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Oke I, Hwang B, Heo H, Nguyen A, Lambert SR. Risk Factors for Retinal Detachment Repair After Pediatric Cataract Surgery in the United States. Ophthalmol Sci 2022;2(4):100203.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the cumulative incidence of retinal detachment (RD) repair following pediatric cataract surgery and identify the associated risk factors. DESIGN: US population-based insurance claims retrospective cohort study. PARTICIPANTS: Patients ≤ 18 years old who underwent cataract surgery in 2 large databases: Optum Clinformatics (2003-2021) and IBM MarketScan (2007-2016). METHODS: Individuals with ≥ 6 months of prior enrollment were included, and those with a history of RD, RD repair, traumatic cataract, spherophakia, or ectopia lentis were excluded. The primary outcome was time between initial cataract surgery and RD repair. The risk factors investigated included age, sex, persistent fetal vasculature (PFV), prematurity, intraocular lens (IOL) placement, and pars plana lensectomy approach. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Kaplan-Meier estimated cumulative incidence of RD repair 5 years after cataract surgery and hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS: Retinal detachment repair was performed on 47 of 3289 children included in this study. The cumulative incidence of RD repair within 5 years of cataract surgery was 2.0% (95% CI, 1.3%-2.6%). Children requiring RD repair were more likely to have a history of prematurity or PFV and less likely to have an IOL placed (all P < 0.001). Factors associated with RD repair in the multivariable analysis included a history of prematurity (HR, 6.89; 95% CI, 3.26-14.56; P < 0.001), PFV diagnosis (HR, 8.20; 95% CI, 4.11-16.37; P < 0.001), and IOL placement (HR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.21-0.91; P = 0.03). Age at surgery, sex, and pars plana lensectomy approach were not significantly associated with RD repair after adjusting for all other covariates. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 2% of patients will undergo RD repair within 5 years of pediatric cataract surgery. Children with a history of PFV and prematurity undergoing cataract surgery without IOL placement are at the greatest risk.
Harris CK, Stagner AM. The Eyes Have It: How Critical are Ophthalmic Findings to the Diagnosis of Pediatric Abusive Head Trauma?. Semin Ophthalmol 2022;:1-6.Abstract
Pediatric abusive head trauma (AHT), still colloquially known as shaken baby syndrome, is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality among infants. Controversy has grown surrounding this diagnosis, and the specificity of the clinical findings-subdural hemorrhage, cerebral edema, and retinal hemorrhages-has been challenged. A literature search of peer reviewed publications on PubMed pertaining to the history, clinical, and pathologic features of AHT was conducted using the terms "shaken baby syndrome," "non-accidental trauma," "abusive head trauma," "inflicted traumatic brain injury," "shaken impact syndrome," and "whiplash shaken infant syndrome." Focus was placed on articles discussing ophthalmic findings in AHT. Retinal hemorrhages-particularly those that are too numerous to count, occurring in all layers of the retina (preretinal, intraretinal, subretinal), covering the peripheral pole and extending to the ora serrata, and accompanied by retinoschisis and other ocular/periocular hemorrhages-are highly suggestive of AHT, particularly in the absence of otherwise explained massive accidental trauma. Although the diagnosis has grown in controversy in recent years, AHT has well-documented clinical and pathologic findings across a large number of studies.
Franco JJ, Liu KX, Ioakeim-Ioannidou M, Davila JR, Chen Y-L, Kim IK, Gragoudas ES, Mukai S, MacDonald SM. Low-dose proton radiotherapy for pediatric choroidal hemangioma: A case series. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2022;69(12):e29925.Abstract
Management of pediatric choroidal hemangioma complicated by large exudative retinal detachment can be challenging, with few options available. Limited data have been published on outcomes following proton radiotherapy (PRT) for management of these patients. In this retrospective case series, nine patients were treated with a low-dose PRT regimen of 20 Gy(relative biological effectiveness [RBE]) in 10 fractions, and two were treated with 15 Gy(RBE) in four fractions. Visual acuity improved in seven patients (64%) and remained stable in the remaining four (36%). In patients with imaging follow-up (10 patients), subretinal fluid resolved in nine patients (90%) and tumor thickness decreased or remained stable in 10 (100%). Complications were observed in eight of 11 patients (73%). One patient developed grade 2 cataract; otherwise, no grade ≥2 complications were observed.
Michalak SM, Chinn RN, Shoshany TN, Bishop K, Staffa SJ, Hunter DG. Subthreshold Amblyopia: Characterization of a new cohort. Am J Ophthalmol 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: Published studies of amblyopia include only patients with visual acuity (VA) worse than 20/40 in one or both eyes. This study evaluates patients diagnosed and treated as amblyopic despite not meeting traditional visual acuity criteria for amblyopia. DESIGN: Retrospective clinical cohort study. METHODS:  SETTING: INSTITUTIONAL PRACTICE. PATIENT POPULATION: All patients diagnosed with amblyopia at Boston Children's Hospital between 2010-2014. INCLUSION CRITERIA: VA better than 20/40 but not correctable to 20/20 in one or both eyes; age 2-12 years. OBSERVATIONS: Demographics, VA, baseline characteristics. OUTCOME MEASURES: Resolution, defined as VA 20/20 in both eyes; stereopsis at last follow-up. RESULTS:  Of 2311 patients reviewed, 464 (20.1%) had subthreshold amblyopia. A majority (61.7%) had an amblyogenic factor, most commonly anisometropia (32.8%). Patients were followed for a median of 3.1 years; nearly all (97.5%) were treated. Of 318 patients who returned for follow-up, 47.8% achieved resolution, including 55.7% of treatment-naïve patients and 62.5% (5 of 8 patients) offered observation alone. Median stereopsis improved by 0.4 log units in those who achieved resolution, with no change in those with persistent amblyopia. In the multivariate analysis, a longer length of follow-up was significantly associated with resolution of subthreshold amblyopia (OR 1.38; 95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.57, p<.001). DISCUSSION: Patients with subthreshold amblyopia represent a sizeable cohort in real-world amblyopia practice. When offered treatment, half achieved 20/20 vision in both eyes with improved stereopsis as well. Further studies are needed to assess whether observation alone would result in similar outcomes.
Ashraf M, Hock KM, Cavallerano JD, Wang FL, Silva PS. Comparison of Widefield Laser Ophthalmoscopy and ETDRS Retinal Area for Diabetic Retinopathy. Ophthalmol Sci 2022;2(4):100190.Abstract
PURPOSE: To evaluate agreement of nonmydriatic confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO; EIDON [CenterVue]) and the 7-standard field ETDRS area on ultrawide-field (UWF) SLO imaging for identification of diabetic retinopathy (DR) severity. DESIGN: Single-site, prospective, comparative, instrument validation study. PARTICIPANTS: One hundred ten eyes of 55 patients with diabetes mellitus were evaluated. METHODS: Each patient underwent nonmydriatic, nonsimultaneous stereoscopic imaging using the EIDON camera and 4 fields of 60° × 55° were acquired (macula centered, disc centered, temporal macula, superotemporal). Mydriatic UWF retinal images were acquired using a nonsimultaneous stereographic protocol with UWF imaging (California; Optos plc). Before grading, a standardized ETDRS 7-field image mask was applied to all UWF retinal images. Images from each device were graded independently by 2 masked graders using the ETDRS clinical DR classification. Any discrepancy in DR grading between the devices was adjudicated by a third grader. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: κ Levels of agreement, sensitivity, and specificity for DR thresholds. RESULTS: Severity by ETDRS grading was as follows: no DR, 10.9%; mild nonproliferative DR (NPDR), 45.5%; moderate NPDR, 16.5%; severe NPDR, 11.8%; proliferative DR, 12.7%; high-risk proliferative DR, 2.7%; and ungradable, 0%. After adjudication, the level of DR identified on EIDON images agreed exactly with that of UWF ETDRS imaging in 87% of eyes (n = 96) and was within 1 step in 99.1% of eyes (n = 109) with a simple κ value of 0.8244 ± 0.0439 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7385-0.9104) and weighted (linear) κ value of 0.9041 ± 0.0257 (95% CI, 0.8537-0.9545). Sensitivity and specificity compared with ETDRS field grading for any DR were 0.96 and 0.75, for moderate NPDR or worse were 0.96 and 0.97, and for severe NPDR or worse were 0.91 and 1.00, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Nonmydriatic 4-field stereoscopic widefield imaging using the EIDON device was comparable with the DR severity identified within the ETDRS 7-standard field area of UWF images. Future studies will need to evaluate the applicability of this device as a clinical and research tool and the impact of different widefield coverage areas.
Yu Z, Correa VSMC, Efstathiou NE, Albertos-Arranz H, Chen XH, Ishihara K, Iesato Y, Narimatsu T, Ntentakis D, Vavvas DG. UVA induces retinal photoreceptor cell death via receptor interacting protein 3 kinase mediated necroptosis. Cell Death Discov 2022;8(1):489.Abstract
Ultraviolet light A (UVA) is the only UV light that reaches the retina and can cause indirect damage to DNA via absorption of photons by non-DNA chromophores. Previous studies demonstrate that UVA generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and leads to programmed cell death. Programmed cell death (PCD) has been implicated in numerous ophthalmologic diseases. Here, we investigated receptor interacting protein 1 and 3 (RIPK1 and RIPK3) kinases, key signaling molecules of PCD, in UVA-induced photoreceptor injury using in vitro and ex vivo models. UVA irradiation activated RIPK3 but not RIPK1 and mediated necroptosis through MLKL that lie downstream of RIPK3 and induced apoptosis through increased oxidative stress. Moreover, RIPK3 but not RIPK1 inhibition suppresses UVA-induced cell death along with the downregulation of MLKL and attenuates the levels of oxidative stress and DNA fragmentation. In conclusion, these results identify RIPK3, not RIPK1, as a critical regulator of UVA-induced necroptosis cell death in photoreceptors and highlight RIPK3 potential as a neuroprotective target.
Katz MG, Hadas Y, Bailey RA, Fazal S, Vincek A, Madjarova SJ, Shtraizent N, Vandenberghe LH, Eliyahu E. Efficient cardiac gene transfer and early-onset expression of a synthetic adeno-associated viral vector, Anc80L65, after intramyocardial administration. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg 2022;164(6):e429-e443.Abstract
OBJECTIVE: Gene therapy is a promising approach in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Preclinical and clinical studies have demonstrated that adeno-associated viral vectors are the most attractive vehicles for gene transfer. However, preexisting immunity, delayed gene expression, and postinfection immune response limit the success of this technology. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the first synthetic adeno-associated viral lineage clone, Anc80L65, for cardiac gene therapy. METHODS: By combining 2 different reporter approaches by fluorescence with green fluorescent protein and bioluminescence (Firefly luciferase), we compared transduction efficiency of Anc80L65 and adeno-associated virus, serotype 9 in neonatal rat cardiomyocytes ex vivo and rat hearts in vivo after intramyocardial and intracoronary administration. RESULTS: In cardiomyocytes, Anc80L65 provided a green fluorescent protein expression of 28.9% (36.4 ± 3.34 cells/field) at 24 hours and approximately 100% on day 7. In contrast, adeno-associated virus, serotype 9 green fluorescent protein provided minimal green fluorescent protein expression of 5.64% at 24 hours and 11.8% on day 7. After intramyocardial injection, vector expression peaked on day 7 with Anc80L65; however, with adeno-associated virus, serotype 9 the peak expression was during week 6. Administration of Anc80L65 demonstrated significantly more efficient expression of reporter gene than after adeno-associated virus, serotype 9 at 6 weeks (6.81 ± 0.64 log10 gc/100 ng DNA vs 6.49 ± 0.28 log10 gc/100 ng DNA, P < .05). These results were consistent with the amount of genome copy per cell observed in the heart. CONCLUSIONS: Anc80L65 vector allows fast and robust gene transduction compared with adeno-associated virus, serotype 9 vector in cardiac gene therapy. Anc80L65 did not adversely affect cardiac function and caused no inflammatory response or toxicity.
Li S, Jakobs TC. Secreted phosphoprotein 1 slows neurodegeneration and rescues visual function in mouse models of aging and glaucoma. Cell Rep 2022;41(13):111880.Abstract
Aging causes an irreversible, cumulative decline in neuronal function. Using the visual system as a model, we show that astrocytes play a critical role in maintaining retinal ganglion cell health and that deletion of SPP1 (secreted phosphoprotein 1, or osteopontin) from astrocytes leads to increased vulnerability of ganglion cells to age, elevated intraocular pressure, and traumatic optic nerve damage. Overexpression of SPP1 slows the age-related decline in ganglion cell numbers and is highly protective of visual function in a mouse model of glaucoma. SPP1 acts by promoting phagocytosis and secretion of neurotrophic factors while inhibiting production of neurotoxic and pro-inflammatory factors. SPP1 up-regulates transcription of genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, functionally enhances mitochondrial respiration, and promotes the integrity of mitochondrial microstructure. SPP1 increases intracellular ATP concentration via up-regulation of VDAC1.
Adomfeh J, Chinn RN, Michalak SM, Shoshany TN, Bishop K, Hunter DG, Jastrzembski BG, Oke I. Association of Neighborhood Child Opportunity Index with presenting visual acuity in amblyopic children. J AAPOS 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: To demonstrate the use of a novel measure of neighborhood quality, the Child Opportunity Index (COI), for investigating health disparities in pediatric ophthalmology. METHODS: This study included children 2-12 years of age from a registry of patients diagnosed with amblyopia at an urban pediatric hospital between 2010 and 2014. Children previously treated for amblyopia were excluded. Patient demographics, residential addresses, and logMAR visual acuities were collected. The association between visual acuity at presentation and COI was examined using linear mixed-effects models adjusting for individual-level factors, including age, sex, race, ethnicity, and insurance type. RESULTS: This study included 1,050 amblyopic children, of whom 317 (37%) were non-White and 149 (19%) were Hispanic; 461 (44%) had public insurance. Regarding residence, 129 (12%) lived in areas of very low opportunity (COI <20); 489 (47%) in areas of very high opportunity (COI ≥80). Children residing in the lowest opportunity neighborhoods correctly identified approximately two fewer letters at presentation with their better-seeing eye compared with children from the highest opportunity neighborhoods after adjusting for individual-level factors (-0.0090 logMAR per 20 unit increase in COI; 95% CI, -0.0172 to -0.0008; P = 0.031). No difference was appreciated in the worse-seeing eye. CONCLUSIONS: Amblyopic children residing in communities with low neighborhood opportunity had slightly worse visual acuity in the better-seeing eye at presentation. Although statistically significant in the better-seeing eye, the two-letter difference attributable to neighborhood environment may not be clinically significant, and the impact of this disparity on treatment outcomes deserves further investigation.
Oke I, VanderVeen DK, McClatchey TS, Lambert SR, McClatchey SK, McClatchey SK. The contribution of intraocular lens calculation accuracy to the refractive error predicted at 10 years in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study. J AAPOS 2022;26(6):294.e1-294.e5.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine the relative contribution of intraocular lens (IOL) calculation accuracy and ocular growth variability to the long-term refractive error predicted following pediatric cataract surgery. METHODS: Pseudophakic eyes of children enrolled in the Infant Aphakia Treatment Study (IATS) were included in this study. Initial absolute prediction error (APE) and 10-year APE were calculated using the initial biometry, IOL parameters, postoperative refractions, and mean rate of refractive growth. The cohort was divided into children with a low-initial APE (≤1.0 D) and a high-initial APE ( >1.0 D). The 10-year APE was compared between the two groups using the Mann-Whitney U test. Linear regression was used to estimate the variability in prediction error explained by the initial IOL calculation accuracy. RESULTS: Forty-two children with IOL placement in infancy were included. Seventeen eyes had a low initial APE, and 25 eyes had a high initial APE. There was no significant difference in APE 10 years following surgery between individuals with a low initial APE (median, 2.67 D; IQR, 1.61-4.12 D) and a high initial APE (median, 3.45 D; IQR, 1.64-5.10 D) (P = 0.7). Initial prediction error could explain 12% of the variability in the prediction error 10 years following surgery. CONCLUSIONS: IOL calculation accuracy contributed minimally to the refractive error predicted 10 years after cataract surgery in the setting of high variability in the rate of refractive growth.
Zhang X, Manley CE, Micheletti S, Tesic I, Bennett CR, Fazzi EM, Merabet LB. Assessing visuospatial processing in cerebral visual impairment using a novel and naturalistic static visual search task. Res Dev Disabil 2022;131:104364.Abstract
BACKGROUND: Cerebral visual impairment (CVI) is a brain based visual disorder associated with the maldevelopment of central visual pathways. Individuals with CVI often report difficulties finding a target of interest in cluttered and crowded visual scenes. However, it remains unknown how manipulating task demands and other environmental factors influence visual search performance in this population. AIM: We developed a novel and naturalistic virtual reality (VR) based static visual search task combined with eye tracking called the "virtual toy box" to objectively assess visual search performance in CVI. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: A total of 38 individuals with CVI (mean age 13.18 years ± 3.58 SD) and 53 controls with neurotypical development (mean age 15.25 years ± 5.72 SD) participated in the study. In a first experiment, study subjects were instructed to search for a preselected toy presented among a varying number of surrounding distractor toys (set size ranging from 1 to 36 items). In a second experiment, we assessed the effects of manipulating item spacing and the size of the visual area explored (field of view; FOV). OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: Behavioral outcomes collected were success rate, reaction time, gaze error, visual search area, and off-screen percent (an index of task compliance). Compared to age-matched controls, participants with CVI showed an overall impairment with respect to all the visual search outcomes of interest. Specifically, individuals with CVI were less likely and took longer to find the target, and search patterns were less accurate and precise compared to controls. Visual search response profiles were also comparatively less efficient and were associated with a slower initial pre-search (visual orienting) response as indexed by higher slope and intercept values derived from the analysis of reaction time × set size functions. Search performance was also more negatively affected in CVI at the smallest as well as largest spacing conditions tested, while increasing FOV was associated with greater decreased gaze accuracy and precision CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: These results are consistent with a general profile of impaired visual search abilities in CVI as well as worsening performance with increased visual task demands and an overall sensitivity to visual clutter and crowding. The observed profile of impaired visual search performance may be associated with dysfunctions related to how visual selective attention is deployed in individuals with CVI.
Zoumpou T, Samuel S, Torun N, Yadav P, Jones DB. Floppy Eyelid Syndrome: an Overlooked Comorbidity Among Bariatric Patients. Obes Surg 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: Floppy eyelid syndrome (FES) is a clinical entity characterized by palpebral hyperlaxity and chronic conjunctivitis. Patients' eyelids evert ("flip inside out"), leading to eye irritation, dryness, grittiness, and tearing. More severe cases can lead to significant ocular complications, such as keratoconus and impaired eyesight. Research has revealed an association between FES and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). OSAS is also one of the most common comorbidities among patients with obesity and an indication for bariatric surgery. This is one of the first studies to explore FES in a group of patients who have undergone bariatric surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study. A total of 88 patients completed a survey by mail or telephone. Additional data on demographics and baseline preoperative clinical information was extracted from the online medical records and the MBSAQIP database. RESULTS: Thirty-nine patients (44%) recalled having chronic ocular symptoms before their bariatric surgery, among whom six reported palpebral laxity and/or an established diagnosis of FES. The majority of them (67%) rated their symptoms postoperatively as "somewhat" or "significantly improved." The patients that reported improvement in their ocular symptoms also experienced an improvement in their OSAS severity. CONCLUSION: Bariatric surgery might affect the clinical course of FES and the severity of symptoms. Treating OSAS, the underlying mechanism of FES, is a possible mechanism of how bariatric surgery can help patients. It is also critical for bariatric surgeons to consider FES when patients with obesity, particularly those with OSAS, present with chronic eye symptoms.
André C, Islam MM, Paschalis E, Bispo PJM. Comparative In Vitro Activity of New Lipoglycopeptides and Vancomycin Against Ocular Staphylococci and Their Toxicity on the Human Corneal Epithelium. Cornea 2022;Abstract
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the potential of new lipoglycopeptides as novel topical therapies for improved treatment of recalcitrant ocular infections. We evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial activity of oritavancin, dalbavancin, and telavancin compared with vancomycin (VAN) against a large collection of ocular staphylococcal isolates and their cytotoxicity on human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs). METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution against 223 Staphylococcus spp. clinical isolates. Time-kill kinetics were determined for methicillin-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (n = 2) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE) (n = 1). In vitro cytotoxicity assays were performed with AlamarBlue and live/dead staining on HCECs. RESULTS: All new lipoglycopeptides showed strong in vitro potency against ocular staphylococci, including multidrug-resistant MRSA strains, with dalbavancin showing a slightly higher potency overall [minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)90 0.06 μg/mL] compared with telavancin and oritavancin (MIC90 0.12 μg/mL), whereas VAN had the lowest potency (MIC90 2 μg/mL). Oritavancin exerted rapid bactericidal activity within 1 h for MRSA and 2 h for MRSE. All other drugs were bactericidal within 24 h. At a concentration commonly used for topical preparations (25 mg/mL), cytotoxicity was observed for VAN after 5 min of incubation, whereas reduction in HCEC viability was not seen for telavancin and was less affected by oritavancin and dalbavancin. Cytotoxicity at 25 mg/mL was seen for all drugs at 30 and 60 min but was significantly reduced or undetected for lower concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that new lipoglycopeptides have substantially better in vitro antimicrobial activity against ocular staphylococcal isolates compared with VAN, with a similar or improved toxicity profile on HCECs.
Chaikitmongkol V, Ozimek M, Srisomboon T, Patikulsila D, Fraser-Bell S, Chhablani J, Choovuthayakorn J, Watanachai N, Kunavisarut P, Rodríguez-Valdés PJ, Lozano-Rechy D, Lupidi M, Al-Sheikh M, Fung AT, Busch C, Mehta H, Gabrielle P-H, Zur D, Ramon D, Sangkaew A, Ingviya T, Amphornprut A, Cebeci Z, Couturier A, Mendes TS, Giancipoli E, Iglicki M, Invernizzi A, Lains I, Rehak M, Sala-Puigdollers A, Okada M, Loewenstein A, Bressler NM. Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy Based on Non-ICGA Criteria in White Patients With Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration. Am J Ophthalmol 2022;244:58-67.Abstract
PURPOSE: To determine prevalence of probable polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) among White patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) using non-indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) criteria DESIGN: Multicenter, multinational, retrospective, cross-sectional study. METHODS: A total of 208 treatment-naive eyes from Hispanic and non-Hispanic White individuals diagnosed with nAMD were included. All underwent color fundus photography (CFP), optical coherence tomography (OCT), and fluorescein angiography (FFA). De-identified images of study eyes were sent to 2 groups of graders. Group 1 reviewed CFP, OCT, and FFA to confirm nAMD diagnosis. Group 2 reviewed CFP and OCT to determine highly suggestive features for PCV. Probable PCV diagnosis defined as the presence of ≥2 of 4 highly suggestive features for PCV: notched or fibrovascular pigment epithelial detachment (PED) on CFP, sharply-peaked PED, notched PED, and hyperreflective ring on OCT. RESULTS: Eleven eyes were excluded because of poor image quality (6) or non-nAMD diagnosis (5). Of 197 eligible eyes (197 patients), the mean age (SD) was 78.8 years (8.9), 44.2% were men, 26.4% were Hispanic, and 73.6% were non-Hispanic White individuals; 41.1%, 23.4%, 9.1%, and 2.5% had ≥1, ≥2, ≥3, and 4 highly suggestive features. Results showed that 23.4% (95% CI, 17.6%-29.9%) had probable PCV diagnosis. Predominantly occult CNV was more frequently found in probable PCV than nAMD subgroup (84.8% vs 64.9%, P = .01). Hispanic White individuals had a lower prevalence of probable PCV than non-Hispanic White individuals (9.6% vs 28.2%, P = .006) CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that probable PCV occurs between 17.6% and 29.9% in White individuals with nAMD, and more commonly in non-Hispanic than in Hispanic White individuals.

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