BACKGROUND: Orbital myositis is an idiopathic, non-infectious condition, typically seen in young females and usually affecting one extraocular muscle. Orbital myositis mimicking cluster headache is a rare clinical entity, and this is the first description of a case of a secondary trigeminal autonomic cephalalgia from orbital myositis responsive to high-flow oxygen. CASE: A young woman presented with new-onset, oxygen-responsive headache, periorbital pain and autonomic features. She had associated vertical diplopia on downgaze and subtle ocular misalignment. An initial diagnosis of cluster headache was made. Initial brain MRI was unrevealing, but dedicated MRI of the orbits showed enhancement of orbital muscles. The diplopia and the imaging findings were consistent with orbital myositis. CONCLUSION: Orbital myositis mimicking cluster headache is rare, and not previously reported as an oxygen-responsive headache.