrease in cyclic guanosine monophosphate. Although cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels were lower in retinas light-adapted in vivo than in the dark-adapted controls, this did not seem to be an effect of light, as cAMP levels decreased similarly after 10 min incubation in dark or light in parallel with recovery of ATP/adenosine diphosphate ratios. This study: (1) reports on retinal metabolic changes with adjustment in illumination, (2) provides baseline measurements of retinal phosphatic metabolites in whole retinas, and (3) reports on the validity of chromatographic and spectroscopic methods used for studying retinal metabolism establishing a high correlation among measurements made using HPLC and 31P NMR.
Aleman TS, Huckfeldt RM, Serrano LW, Pearson DJ, Vergilio GK, McCague S, Marshall KA, Ashtari M, Doan TM, Weigel-DiFranco CA, Biron BS, Wen X-H, Chung DC, Liu E, Ferenchak K, Morgan JIW, Pierce EA, Eliott D, Bennett J, Comander J, Maguire AM. Adeno-Associated Virus Serotype 2-hCHM Subretinal Delivery to the Macula in Choroideremia: Two-Year Interim Results of an Ongoing Phase I/II Gene Therapy Trial. Ophthalmology 2022;129(10):1177-1191.Abstract
PURPOSE: To assess the safety of the subretinal delivery of a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) vector carrying a human choroideremia (CHM)-encoding cDNA in CHM. DESIGN: Prospective, open-label, nonrandomized, dose-escalation, phase I/II clinical trial. PARTICIPANTS: Fifteen CHM patients (ages 20-57 years at dosing). METHODS: Patients received uniocular subfoveal injections of low-dose (up to 5 × 1010 vector genome [vg] per eye, n = 5) or high-dose (up to 1 × 1011 vg per eye, n = 10) of a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (AAV2) vector carrying a human CHM-encoding cDNA (AAV2-hCHM). Patients were evaluated preoperatively and postoperatively for 2 years with ophthalmic examinations, multimodal retinal imaging, and psychophysical testing. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Visual acuity, perimetry (10-2 protocol), spectral-domain OCT (SD-OCT), and short-wavelength fundus autofluorescence (SW-FAF). RESULTS: We detected no vector-related or systemic toxicities. Visual acuity returned to within 15 letters of baseline in all but 2 patients (1 developed acute foveal thinning, and 1 developed a macular hole); the rest showed no gross changes in foveal structure at 2 years. There were no significant differences between intervention and control eyes in mean light-adapted sensitivity by perimetry or in the lateral extent of retinal pigment epithelium relative preservation by SD-OCT and SW-FAF. Microperimetry showed nonsignificant (< 3 standard deviations of the intervisit variability) gains in sensitivity in some locations and participants in the intervention eye. There were no obvious dose-dependent relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Visual acuity was within 15 letters of baseline after the subfoveal AAV2-hCHM injections in 13 of 15 patients. Acute foveal thinning with unchanged perifoveal function in 1 patient and macular hole in 1 patient suggest foveal vulnerability to the subretinal injections. Longer observation intervals will help establish the significance of the minor differences in sensitivities and rate of disease progression observed between intervention and control eyes.
Bora K, Wang Z, Yemanyi F, Maurya M, Blomfield AK, Tomita Y, Chen J. Endothelial Cell Transcytosis Assay as an In Vitro Model to Evaluate Inner Blood-Retinal Barrier Permeability. J Vis Exp 2022;(184)Abstract
Dysfunction of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) contributes to the pathophysiology of several vascular eye diseases, often resulting in retinal edema and subsequent vision loss. The inner blood-retinal barrier (iBRB) is mainly composed of retinal vascular endothelium with low permeability under physiological conditions. This feature of low permeability is tightly regulated and maintained by low rates of paracellular transport between adjacent retinal microvascular endothelial cells, as well as transcellular transport (transcytosis) through them. The assessment of retinal transcellular barrier permeability may provide fundamental insights into iBRB integrity in health and disease. In this study, we describe an endothelial cell (EC) transcytosis assay, as an in vitro model for evaluating iBRB permeability, using human retinal microvascular endothelial cells (HRMECs). This assay assesses the ability of HRMECs to transport transferrin and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) in receptor- and caveolae-mediated transcellular transport processes, respectively. Fully confluent HRMECs cultured on porous membrane were incubated with fluorescent-tagged transferrin (clathrin-dependent transcytosis) or HRP (caveolae-mediated transcytosis) to measure the levels of transferrin or HRP transferred to the bottom chamber, indicative of transcytosis levels across the EC monolayer. Wnt signaling, a known pathway regulating iBRB, was modulated to demonstrate the caveolae-mediated HRP-based transcytosis assay method. The EC transcytosis assay described here may provide a useful tool for investigating the molecular regulators of EC permeability and iBRB integrity in vascular pathologies and for screening drug delivery systems.
Sokol JT, Castillejos A, Sobrin L. Purtscher-like retinopathy following a bowel movement. Am J Ophthalmol Case Rep 2022;26:101560.Abstract
Purpose: To describe a case of Purtscher-like retinopathy that developed after a bowel movement. Observations: A 32-year-old male presented with blurry vision and bilateral temporal paracentral scotomas that developed immediately after standing up from a bowel movement. Fundoscopic examination was notable for bilateral cotton wool spots in the nasal macula. Optical coherence tomography showed bilateral intraretinal fluid, subfoveal fluid, and scattered areas of inner retinal hyperreflectivity and thickening corresponding to the areas of cotton wool spots on examination. No treatment was administered and the patient had significant improvement in symptoms 2 days later with resolution of macular edema. Conclusions: Here we report a case of Purtscher-like retinopathy after a bowel movement. Although the exact mechanism of Purtscher-like retinopathy is unknown, there are multiple reports of Purtscher-like retinopathy after extreme events involving Valsalva, such as during weightlifting, and we postulate that this presentation is likely of similar pathophysiology.
Fonseca MI, Nouck-A-Nwal A, Ambrosio L, Altschwager P, Hansen RM, Fulton AB, Akula JD. The relation of the multifocal electroretinographic response to macular layer volume. Doc Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the association of the multifocal electroretinographic (mfERG) response amplitude with the volumes of the inner, postreceptor, and photoreceptor retinal layers in the region stimulated by each mfERG element. METHODS: Sixteen healthy, young adult control subjects were studied. Each of the 103 hexagonal elements of the standard, scaled mfERG were aligned, where possible, with patches of retina imaged using optical coherence tomography. Stimuli falling on the fovea and on the optic nerve head were excluded. Linear mixed-effects modeling was then used to derive estimated coefficients (voltage/volume) for the mfERG response throughout the full 80 ms standard epoch. The resulting predicted response amplitudes originating in each layer were then compared to pharmacologically "dissected" mfERGs obtained from other studies in monkey eyes. RESULTS: Across the duration of the response, the amplitude of the modeled contribution from (1) the inner retina was small-to-modest, (2) the postreceptor retina was larger and contained two prominent peaks, and (3) the photoreceptor response was the largest and most closely paralleled the overall (i.e., intact) response, including late-appearing oscillations. The significance of each layer's contribution was greatest when the absolute amplitude of that layer's response was largest. The contribution of the inner retina was maximally significant in the interval between the prominent troughs and peaks of the intact response. The contributions of the postreceptor and photoreceptor responses were maximally significant at the prominent troughs and peaks of the intact response. CONCLUSIONS: The results of the model were in good overall agreement with previous interpretations of the cellular contributions to the mfERG. There was also fair agreement with pharmacologically dissected monkey mfERG responses. Thus, the estimations of the contributions of the retinal layers to the mfERG so produced appeared plausible.
O'Hare M, Arboleda-Velasquez JF. Notch Signaling in Vascular Endothelial and Mural Cell Communications. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med 2022;Abstract
The Notch signaling pathway is a highly versatile and evolutionarily conserved mechanism with an important role in cell fate determination. Notch signaling plays a vital role in vascular development, regulating several fundamental processes such as angiogenesis, arterial/venous differentiation, and mural cell investment. Aberrant Notch signaling can result in severe vascular phenotypes as observed in cerebral autosomal-dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) and Alagille syndrome. It is known that vascular endothelial cells and mural cells interact to regulate vessel formation, cell maturation, and stability of the vascular network. Defective endothelial-mural cell interactions are a common phenotype in diseases characterized by impaired vascular integrity. Further refinement of the role of Notch signaling in the vascular junctions will be critical to attempts to modulate Notch in the context of human vascular disease. In this review, we aim to consolidate and summarize our current understanding of Notch signaling in the vascular endothelial and mural cells during development and in the adult vasculature.
Mei CY, Zhang Y, Pan L, Dong B, Chen X, Gao Q, Xu H, Xu W, Fang H, Liu S, McAlinden C, Paschalis EI, Wang Q, Yang M, Huang J, Yu A-Y. A One-Step Electrochemical Aptasensor Based on Signal Amplification of Metallo Nanoenzyme Particles for Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor. Front Bioeng Biotechnol 2022;10:850412.Abstract
In this study, a one-step electrochemical aptasensor was developed to detect the biomarker vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an important protein in the pathogenesis of many retinal diseases, including age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, retinopathy of prematurity, and retinal vein occlusion. The aptamer has a good affinity and can rapidly identify and capture VEGF based on its unique structure. We designed a VEGF aptasensor based on the aptamer recognition and complex metallo nanoenzyme particles as an electron exchange center and bridge between capture DNA and electrode. The aptamers maintained the hairpin structure to avoid nonspecific surface adsorption and expose the capture sequence outwards when the target was inexistent. Conversely, the aptamers opened the hairpin structure to release space to accomplish binding between VEGF and DNA, resulting in increased impedance. The performance of the electrochemical aptasensor is detected by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The limit of detection by EIS was as low as 8.2 pg ml-1, and the linear range was 10 pg ml-1-1 μg ml-1. The electrochemical aptasensor also showed high specificity and reproducibility.
Xie L, Cen L-P, Li Y, Gilbert H-Y, Strelko O, Berlinicke C, Stavarache MA, Ma M, Wang Y, Cui Q, Kaplitt MG, Zack DJ, Benowitz LI, Yin Y. Monocyte-derived SDF1 supports optic nerve regeneration and alters retinal ganglion cells' response to Pten deletion. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2022;119(15):e2113751119.Abstract
SignificanceThe optic nerve conveys information from retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) to visual processing areas of the brain. Although this pathway normally cannot regenerate when injured nor in degenerative diseases such as glaucoma, this failure can be partially reversed by eliciting a controlled immune reaction in the eye. We show here that the chemokine SDF1 (stromal cell-derived factor 1) is an important contributor to this phenomenon. SDF1 is produced by infiltrative monocytes and acts through its cognate receptor to enhance RGC survival, promote optic nerve regeneration, and sensitize subtypes of RGCs that normally fail to respond to a complementary treatment to exhibit robust, long-distance regeneration. These findings establish SDF1 as an important therapeutic candidate for repairing the injured optic nerve.

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