Retina

Bannai D, Adhan I, Katz R, Kim LA, Keshavan M, Miller JB, Lizano P. Quantifying Retinal Microvascular Morphology in Schizophrenia Using Swept-Source Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography. Schizophr Bull 2022;48(1):80-89.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Retinovascular changes are reported on fundus imaging in schizophrenia (SZ). This is the first study to use swept-source optical coherence tomography angiography (OCT-A) to comprehensively examine retinal microvascular changes in SZ. METHODS: This study included 30 patients with SZ/schizoaffective disorder (8 early and 15 chronic) and 22 healthy controls (HCs). All assessments were performed at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Massachusetts Eye and Ear. All participants underwent swept-source OCT-A of right (oculus dextrus [OD]) and left (oculus sinister [OS]) eye, clinical, and cognitive assessments. Macular OCT-A images (6 × 6 mm) were collected with the DRI Topcon Triton for superficial, deep, and choriocapillaris vascular regions. Microvasculature was quantified using vessel density (VD), skeletonized vessel density (SVD), fractal dimension (FD), and vessel diameter index (VDI). RESULTS: Twenty-one HCs and 26 SZ subjects were included. Compared to HCs, SZ patients demonstrated higher overall OD superficial SVD, OD choriocapillaris VD, and OD choriocapillaris SVD, which were primarily observed in the central, central and outer superior, and central and outer inferior/superior, respectively. Early-course SZ subjects had significantly higher OD superficial VD, OD choriocapillaris SVD, and OD choriocapillaris FD compared to matched HCs. Higher bilateral (OU) superficial VD correlated with lower Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) positive scores, and higher OU deep VDI was associated with higher PANSS negative scores. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: These results suggest the presence of microvascular dysfunction associated with early-stage SZ. Clinical associations with microvascular alterations further implicate this hypothesis, with higher measures being associated with worse symptom severity and functioning in early stages and with lower symptom severity and better functioning in later stages.
Chen ZJ, Lu SY, Rong SS, Ho M, Ng DS-C, Chen H, Gong B, Yam JC, Young AL, Brelen M, Tham CC, Pang CP, Chen LJ. Genetic associations of central serous chorioretinopathy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;106(11):1542-1548.Abstract
AIMS: To identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSCR) by a systematic review and meta-analysis, and to compare the association profiles between CSCR, neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) and polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). METHODS: We searched the EMBASE, PubMed and Web of Science for genetic studies of CSCR from the starting dates of the databases to 12 September 2020. We then performed meta-analyses on all SNPs reported by more than two studies and calculated the pooled OR and 95% CIs. We also conducted sensitivity analysis and adopted the funnel plot to assess potential publication bias. RESULTS: Totally 415 publications were reviewed, among them 10 were eligible for meta-analysis. We found 10 SNPs that have been reported at least twice. Meta-analysis and sensitivity analysis confirmed significant associations between CSCR and six SNPs in three genes, namely age-related maculopathy susceptibility 2 (ARMS2) (rs10490924, OR=1.37; p=0.00064), complement factor H (CFH) (rs800292, OR=1.44; p=7.80×10-5; rs1061170, OR=1.34; p=0.0028; rs1329428, OR=1.40; p=0.012; and rs2284664, OR=1.36; p=0.0089) and tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 10a (TNFRSF10A) (rs13278062, OR=1.34; p=1.44×10-15). Among them, only TNFRSF10A rs13278062 showed the same trend of effect on CSCR, nAMD and PCV, while the SNPs in ARMS2 and CFH showed opposite trends in the SNP associations. CONCLUSIONS: This study confirmed the associations of ARMS2, CFH and TNFRSF10A with CSCR, and revealed that ARMS2, CFH and TNFRSF10A may affect different phenotypic expressions of CSCR, nAMD and PCV.
Li Y, Hall NE, Pershing S, Hyman L, Haller JA, Lee AY, Lee CS, Chiang M, Lum F, Miller JW, Lorch A, Elze T. Age, Gender, and Laterality of Retinal Vascular Occlusion: A Retrospective Study from the IRIS® Registry. Ophthalmol Retina 2022;6(2):161-171.Abstract
PURPOSE: Retinal vascular occlusion is a leading cause of profound irreversible visual loss, but the understanding of the disease is insufficient. We systematically investigated the age, gender, and laterality at the onset of retinal artery occlusion (RAO) and retinal vein occlusion (RVO) in the Intelligent Research in Sight (IRIS®) Registry. DESIGN: Retrospective registry cohort. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with retinal vascular occlusion participating in the IRIS® Registry. METHODS: Patients who received a diagnosis of retinal vascular occlusion between 2013 and 2017 were included. Those with unspecified gender or laterality were excluded when conducting the relevant analyses. Patients were categorized into RAO, with subtypes transient retinal artery occlusion (TRAO), partial retinal artery occlusion (PRAO), branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO), and central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO), and into RVO, with subtypes venous engorgement (VE), branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO), and central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO). Age was evaluated as a categorical variable (5-year increments). We investigated the association of age, gender, and laterality with the onset frequency of retinal vascular occlusion subtypes. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The frequency of onset of RAO and RVO subtypes by age, gender and laterality. RESULTS: A total of 1 251 476 patients with retinal vascular occlusion were included, 23.8% of whom had RAO, whereas 76.2% had RVO. Of these, 1 248 656 and 798 089 patients were selected for analyses relevant to gender and laterality, respectively. The onset frequency of all subtypes increased with age. PRAO, BRAO, CRAO, and CRVO presented more frequently in men (53.5%, 51.3%, 52.6%, and 50.4%, respectively), whereas TRAO, VE, and BRVO presented more frequently in women (54.9%, 56.0%, and 54.5% respectively). All RAO subtypes and BRVO showed a right-eye onset preference (TRAO, 51.7%; PRAO, 54.4%; BRAO, 53.5%; CRAO, 53.4%; and BRVO, 51.0%), whereas VE and CRVO exhibited a left-eye onset preference (53.3% and 50.9%, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although retinal vascular occlusion incidence increases with age regardless of subtypes, we found various subtype-specific disease-onset differences related to gender and, in particular, ocular laterality. These findings may improve understanding of the specific cause of retinal vascular occlusions of different subtypes and their relationships with structural and anatomic asymmetries of the vascular system.
Pivodic A, Johansson H, Smith LEH, Hård A-L, Löfqvist C, Yoder BA, Hartnett EM, Wu C, Bründer M-C, Lagrèze WA, Stahl A, Al-Hawasi A, Larsson E, Lundgren P, Gränse L, Sunnqvist B, Tornqvist K, Wallin A, Holmström G, Albertsson-Wikland K, Nilsson S, Hellström A. Development and validation of a new clinical decision support tool to optimize screening for retinopathy of prematurity. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;106(11):1573-1580.Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Prematurely born infants undergo costly, stressful eye examinations to uncover the small fraction with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) that needs treatment to prevent blindness. The aim was to develop a prediction tool (DIGIROP-Screen) with 100% sensitivity and high specificity to safely reduce screening of those infants not needing treatment. DIGIROP-Screen was compared with four other ROP models based on longitudinal weights. METHODS: Data, including infants born at 24-30 weeks of gestational age (GA), for DIGIROP-Screen development (DevGroup, N=6991) originate from the Swedish National Registry for ROP. Three international cohorts comprised the external validation groups (ValGroups, N=1241). Multivariable logistic regressions, over postnatal ages (PNAs) 6-14 weeks, were validated. Predictors were birth characteristics, status and age at first diagnosed ROP and essential interactions. RESULTS: ROP treatment was required in 287 (4.1%)/6991 infants in DevGroup and 49 (3.9%)/1241 in ValGroups. To allow 100% sensitivity in DevGroup, specificity at birth was 53.1% and cumulatively 60.5% at PNA 8 weeks. Applying the same cut-offs in ValGroups, specificities were similar (46.3% and 53.5%). One infant with severe malformations in ValGroups was incorrectly classified as not needing screening. For all other infants, at PNA 6-14 weeks, sensitivity was 100%. In other published models, sensitivity ranged from 88.5% to 100% and specificity ranged from 9.6% to 45.2%. CONCLUSIONS: DIGIROP-Screen, a clinical decision support tool using readily available birth and ROP screening data for infants born GA 24-30 weeks, in the European and North American populations tested can safely identify infants not needing ROP screening. DIGIROP-Screen had equal or higher sensitivity and specificity compared with other models. DIGIROP-Screen should be tested in any new cohort for validation and if not validated it can be modified using the same statistical approaches applied to a specific clinical setting.
Wai KM, Vingopoulos F, Garg I, Kasetty M, Silverman RF, Katz R, Laíns I, Miller JW, Husain D, Vavvas DG, Kim LA, Miller JB. Contrast sensitivity function in patients with macular disease and good visual acuity. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;106(6):839-844.Abstract
INTRODUCTION: Contrast sensitivity function (CSF) may better estimate a patient's visual function compared with visual acuity (VA). Our study evaluates the quick CSF (qCSF) method to measure visual function in eyes with macular disease and good letter acuity. METHODS: Patients with maculopathies (retinal vein occlusion, macula-off retinal detachment, dry age-related macular degeneration and wet age-related macular degeneration) and good letter acuity (VA ≥20/30) were included. The qCSF method uses an intelligent algorithm to measure CSF across multiple spatial frequencies. All maculopathy eyes combined and individual macular disease groups were compared with healthy control eyes. Main outcomes included area under the log CSF (AULCSF) and six CS thresholds ranging from 1 cycle per degree (cpd) to 18 cpd. RESULTS: 151 eyes with maculopathy and 93 control eyes with VA ≥20/30 were included. The presence of a maculopathy was associated with significant reduction in AULCSF (β: -0.174; p<0.001) and CS thresholds at all spatial frequencies except for 18 cpd (β: -0.094 to -0.200 log CS, all p<0.01) compared with controls. Reductions in CS thresholds were most notable at low and intermediate spatial frequencies (1.5 cpd, 3 cpd and 6 cpd). CONCLUSION: CSF measured with the qCSF active learning method was found to be significantly reduced in eyes affected by macular disease despite good VA compared with healthy control eyes. The qCSF method is a promising clinical tool to quantify subtle visual deficits that may otherwise go unrecognised by current testing methods.
Wang J, Cui Y, Vingopoulos F, Kasetty M, Silverman RF, Katz R, Kim L, Miller JB. Disorganisation of retinal inner layers is associated with reduced contrast sensitivity in retinal vein occlusion. Br J Ophthalmol 2022;106(2):241-245.Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To determine if disorganisation of retinal inner layers (DRIL) is associated with reduced contrast sensitivity (CS) in patients with retinal vein occlusion (RVO) with a history of macular oedema (ME). METHODS: Prospective, observational cohort study. Patients with a history of ME secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO) or branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO) from October 2017 to July 2019 at a single institution were included. Patients underwent complete ophthalmic examination, spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) and CS testing using the quick contrast sensitivity function (qCSF) method. Eyes with coexisting macular disease were excluded. SD-OCT images were analysed for presence and extent of DRIL, intraretinal fluid (IRF), subretinal fluid (SRF), hyperreflective foci, epiretinal membrane (ERM), external limiting membrane (ELM) disruption, ellipsoid zone (EZ) disruption, central macular thickness (CMT) and central foveal thickness (CFT). Multivariable mixed-effect linear regressions were performed for the area under the log contrast sensitivity function (AULCSF) using Stata (StataCorp). P values <0.05 were considered significant. RESULTS: 58 visits from 31 patients were included (1.9±1.2 visits per patient). 29 (50%) were for CRVO. The average age was 63.9±10.5 years. On multivariable analysis, DRIL extent (p<0.001), CMT (p=0.007), CFT (p=0.024) and moderate cataract (p=0.001) were significantly associated with worse AULCSF. CONCLUSIONS: DRIL extent is associated with reduced CS in eyes with ME secondary to RVO. DRIL is an imaging feature that has important implications for visual function.
Yu G, Seto BK, Yamada K, Zeng K, Arroyo JG. COMBINED PNEUMATIC AND ENZYMATIC VITREOLYSIS FOR SEVERE CASES OF VITREOMACULAR TRACTION. Retin Cases Brief Rep 2022;16(5):631-636.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of combined pneumatic and enzymatic vitreolysis for treatment of severe cases of vitreomacular traction (VMT). METHODS: We analyzed a retrospective, consecutive series of five patients diagnosed with severe VMT refractory to pneumatic vitreolysis who then received an additional ocriplasmin injection while their gas bubble from pneumatic vitreolysis was still present between February 2015 and February 2019. Vitreomacular traction release was confirmed using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography. RESULTS: Four of the five patients treated with combined pneumatic and enzymatic vitreolysis achieved VMT release by Day 28, and all cases eventually achieved complete VMT release. In addition to having VMT refractory to pneumatic vitreolysis, patient characteristics included broad adhesion diameter (>1,500 µ m, n = 1), presence of epiretinal membrane (n = 2), age >65 years (n = 4), and pseudophakia (n = 1). The visual acuity improved by three or more lines at 6 months in both of the patients with initial vision worse than 20/50 on an Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study chart but not in those whose vision was already fairly good (i.e., visual acuity >20/60). None of the patients experienced the following complications after receiving this combined treatment: retinal tears or detachments, vitreous floaters, and ellipsoid zone changes. CONCLUSION: Sequential, combined pneumatic and enzymatic vitreolysis resulted in VMT release in all 5 cases (4 cases by 28 days) and may be a potentially useful alternative to surgical intervention for refractory VMT cases.
Georgakopoulos CD, Tsapardoni FN, Makri OE, Vavvas D. TWO-YEAR RESULTS OF INTRAVITREAL INJECTIONS OF AFLIBERCEPT IN COATS DISEASE: A CASE REPORT. Retin Cases Brief Rep 2022;16(4):473-478.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report long-term results of treatment with intravitreal injections of aflibercept in a newly diagnosed case of Coats disease. METHODS: An 18-year-old man presented to the retina clinic of our hospital complaining of blurred vision in the right eye for the past 3 months. His past medical and ocular history were unremarkable. The best-corrected visual acuity was 20/200 in the right eye and 20/20 in the left eye. Fundoscopy in the right eye revealed extensive macular edema with a circinate ring of hard exudates in the posterior pole temporally to the macula. Optical coherence tomography demonstrated macular edema with subretinal fluid. Peripheral telangiectasias and light bulb aneurysms in the inferior temporal arcade as well as in the nasal far periphery were found in the right eye in fluorescein angiography, confirming the diagnosis of stage 2B Coats disease. The left eye was normal. RESULTS: The original therapeutic strategy proposed was antivascular endothelial growth factor injections in the right eye, followed by laser photocoagulation. However, the patient did not consent to laser treatment and was treated with aflibercept monotherapy with 8 monthly intravitreal injections of aflibercept, followed by 6 injections every 2 months for a total of 14 injections over a period of 2 years. The best-corrected visual acuity in the right eye improved to 20/25 while optical coherence tomography imaging revealed significant decrease in retinal thickness with resolution of macular edema, and fluorescein angiography demonstrated prominent regression of aneurysms and leakage. CONCLUSION: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case treated with aflibercept monotherapy, suggesting the significant role of vascular endothelial growth factor in vascular permeability in Coats and supporting the rationale that antivascular endothelial growth factors are a valuable therapeutic option for Coats disease.
Wang JC, Lu Y, Sobrin L, Husain D. MULTIMODAL IMAGING IN ACUTE RETINAL NECROSIS PRESENTING WITH MACULAR INVOLVEMENT. Retin Cases Brief Rep 2022;16(3):347-350.Abstract
PURPOSE: To report an unusual case of early macular necrosis in acute retinal necrosis and its features on multimodal imaging. METHODS: Findings on fundus examination, laboratory workup, fluorescein angiography, autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography, and optical coherence tomography angiography. RESULTS: A 31-year-old healthy woman presented with 1 week of photophobia and central scotoma of the right eye. Initial examination revealed vitritis, hyperemia of the optic disc, and a yellow-white macular lesion without any peripheral findings. Peripheral involvement was first noted only 4 days later. The patient was diagnosed with acute retinal necrosis secondary to varicella zoster virus and was successfully treated with intravitreal and oral antiviral medications. Optical coherence tomography imaging of the macular lesion showed involvement of both the inner and outer retina. Optical coherence tomography angiography revealed a large flow void in the choriocapillaris, which has not been previously demonstrated. CONCLUSION: Multimodal imaging offers valuable information in the evaluation of patients with acute retinal necrosis.
Cai LZ, Lin J, Starr MR, Obeid A, Ryan EH, Ryan C, Forbes NJ, Arias D, Ammar MJ, Patel LG, Capone A, Emerson GG, Joseph DP, Eliott D, Gupta OP, Regillo CD, Hsu J, Yonekawa Y, Yonekawa Y. PRO score: predictive scoring system for visual outcomes after rhegmatogenous retinal detachment repair. Br J Ophthalmol 2021;Abstract
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To compare risk factors for poor visual outcomes in patients undergoing primary rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) repair and to develop a scoring system. METHODS: Analysis of the Primary Retinal detachment Outcomes (PRO) study, a multicentre interventional cohort of consecutive primary RRD surgeries performed in 2015. The main outcome measure was a poor visual outcome (Snellen VA ≤20/200). RESULTS: A total of 1178 cases were included. The mean preoperative and postoperative logMARs were 1.1±1.1 (20/250) and 0.5±0.7 (20/63), respectively. Multivariable logistic regression identified preoperative risk factors predictive of poor visual outcomes (≤20/200), including proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) (OR 1.26; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.40), history of antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) injections (1.38; 1.11 to 1.71), >1-week vision loss (1.17; 1.08 to 1.27), ocular comorbidities (1.18; 1.00 to 1.38), poor presenting VA (1.06 per initial logMAR unit; 1.02 to 1.10) and age >70 (1.13; 1.04 to 1.23). The data were split into training (75%) and validation (25%) and a scoring system was developed and validated. The risk for poor visual outcomes was 8% with a total score of 0, 17% with 1, 29% with 2, 47% with 3, and 71% with 4 or higher. CONCLUSIONS: Independent risk factors were compared for poor visual outcomes after RRD surgery, which included PVR, anti-VEGF injections, vision loss >1 week, ocular comorbidities, presenting VA and older age. The PRO score was developed to provide a scoring system that may be useful in clinical practice.
Yemanyi F, Bora K, Blomfield AK, Wang Z, Chen J. Wnt Signaling in Inner Blood-Retinal Barrier Maintenance. Int J Mol Sci 2021;22(21)Abstract
The retina is a light-sensing ocular tissue that sends information to the brain to enable vision. The blood-retinal barrier (BRB) contributes to maintaining homeostasis in the retinal microenvironment by selectively regulating flux of molecules between systemic circulation and the retina. Maintaining such physiological balance is fundamental to visual function by facilitating the delivery of nutrients and oxygen and for protection from blood-borne toxins. The inner BRB (iBRB), composed mostly of inner retinal vasculature, controls substance exchange mainly via transportation processes between (paracellular) and through (transcellular) the retinal microvascular endothelium. Disruption of iBRB, characterized by retinal edema, is observed in many eye diseases and disturbs the physiological quiescence in the retina's extracellular space, resulting in vision loss. Consequently, understanding the mechanisms of iBRB formation, maintenance, and breakdown is pivotal to discovering potential targets to restore function to compromised physiological barriers. These unraveled targets can also inform potential drug delivery strategies across the BRB and the blood-brain barrier into retinas and brain tissues, respectively. This review summarizes mechanistic insights into the development and maintenance of iBRB in health and disease, with a specific focus on the Wnt signaling pathway and its regulatory role in both paracellular and transcellular transport across the retinal vascular endothelium.
Tomita Y, Qiu C, Bull E, Allen W, Kotoda Y, Talukdar S, Smith LEH, Fu Z. Müller glial responses compensate for degenerating photoreceptors in retinitis pigmentosa. Exp Mol Med 2021;Abstract
Photoreceptor degeneration caused by genetic defects leads to retinitis pigmentosa, a rare disease typically diagnosed in adolescents and young adults. In most cases, rod loss occurs first, followed by cone loss as well as altered function in cells connected to photoreceptors directly or indirectly. There remains a gap in our understanding of retinal cellular responses to photoreceptor abnormalities. Here, we utilized single-cell transcriptomics to investigate cellular responses in each major retinal cell type in retinitis pigmentosa model (P23H) mice vs. wild-type littermate mice. We found a significant decrease in the expression of genes associated with phototransduction, the inner/outer segment, photoreceptor cell cilium, and photoreceptor development in both rod and cone clusters, in line with the structural changes seen with immunohistochemistry. Accompanying this loss was a significant decrease in the expression of genes involved in metabolic pathways and energy production in both rods and cones. We found that in the Müller glia/astrocyte cluster, there was a significant increase in gene expression in pathways involving photoreceptor maintenance, while concomitant decreases were observed in rods and cones. Additionally, the expression of genes involved in mitochondrial localization and transport was increased in the Müller glia/astrocyte cluster. The Müller glial compensatory increase in the expression of genes downregulated in photoreceptors suggests that Müller glia adapt their transcriptome to support photoreceptors and could be thought of as general therapeutic targets to protect against retinal degeneration.
Sena DF, Kilian R, Liu S-H, Rizzo S, Virgili G. Pneumatic retinopexy versus scleral buckle for repairing simple rhegmatogenous retinal detachments. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2021;11:CD008350.Abstract
BACKGROUND: A rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) is a separation of the neurosensory retina from the retinal pigment epithelium caused by a full-thickness break associated with vitreous traction. While pneumatic retinopexy (PR), scleral buckle (SB), and vitrectomy are all well-received surgical interventions for eyes with RRD, their relative effectiveness has remained controversial. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of PR versus SB or PR versus a combination treatment of SB and vitrectomy for people with RRD and to summarize any data on economic measures and quality of life. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL; which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register; 2021, Issue 3); Ovid MEDLINE; Ovid Embase; and four other databases on 11 March 2021. We used no date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. SELECTION CRITERIA: We included all randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials comparing the effectiveness of PR versus SB (with or without vitrectomy) for eyes with RRD. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: After screening for eligibility, two review authors independently extracted study characteristics, methods, and outcomes. We followed systematic review standards as set by Cochrane. MAIN RESULTS: In this update, we identified and included one new randomized controlled trial. Together with two trials from the 2015 version of the review, we included three trials (276 eyes of 274 participants) comparing the effectiveness of PR versus SB. None compared PR versus a combined treatment of SB and vitrectomy.  Of the three trials, one was a small study (published in 1996) with 20 participants (20 eyes) enrolled in Ireland and followed for a mean of 16 months; the second (published in 1989) included 196 participants (198 eyes) in the US followed for at least six months, and the third (published in 2021) was conducted in Italy and enrolled 58 participants (58 eyes) with a follow-up of 12 months. Overall, poor reporting quality resulted in unclear or high risks of bias.  We found low-certainty evidence that PR may achieve retinal reattachment slightly less often than SB (risk ratio [RR] 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.81 to 1.02; I2 = 0%; 3 studies, 276 eyes). Eyes undergoing PR may also display a higher risk of recurrent retinal detachment (low-certainty evidence), but the RR estimates were very imprecise (RR 1.70, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.98; I2 = 0%; 3 studies, 276 eyes). All three studies described the final visual acuity (VA) after the two procedures. However, the results were reported using different metrics and could not be combined. One study (196 participants) reported the proportion of eyes with a final VA of 20/40 or greater and favored PR (RR 1.31, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.65; low-certainty evidence), whereas in the 2021 study, both groups showed an improvement in final VA and there was no evidence of a difference between the two (mean difference [MD] -0.03, 95% CI -0.25 to 0.19; low-certainty evidence). No study reported data on quality of life or economic measures. Postoperative safety outcomes generally favored PR versus SB (low/very low-certainty evidence); however, there was considerable uncertainty regarding the risk of any operative ocular adverse events (RR 0.55 CI 0.28 to 1.11; 276 eyes), glaucoma (RR 0.31, 95% CI 0.01 to 7.46; 198 eyes), macular pucker (RR 0.65, 95% CI 0.20 to 2.11; 256 eyes), proliferative vitreoretinopathy (RR 0.94, 95% CI 0.30 to 2.96; 276 eyes), and persistent diplopia (RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.03 to 2.09; 256 eyes). Eyes undergoing PR experienced fewer postoperative cataract developments (RR 0.40, 95% CI 0.21 to 0.75; 153 eyes), choroidal detachments (RR 0.17, 95% CI 0.05 to 0.57; 198 eyes), and myopic shift (RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.01 to 0.10; 256 eyes). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The current update confirms the findings of the previous review. PR may result in lower rates of reattachment and higher rates of recurrence than SB, but carries a lower burden of postoperative complications. The effects of these two procedures on other functional outcomes and quality of life remain uncertain. The available evidence remains insufficient and of low quality.
Comin CH, Tsirukis DI, Sun Y, Xu X. Quantification of retinal blood leakage in fundus fluorescein angiography in a retinal angiogenesis model. Sci Rep 2021;11(1):19903.Abstract
Blood leakage from the vessels in the eye is the hallmark of many vascular eye diseases. One of the preclinical mouse models of retinal blood leakage, the very-low-density-lipoprotein receptor deficient mouse (Vldlr-/-), is used for drug screening and mechanistic studies. Vessel leakage is usually examined using Fundus fluorescein angiography (FFA). However, interpreting FFA images of the Vldlr-/- model is challenging as no automated and objective techniques exist for this model. A pipeline has been developed for quantifying leakage intensity and area including three tasks: (i) blood leakage identification, (ii) blood vessel segmentation, and (iii) image registration. Morphological operations followed by log-Gabor quadrature filters were used to identify leakage regions. In addition, a novel optic disk detection algorithm based on graph analysis was developed for registering the images at different timepoints. Blood leakage intensity and area measured by the methodology were compared to ground truth quantifications produced by two annotators. The relative difference between the quantifications from the method and those obtained from ground truth images was around 10% ± 6% for leakage intensity and 17% ± 8% for leakage region. The Pearson correlation coefficient between the method results and the ground truth was around 0.98 for leakage intensity and 0.94 for leakage region. Therefore, we presented a computational method for quantifying retinal vascular leakage and vessels using FFA in a preclinical angiogenesis model, the Vldlr-/- model.
Hellström A, Pivodic A, Gränse L, Lundgren P, Sjöbom U, Nilsson AK, Söderling H, Hård A-L, Smith LEH, Löfqvist CA. Association of Docosahexaenoic Acid and Arachidonic Acid Serum Levels With Retinopathy of Prematurity in Preterm Infants. JAMA Netw Open 2021;4(10):e2128771.Abstract
Importance: Supplementing preterm infants with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) has been inconsistent in reducing the severity and incidence of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Furthermore, few studies have measured the long-term serum lipid levels after supplementation. Objective: To assess whether ROP severity is associated with serum levels of LC-PUFA, especially docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA), during the first 28 postnatal days. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study analyzed the Mega Donna Mega study, a randomized clinical trial that provided enteral fatty acid supplementation at 3 neonatal intensive care units in Sweden. Infants included in this cohort study were born at a gestational age of less than 28 weeks between December 20, 2016, and August 6, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: Severity of ROP was classified as no ROP, mild or moderate ROP (stage 1-2), or severe ROP (stage 3 and type 1). Serum phospholipid fatty acids were measured through gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Ordinal logistic regression, with a description of unadjusted odds ratio (OR) as well as gestational age- and birth weight-adjusted ORs and 95% CIs, was used. Areas under the curve were used to calculate mean daily levels of fatty acids during postnatal days 1 to 28. Blood samples were obtained at the postnatal ages of 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 days. Results: A total of 175 infants were included in analysis. Of these infants, 99 were boys (56.6%); the median (IQR) gestational age was 25 weeks 5 days (24 weeks 3 days to 26 weeks 6 days), and the median (IQR) birth weight was 785 (650-945) grams. A higher DHA proportion was seen in infants with no ROP compared with those with mild or moderate ROP or severe ROP (OR per 0.5-molar percentage increase, 0.49 [95% CI, 0.36-0.68]; gestational age- and birth weight-adjusted OR, 0.66 [95% CI, 0.46-0.93]). The corresponding adjusted OR for AA levels per 1-molar percentage increase was 0.83 (95% CI, 0.66-1.05). The association between DHA levels and ROP severity appeared only in infants with sufficient AA levels, suggesting that a mean daily minimum level of 7.8 to 8.3 molar percentage of AA was necessary for a detectable association between DHA level and less severe ROP. Conclusions and Relevance: This cohort study found that higher mean daily serum levels of DHA during the first 28 postnatal days were associated with less severe ROP even after adjustment for known risk factors, but only in infants with sufficiently high AA levels. Further studies are needed to identify LC-PUFA supplementation strategies that may prevent ROP and other morbidities.

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